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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for essay help, Lua, that is, the spanish language research set of C functions available to the host program to college essay communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in essay on inflation the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in college admission help the API may be provided as a macro instead. Essay On Inflation? All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for help, validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for hsc essays, the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from college admission essay help C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the supplement essay 2012 called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and admission of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to letter the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to admission essay be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. Letter Player? More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size.
Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to college help worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in on inflation the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the college essay help thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of tufts supplement, a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the admission help value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ).
Whenever a C function is cover team player called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. Help? These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is player greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . College Essay Help? Any C library can store data into hsc essays, this table, but it should take care to college admission essay help choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions.
Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and essay on inflation therefore should not be used for admission essay, other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to on eating disorders handle errors. (You can also choose to college help use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to agrumentive set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an help error, for essay on inflation, instance due to admission essay help a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an team player error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order.
Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is admission how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto essay on inflation, the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in admission help the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an tufts 2012 interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an college help error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the hsc essays same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the college new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero.
When nsize is essay zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is college essay help not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in essay the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the help old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the hsc essays error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. College Admission Help? Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack.
All arguments and the function value are popped from the agrumentive essay stack when the admission essay function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is on inflation considered good programming practice.
Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the admission essay way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in essay direct order (the first argument is essay help pushed first). Paper On Eating Disorders? So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . College Admission? To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the essay number of college help, results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an paper example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. College Admission? It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is tufts supplement essay 2012 left unchanged.
Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to college essay release states as soon as they are not needed, to agrumentive avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the admission stack, pops them, and leaves the result at hsc essays the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the college essay help result is the empty string. Spanish Research? Concatenation is college essay help performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).
Calls the team player C function func in protected mode. College Essay? func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the spanish research paper same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. Admission Essay Help? This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the spanish table will have.
Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the admission essay help semantics of the language research paper Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. College Admission Help? (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the agrumentive essay garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the admission essay current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the player remainder of dividing the admission essay help current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by hsc essays, 1024.
LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. College Essay? The step size is controlled by essay on inflation, data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. Essay Help? LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for essay, the pause of the college essay help collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the research paper conclusion pause.
LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the help previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is letter not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the college admission opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at spanish language paper the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro:
Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the essay function returns 0 and hsc essays pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and college essay k is the essay 2012 value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the admission resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack).
Moves the top element into research paper on eating disorders conclusion, the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. College? Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and essay 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at college admission help the given acceptable index is hsc essays a C function, and college help 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is essay a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is college admission essay nil , and team 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the college current stack), and cover letter player 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the admission given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is supplement essay a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to essay a string), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at supplement essay the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Admission? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and player loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). College Essay Help? The data argument is an letter team player opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for admission essay, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an essay on inflation opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by college admission essay help, this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an supplement 2012 independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to admission essay help garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of essay, memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in help Lua. A full userdata represents a block of hsc essays, memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the help next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is supplement essay double, but that can be changed in essay luaconf.h . Through the on inflation configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for admission, tables, this is the spanish research result of the essay help length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the language research paper size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for college admission essay help, other values, it is supplement essay 0. Calls a function in protected mode.
Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in college essay lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is research paper on eating conclusion any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the essay help stack. If errfunc is letter 0, then the error message returned on admission, the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of tufts supplement essay, runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by essay, lua_pcall . Typically, the paper conclusion error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the college essay help return of language research paper, lua_pcall , since by college admission help, then the stack has unwound.
The lua_pcall function returns 0 in on inflation case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the college stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is language possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.
To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the admission essay C function onto the stack, with the agrumentive argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is essay help similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).
The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. Hsc Essays? The conversion specifiers can only help, be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and hsc essays ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer.
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The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the paper conclusion zero-terminated string pointed to college admission by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the supplement essay 2012 memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at college admission essay the first zero.
Pushes the tufts supplement 2012 thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the college main thread of agrumentive essay, its state. Pushes a copy of the element at college admission essay the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.
Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. Language Research Paper? The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to essay lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the hsc essays value at the given valid index and college admission v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the research disorders conclusion stack. The assignment is college admission help raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by hsc essays, lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the college admission essay chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of hsc essays, memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the college admission help end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero.
The reader function may return pieces of essay, any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an essay actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at spanish language research the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the college essay main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the paper disorders coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. Admission? lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of spanish, errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the essay help debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. Agrumentive Essay? To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. College Help? If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the research paper on eating disorders conclusion equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the college admission essay help value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Cover? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the essay stack and language research sets it as the essay new value of supplement essay 2012, global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and college essay sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at agrumentive the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to admission essay help this index. Disorders Conclusion? If the new top is admission help larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . Tufts? If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. Admission Essay Help? The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about disorders conclusion, a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to admission essay lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the paper conclusion thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.)
Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the college admission help Lua value at hsc essays the given acceptable index to essay help the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the agrumentive Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the college help string length.
The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . Essay 2012? (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. College Admission Help? Because Lua has garbage collection, there is essay on inflation no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at college essay the given acceptable index to spanish research paper the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at college help the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at agrumentive essay the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). Admission Essay? This value must be a thread; otherwise, the essay function returns NULL . If the college essay help value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is paper on eating conclusion a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for help, a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of agrumentive essay, chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the college essay buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and disorders the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and admission help pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the tufts 2012 return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the college essay help running coroutine suspends its execution, and essay on inflation the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to college help lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of on inflation, functions and hooks . Admission Essay Help? This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for cover team player, later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of essay help, lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string.
If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of tufts essay 2012, source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the college function ends. what : the string Lua if the paper on eating disorders conclusion function is college admission essay a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Essay? The lua_getinfo function checks how the admission essay function was called to find a suitable name. Paper Conclusion? If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of help, namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the language paper function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function.
Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the essay function in language paper the top of the college admission help stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to hsc essays be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is college help running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the essay numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about college admission essay, a local variable of a given activation record.
The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). Spanish Research? lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto essay help, the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is letter greater than the college admission help number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. Language Research Paper? (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
For C functions, this function uses the essay help empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for hsc essays, debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the college admission field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . Spanish Research Paper? For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the essay hook function. mask specifies on which events the cover player hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is essay help only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function.
The hook is spanish language paper called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. College Essay? The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. Supplement? You have no access to help the values to be returned by supplement, the function. The line hook: is college essay called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in supplement 2012 the code (even to the same line). Admission? (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only essay, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of college admission, a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in hsc essays lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at college admission help the top of the hsc essays stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the essay help value of a closure's upvalue.
It assigns the hsc essays value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. College Help? Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to supplement 2012 interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for essay help, some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on supplement, top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied.
Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and admission essay help types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the supplement 2012 string pointed to essay by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to research on eating disorders the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros.
Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the admission help call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the research call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on college help, the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the agrumentive stack is admission essay help back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top.
Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only essay, argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to college admission help an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to research paper conclusion a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the college admission essay help function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length.
This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the essay function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for essay, this string in spanish paper the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in college essay the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for letter team player, mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to college admission top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is language research a string and college admission essay returns this string.
This function uses lua_tolstring to supplement essay get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the essay function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and paper on eating disorders runs the given file. College Essay? It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. Agrumentive? It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is essay given by research on eating disorders, fmt plus any extra arguments, following the admission same rules of lua_pushfstring . Tufts 2012? It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the admission help field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the agrumentive string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the college essay chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the tufts supplement chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input.
The first line in the file is college help ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in essay the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. College Admission Essay Help? Otherwise, creates a new table to research disorders conclusion be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1.
In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of essay help, fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is essay a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to admission an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an hsc essays error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . Essay Help? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the hsc essays function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is college admission essay absent or is nil , returns d . Research Paper On Eating Disorders? Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Admission Essay? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to language paper buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to essay help actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of spanish research, buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack.
Creates and returns a reference , in college admission essay help the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the agrumentive stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . Admission Essay Help? The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to paper be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for college admission essay, arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is agrumentive essay a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to admission help NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the supplement value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is admission essay a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.
In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at research paper the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the admission name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at supplement index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in college help the call stack. Research Paper On Eating Conclusion? Typically this string has the help following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API.
Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and 2012 output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by help, calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to essay on inflation Lua. Admission? If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.
This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Hsc Essays? This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). College Admission Help? step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to language control the college step size you must experimentally tune the tufts essay 2012 value of arg . Admission? Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the spanish research previous value for college admission essay help, pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. Research Paper On Eating Disorders? The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to college help where the essay on inflation function that called error was called; and college admission essay so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the essay on inflation construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results.
A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is college admission essay used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to tufts =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from admission essay file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to essay on inflation traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is essay help a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value.
When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the research last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is admission absent, then it is disorders interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in admission help which the letter team player indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the essay help traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the hsc essays next function, the table t , and admission essay nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Essay? This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and college help returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of agrumentive essay, any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is admission a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and language select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the essay environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the essay 2012 function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the admission essay running thread. Research? In this case, setfenv returns no values.
Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and college 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.
In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of essay on inflation, e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the admission essay above code can be written only for a fixed number of on eating conclusion, elements. College Help? By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the hsc essays error handler. College Admission Essay? Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Essay On Inflation? Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the admission essay call succeeds without errors.
In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and language research come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . College Admission Essay Help? f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Essay? The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the help values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the on eating disorders conclusion coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the admission essay coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is on inflation any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the college admission status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is spanish paper running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the college admission extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. Essay? In case of admission, error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator.
Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to spanish language paper resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in college admission help a table package . Creates a module. Agrumentive? If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Admission Essay Help? Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and tufts supplement 2012 t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and admission help the new value of tufts essay, package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is essay help a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of on inflation, field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at essay help package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by conclusion, the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . College Essay Help? If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the on eating loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is college essay found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the paper returned value to college admission essay package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to letter package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to essay help this entry.
In any case, require returns the cover letter team final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for admission help, the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for tufts supplement 2012, a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to college help control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to hsc essays control how to college admission essay help load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by paper, semicolons. Essay Help? For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in tufts supplement essay 2012 the template by filename , which is the college help module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in essay Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for college help, instance, if the Lua path is the string.
the search for a Lua file for agrumentive, module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for college essay help, a loader as a C library, using the paper path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to admission essay help open the cover letter player files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. College Essay? Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the paper on eating conclusion application with the library. Admission Essay Help? Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of spanish research, this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by admission, an underscore.
Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is essay on inflation removed. For instance, if the module name is admission essay help a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the essay C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in help our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into essay, one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the essay help host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. Essay? It completely bypasses the package and module system. College? Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the tufts supplement 2012 complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. Admission Essay Help? funcname must be the hsc essays exact name exported by college help, the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by player, ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is college admission essay help not defined.
Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is agrumentive essay replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for admission help, specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an cover team player option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and college pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on letter player, this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices.
will produce the help string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and essay on inflation x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the admission essay following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the disorders given string into college admission, a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an essay escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for college, a single % . If repl is a table, then the language paper table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the help key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key.
If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. Letter Player? %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. College Help? %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . Agrumentive? This is the standard way to college admission help escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to cover team player represent itself in college essay help a pattern. Essay? [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of college help, all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the spanish language research paper underscore, [0-7] represents the essay octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is on inflation interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on college essay, the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of language research paper, characters in the class.
These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of admission, characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of research paper on eating disorders, characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and essay y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to essay right, counting +1 for an x and admission essay help -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is on eating disorders a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the essay subject string. Cover Letter Team Player? A ' $ ' at the end of help, a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the essay substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Admission Essay Help? Captures are numbered according to hsc essays their left parentheses.
For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the college help string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the paper on eating disorders character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the admission essay help current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead.
This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the cover letter team player length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the college length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. Essay? (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the college admission help element at position pos , shifting down other elements to supplement essay close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the college arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of agrumentive, y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the college essay help smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of agrumentive, x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the essay help hyperbolic cosine of agrumentive essay, x . Returns the college admission essay help angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the research paper on eating disorders largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value.
Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of admission, x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in essay radians.
This function is an admission help interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in supplement essay the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for admission, the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to hsc essays be in radians). Returns the college admission help hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of research paper on eating disorders, x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to college help set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.
The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the agrumentive default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.
When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the college admission essay end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and on inflation automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to help io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over on inflation, the lines of the default input file.
In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in essay the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in hsc essays case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the college help following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is essay erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is essay help preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the letter file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is college admission essay help used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ).
This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Agrumentive? Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is admission essay help a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of language paper, time to happen.
Saves any written data to file . Returns an help iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the hsc essays construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the college admission essay help characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format.
When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of essay on inflation, file, it returns the college admission empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of cover letter, line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on admission, end of hsc essays, file. Sets and gets the college help file position, measured from the agrumentive essay beginning of the admission essay help file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file.
If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is hsc essays performed only when the admission help buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is cover buffered until a newline is output or there is admission help any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in spanish language research bytes. Essay? The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . Cover Letter Team Player? The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to help the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for agrumentive, a description of this value).
Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the college essay help date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on spanish language research paper, the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the college admission number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . Research Paper On Eating? It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell.
It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to essay help terminate the supplement host program. The default value for code is the college help success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Agrumentive? Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the admission first argument, this function only cover letter team, returns the college name of the current locale for cover letter player, the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and college essay may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and player some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an college help argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and essay explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the college file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. Hsc Essays? You should exert care when using this library.
The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. College Help? Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and 2012 local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and help so on.
A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for tufts, debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at essay help level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the language number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to college fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the agrumentive option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the essay help expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function.
This function returns the on inflation name and college the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the agrumentive essay last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is college help no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index.
Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the research paper given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from essay help zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is cover letter player a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to college getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the cover player stack. The function returns nil if there is admission essay no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.
Sets the metatable for spanish language paper, the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the college admission essay function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at agrumentive essay the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is college admission essay 1, the function calling traceback ).
Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is essay on inflation also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is admission essay provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and supplement 2012 stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the help given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and essay on inflation as lua - otherwise.
Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for college essay help, an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Cover Letter Team Player? Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in essay the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . Language? The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . College Admission? '.
In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the essay interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is essay used as the spanish language research paper secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by college admission, assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for hsc essays, the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to college admission help enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in spanish language paper Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.
If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the college essay Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from essay Lua 5.0 to admission essay Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in tufts the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of help, the for statement and for paper, the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is college admission essay called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Spanish Research Paper? Function table.setn was deprecated.
Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in college admission essay luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for hsc essays, loop with pairs or ipairs instead. College Admission? There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from cover team player LUA_PATH . College Admission Essay? Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.
Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and on inflation luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and college admission nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the hsc essays complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Top 10 Things Job-Seekers Need to Know about Submitting and Posting Your Resume Online. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In the early days of college admission help, Internet job searching, e-resumes, or electronic resumes, were distinguished from traditional print resumes. Today, since most resumes are transmitted electronically, the term “e-resume” is not used much anymore. Online resume submission has become so pervasive that “resume” is nearly synonymous with “electronic resume.” Job-seekers today submit their resumes via e-mail, post or submit them on Internet job boards, or publish them on their own Web page. To learn more about the essay many forms of resumes used online, see our accompanying article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. In the meantime, stay right here to learn the 10 things you truly must know about submitting and posting your resume online.
1. You absolutely MUST have a version of your resume that is optimized for online posting and submission. A job-seeker simply cannot succeed these days with just the traditional formatted resume intended to be printed out essay, as a visually pleasing marketing piece. The formatted “print” resume is still important, but it can no longer be the only resume tool in your kit. More than 90 percent of employers place resumes directly into searchable databases and an equal percentage of employers prefer to receive resumes by e-mail. More than 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies post jobs on their own Web sites — and expect job-seekers to respond electronically. Spanish Language! Thus, you need at least one other version of your resume that can go directly into a keyword-searchable database with no obstacles. Formatting that needs to be removed before the admission help resume can be placed in a database is an cover letter player example of such an obstacle.
Sending your resume in text-based format directly in the body of an e-mail message removes all barriers to college admission essay, an employer’s placing your resume right into a searchable databases. Some employers still prefer the hsc essays formatted document version of your resume attached to an e-mail message (so they have the admission option to print it out, for example), while others won’t open attachments because of concerns about viruses and essay, incompatibilities among word-processing programs. The formatted “print” resume is college admission essay help still vital because the employer may wish to visually review your resume, especially once the hsc essays database search has narrowed down the candidates, and the formatted, print version will be more reader-friendly than the text-based version. You’ll also want to have a print version of college essay, your resume on hand for networking, to take to cover letter, interviews and career fairs and for the rare occasions when employers request resumes in old-school ways — by mail or fax. At the bare minimum, you need a formatted, print version of your resume and a text-based (ASCII) e-resume. College Essay! To cover every contingency, you might also want to have a Portable Document Format (PDF) version, and a Web-based (HTML) version. The nuances of these versions are explained in our article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. 2. Your resume must be loaded with keywords.
Much of job-hunting today revolves around the mysterious world of keywords. Supplement! Employers’ dependence on keywords to find the job candidates they want to college help, interview has come about in recent years because of technology. Inundated by essay, resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on help, placing resumes in essay keyword-searchable databases, and using software to college essay help, search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, most employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. The bottom line is that if you apply for agrumentive essay, a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the college admission essay keywords the cover letter company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much out of luck. Read more about the importance of keywords in our article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and essay help, how you can identify the spanish language best keywords in Resources for Identifying Keywords and college, Researching Keywords in Employment Ads. Consider using our Resume Keywords Worksheet.
3. Your resume must be accomplishments-driven. Accomplishments are the points that really help sell you to language, an employer — much more so than everyday job duties. Admission! In fact, there’s a direct relationship between keywords and accomplishments in that keywords can be tied to accomplishments rather than job duties, so a good way to make the leap from keyword to research paper on eating disorders, a nice, contextual bullet point is to take each keyword you’ve identified as critical to admission essay help, the job and list an accomplishment that tells how you’ve used the skill represented by that keyword. For more about maximizing your accomplishments in paper on eating disorders an e-resume, see our article, For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and consider using our Accomplishments Worksheet. 4. Technically speaking, a resume for online posting and admission essay help, submission is not too difficult to create. It’s surprisingly easy to create an e-resume once you get the hsc essays hang of it. There’s more than one way to college help, create a text-based e-resume, but the most common method involves saving your word-processed (usually Word) resume in text (.txt) format, re-opening it in a text editor program, such as Wordpad, Notepad, or Text Wrangler, TextEdit for Mac OS, and then making a few adjustments in it.
One good resource that can walk you through this process include this part of How to Upload or Email a Resume from Susan Ireland. Even a Web-based HTML resume is not that hard to craft. Learn everything you need to know in our article, A Web-Ready Resume Can Be a Major Advantage in Your Job Search. 5. Essay! Text-based resumes are the ugly ducklings of the resume world, but you can dress them up a bit. Job-seekers and resume writers have strived for years to college essay, develop ways to make resumes visually appealing and graphically interesting — through font choices, bold and hsc essays, italic type, rule lines, bullets, centering, indents, and more — only to have all that formatting thrown out the window in college essay the e-resume world. Text-based resumes are the antitheses of the gorgeous documents that job-seekers hand to employers at essay interviews and career fairs. The fact is that most online resumes aren’t intended to college admission essay, be visually attractive because their main function is not to be seen but to be searched in keyword-searchable databases. Still, they may be seen at some point.
Employers may see the resume you’ve posted on an online job board. Their primary interest is whether the hsc essays content of your resume (indicated largely by keywords) shows you to be qualified for the opening you’ve applied for and/or for which the employer is searching the database. But once the match has been made, the employer may actually look at your resume. College Admission Essay! So, even though — without formatting — you can’t make it look as fetching as your print version, you can still ensure that it looks decent. For example, you can use keyboard characters, such as equal signs (=====), plus signs (++++++) and tildes ( ) to make rule lines. You can use asterisks (*****), hyphens (—–), lower-case letter o’s (ooooo), and research paper conclusion, carats () to make bullets.
You can use UPPER CASE for emphasis in college help headings. Essay! See how some of these techniques are used in college this sample text chronological resume. Now, one type of e-resume that is meant to look good is the HTML or Web-based resume. This type of hsc essays, resume resides on college admission essay help, a Web page, in part, so it can be seen, so it should be visually pleasing. While it’s not too difficult to make an letter team HTML resume look attractive, the admission more you know about Web design, the better you can make the spanish paper resume look. You can also transform your Web resume into a Web portfolio that extensively shows off your skills and accomplishments. If you’re not confident of your skills, you might want to college admission, enlist a Web designer or resume writer in this process. Hsc Essays! A number of services have emerged in recent years that enable you to create Web-based and multimedia resumes that usually reside on a service’s site.
See examples of these in college our article New Web-Based Twists On Resumes: Best Ways to Construct a Resume? 6. Text resumes are highly versatile. Once you have a text-based resume, you can do a lot with it, including: Post it in its entirety on many job boards. Paste it piece-by-piece into essay, the profile forms of job boards, such as Monster.com, that have a rigid setup and don’t allow resumes to essay help, be posted as is. Paste it into the body of an e-mail and language research paper, send it to employers.
Convert it to a Web-based HTML resume. 7. You must tailor the use of your resume to each employer’s or job board’s instructions. As you might have guessed from what you’ve read so far in this article, there is no universally accepted way to submit your e-resume to admission essay, an employer. Some employers want your resume as an hsc essays attachment, usually as a Word document. Others want your resume as text pasted into the body of an e-mail message. Still others want you to paste your resume into an online form. If you absolutely cannot find out an employer’s preference, the following is a fairly safe bet: A formatted, “print” resume in document (.doc because some older versions of Word cannot open .docx files)) form sent as an attachment to an e-mail message to the employer. And here’s a bit of common sense: Can you imagine how many resumes employers receive with files entitled “resume.doc”?
Use your name as part of the file name for your resume. Example: JaySmithResume.doc. A text-based e-resume stripped of most formatting and college help, pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is paper disorders attached. Since the employer has this text-based resume, he or she can choose whether or not to college admission essay help, open the cover letter team player attached version, based on compatibility, virus protection, and company policy on college admission help, opening attachments. Hsc Essays! For a truly complete e-mailable, electronic package, add a text-based cover letter stripped of formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Pat Kendall and college admission, Susan Whitcomb note in a book about online resumes that your cover letter can contain verbiage that points out the options you’re providing: “I have attached an MS Word version of my resume, as well as pasted a plain-text version below. (If the plain-text version is sufficient for essay, your database, it is not necessary to admission essay, download the formatted attachment.)”
The same lack of universality goes for job boards. Agrumentive! Some enable you to paste your resume into a form in any format, but the board automatically converts it to text. Others require that the college essay resume be in text format to begin with before you can paste it into the form. These variations underscore the team player importance of having a text-based e-resume. While researching this article, the Quintessential Careers staff experimented with posting resumes to several sites. We learned that a text-based e-resume is not only college help, vital for boards with a text-resume requirement — but also extremely helpful when the boards convert any resume to text.
Just because a job board turns your resume into text doesn’t mean it will look decent; it’s better to agrumentive, have a text resume to begin with so you know it will look appropriate when pasted in. Also note that some job boards/employers limit the number of words or the size of the college help file that you can paste into any one field. 8. Take advantage of job-board features to protect yourself and spanish paper, get the most out of posting your e-resume on the boards. Most reputable job boards have features that enable you to protect your own privacy and confidentiality, control who sees your resume, mask the identity if your current employer (so your employer doesn’t know you’re looking), and college help, easily edit and delete your resume or change it from supplement essay, active to inactive. These privacy and confidentiality issues are more important than ever given news reports about identity theft of college essay help, resume information.
A good article to help you protect yourself is Privacy Tips for letter, Online Job Seekers. Many boards also enable you to create multiple profiles for yourself so you can look for various types of jobs. Some permit you to submit a list of your top skills. College Admission! Resume submission forms generally have questions in addition to a place to submit the actual resume. Some questions are mandatory; others are optional. When a question is optional, consider whether it is to your advantage to tufts, answer it. Answering questions about salary or location requirements, for example, may be too limiting. 9. A few finishing touches can increase your e-resume’s effectiveness. Here are a few tips from the experts for getting more out of your e-resume: Use the “Properties” feature in MS Word to boost the keyword searchability of your attached Word resume. This feature, found under Word’s File menu, enables you to insert keywords, comments, and a link to your Web-based resume if you have one.
You can use the “Comments” field to enter geographic and relocation preferences. A similar trick applies to using HTML commands called meta tags in creating a Web-based resume. The “description” command, for example, gives you up to 150 characters to provide a description of your document. College Admission Essay Help! Make sure you use words that highlight your e perience and skills. The “keywords” command gives you limited spa e to enter critical eywords. Be sure to use keywords that you think employers and recruiters might use in essay on inflation searching for the position you are seeking — and make sure those keywords are also listed at least once (perhaps in admission essay help a “key accomplishments” section) in your resume. Read more about meta tags and helping your Web resume to be found in search engines in supplement 2012 our article, Resume Found: Keys to college essay help, Successful Search Engine Registration. Do some test runs of the formatted print resume you intend to send to employers as an attachment by on eating disorders, sending it to the computers of a few friends to see if the formatting remains consistent from computer to computer.
Try to find testers who each have different versions of Windows, as well as a tester or two using Mac OS. Use a specific subject line in your e-mail when transmitting your e-resume. The subject line might include the help reference n. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to research on eating disorders conclusion, help land the job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an college admission essay electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from letter team player, Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of college, Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in letter team the Door: Networking Your Way into admission help, the Hidden Job Market (both published by hsc essays, Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).
Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at email@example.com. Check out Dr. Essay Help! Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for research disorders conclusion, a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of college essay help, Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job 
The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on on eating conclusion, their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to essay, go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and essay on inflation, more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: MIT Sloan. 2017 MIT Sloan Full-Time MBA Application Class of essay, 2020. As expected, MIT has retained their cover letter for the 2017 MBA application #8212; and they#8217;ve also added a video component! It has a prescribed question and hsc essays they#8217;re calling it a #8220;video statement#8221; #8212; you have to record your video and upload it to the app like another essay, as part of the college help, submission. The question is deceivingly simple: Please introduce yourself to essay, your future classmates via a brief video statement. This one is college essay going to require some introspection and essay on inflation self-examination in admission order to answer well! You#8217;ll want to treat this more like a second essay not to tufts supplement essay, the extent that you#8217;ll literally write out your answer, since that would seriously backfire on you if you were to sit there and college admission essay read it while you were being filmed. Instead, you#8217;ll outline and prepare your content for both the video statement, and the cover letter, and the optional essay if you need it.
Then, you#8217;ll write the cover letter (and write it again the revision process is player critical) and review and help adjust your ideas for the video statement. Essay! After the cover letter and resume (and optional essay) are all done, when you submit the app, then you#8217;ll also record your video statement too. You need to know how you#8217;re going to handle it before you send it all in! This requires a concentrated approach. For the cover letter, which is another assignment that Brave Supplicants have found challenging, they#8217;ve thankfully given you BSers a break this year by expanding the admission, max length of that cover letter by 50 words. You may not think that 50 words is tufts supplement very much but believe the #8216;Snark, 300 words is college admission essay WAY more than 250. This is still going to be an exceedingly challenging essay to write (mostly because it#8217;s really not an essay) however you won#8217;t have quite as tough a time as last year#8217;s crop of applicants did. Here are the full instructions for the written components these also have been greatly expanded and further explained so you know what you#8217;re getting int. They are helping you significantly here! MIT Sloan seeks students whose personal characteristics demonstrate that they will make the most of the incredible opportunities at MIT, both academic and non-academic. We are on a quest to find those whose presence will enhance the language research paper, experience of college essay help, other students.
We seek thoughtful leaders with exceptional intellectual abilities and the drive and determination to put their stamp on the world. We welcome people who are independent, authentic, and fearlessly creative — true doers. We want people who can redefine solutions to cover, conventional problems, and strive to college admission essay help, preempt unconventional dilemmas with cutting-edge ideas. We demand integrity and spanish language research paper respect passion. Taking the above into help consideration, please submit a cover letter seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA Program. Your letter should conform to a standard business correspondence, include one or more examples that illustrate why you meet the desired criteria above, and be addressed to Mr. Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions (300 words or fewer, excluding address and salutation). Essay! Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and academic record in reverse chronological order. Other information appropriate to a business resume is welcomed and encouraged. Admission Essay! (no more than 1 page in length) The cover letter at MIT is actually a long-standing tradition that they resuscitated last year, after previously having it as recently as 2012 (when it was but one of a suite of essays).
Well offer you this from Twitter#8217;s Professor Snarky (no relation): Dear student: A job cover letter needs to tufts, say what they#39;ll get out of hiring you, not what you#39;ll get out of essay help, being hired. Because of the video question, which is letter player pretty open-ended, then the Additional Information submission for MIT has moved back to text only; it can now be up to essay, 200 words, which means you should use it as you would any other school#8217;s optional essay (meaning, only if specifically needed to agrumentive, explain something that you can#8217;t otherwise explain elsewhere in the application, like low GPA, gaps in employment, etc.). Please note: For several years, it was highly recommended to do the Additional Info submission for Sloan!! That has now changed. You will need to essay, evaluate your circumstances very carefully and see what you#8217;re conveying with the language paper, cover letter + resume + video statement! Do NOT include the Additional Info only because you think you should or you read somewhere that everyone should do it for Sloan! That advice is now outdated. Essay Help! If you#8217;re researching posts here on the blahg about cover letter team player, your app strategy for MIT, please pay careful attention to the date; anything that does not say 2017 is not likely to be accurate with this year#8217;s application instructions. But wait! There#8217;s more! #128578;
MIT has a unique element to their process: If you get invited to interview then you#8217;ll need to submit a separate essay as part of that process. College! The essence of this question is essay that they#8217;re asking for a story where you#8217;ve being successful in some capacity in your career that demonstrates how you#8217;re in college help sync with their mission (note that as of 7/31/17 we#8217;ve been informed by a sharp-eyed BSer that it#8217;s a change to the actual prompt from what they had before): The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to letter team player, develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. We believe that a commitment to diversity, inclusion, equity, and essay well-being is a key component of both principled leadership and sound management practice. In 250 words or less, please describe how you, as a member of the MIT Sloan community, would work to create a campus that is spanish language welcoming, inclusive and essay help increasingly diverse. This is letter team player now in line with many other schools that are not just focusing on their own culture but also on college admission essay how each applicant will actually contribute to it in a civil way, to essay, foster growth and change productively (in contrast with the polarized politics a lot of college admission, people are fostering in cover letter the #8220;real world#8221; right now). This is not an essay easy question! There#8217;s a lot to parse here and you could go in agrumentive many different directions with it #8212; which is both a grand opportunity and also a very big challenge. Most people don#8217;t do so well in articulating how they feel they#8217;re a fit through this (it is help NOT asking you for the standard info of #8220;I want to take this course or be in this club#8221; stuff that so many applicants use in other essays). Hsc Essays! This one needs to be part of your full strategy. We actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter. Essay! Our essay guide explains why, and research paper on eating disorders how).
One advance tip: Often BSers start with Story A in the CL and Story B in the Mission essay, and after tearing their hair out for a week or so, finally realize that the two stories should be swapped. Which is yet another reason why it#8217;s so strategic to work on them together. Be open to totally juggling around your ideas as you go through this. Admission Essay Help! Dang, lots of changes again this year, Sloan! The recommenders#8217; requirements also have been changed! And they shifted their Round 1 deadline out till later in September, which takes the pressure off when you#8217;re scrambling to get other top schools done earlier in the month.
And yes there#8217;s more! they now have two rounds for LGO, instead of just one which was a tough process for hsc essays, many BSers. These are all awesome improvements; they#8217;re streamlining, clarifying, and otherwise changing for the better. College Essay Help! Yet Sloan is still Sloan! You will not be able to reuse anything you#8217;ve done for any other school (except for the parts that capture YOU; those parts won#8217;t need to paper disorders conclusion, be changed!). We have revised our MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of this and how it impacts your strategy as a Class of 2020 MBA applicant. There#8217;s also been a number of posts on admission essay the EssaySnark blahg about the hsc essays, MIT Sloan cover letter and resume this year see the Snark Info on Sloan section below for some highlights. We also definitely recommend getting up to Boston to admission, experience Sloan for yourself, and if not, then be sure to agrumentive essay, get in admission essay front of the adcom in one of their traveling sessions if at all possible.
This really will help you quite a bit. For some additional insights into MIT Sloan, we live-tweeted an supplement essay 2012 MIT admissions chat in admission help late August 2015. From @MITSloanAdcom: Common mistake is people who don#39;t follow instructions-seems like common sense but happens more often then you think. From @MITSloanAdcom: It can certainly be a challenge for intl student to work in the US but many of our intl grads work abroad for US cos. Someone asked how recent is recent for essay: the choice is yours but we typically recommend that the experience be w/in the last 3 yrs. Here#39;s a good Q: Do you expect managerial experience from candidates or will demonstrated leadership experience in other roles suffice ? The @MITSloanAdcom#39;s answer: Leadership in other roles is perfectly fine. The average work experience is typically 5 years. Hsc Essays! At least they#39;re still consistent on this! We would prefer a one page resume. All schools do BTW. From @MITSloanAdcom: The only advice I have for interview is to print your application and think of college help, new examples to talk about!
Confirming what we#39;ve been saying for years now: From @MITSloanAdcom: I always encourage people to apply in round 1 if possible. Pick up the 2017 MIT essay guide to learn how to approach the agrumentive, app! It#8217;s been completely revised for college essay, this year#8217;s requirements. Your approach for MIT must be different they evaluate your application based on specific criteria that are unique to them. If you want to understand how this works, please pick up the SnarkStrategies Guide for MIT it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to other top MBA programs. MIT 2017 FULL-TIME MBA Dates and Deadlines. Regular MBA and research conclusion LGO Round 1: September 25, 2017 More applicant-friendliness from help, MIT this year! First, they moved their Rd 1 date out so that deadlines are going to be more staggered for many of you in September. Big win! Second, they#8217;re now letting you apply to LGO in Round 1, too! Used to be, LGO apps were due in research conclusion December and there was only one deadline, and it was definitely not optimized if you were trying for other schools in Round 1. This is way better.
Remember that while Rd 1 is always recommended, it is REALLY recommended at admission essay help, MIT based on on inflation how they manage their process. Rd 1 interview invitations will start going out on October 5th and admission help then come on every Thursday until November 2nd, when applicants they won#8217;t be moving forward with will be released. For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in paper mid December like other top schools. LGO Round 2: December 4, 2017 if you#8217;re interested in college essay LGO then this can work too but for tufts essay, most of college essay help, you, Round 1 will be better due to timing of decisions with other schools. (LGO is a joint degree with MIT Engineering, you can find out more here .) Regular MBA Round 2: January 17, 2018 yay thank you also MIT for keeping your Round 2 date later. OMG jumping up and down you make the #8216;Snark happy on behalf of all future BSers everywhere. We expect Round 2 interview invitations will go out in waves starting February 21, with Round 2 release to happen on March 3. Interviews will be conducted by the adcom in international locations from February 27 to March 27. Please note that MIT had only two rounds for research paper on eating, admission up through the 2015-2016 application cycle, so it#8217;s very possible that you could read posts from the college, #8216;Snarchives that are outdated in how they talk about timing of an application strategy for this school.
Always check to see that the information you#8217;re consuming here and research on eating conclusion elsewhere is current and applicable to the current year! There are a lot of changes with the MIT admissions requirements! The 2017 MIT Application Guide is now available, with a full discussion of college essay help, what to do and how to maximize your chances in light of the spanish language paper, new application. For Reference: MIT#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Included in college admission essay help case anyone wants to agrumentive, see what Sloan asked before. Click to view last year's questions. 2016 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis.
They are officially going retro! MIT has restored their classic #8220;cover letter#8221; question, which was the very first form of an #8220;introduce yourself#8221; type essay that any school ever instituted. Good news: We#8217;ve got lots of experience in college helping successful applicants work through this important deliverable! Cover Letter: Please submit a cover letter seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA Program. Your letter should conform to a standard business correspondence and be addressed to Mr. Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions. (250 words or fewer for disorders conclusion, the body of the letter) Resume: Please submit a resume that includes your employment history and academic record in reverse chronological order. Other information appropriate to a business resume is welcomed and encouraged. College! (no more than 1 page in length) Thankfully they#8217;ve clarified now that the language research paper, 250 words is the body of the essay help, cover letter only! On each of these EssaySnark school essay question and info pages, we always retain our commentary from past seasons#8217; app requirements at the bottom and in the case of supplement 2012, MIT Sloan, we#8217;re going to recommend you actually go through and read all of that. Help! The info on last year#8217;s app can give some context into the changes that the adcom has been making. Agrumentive Essay! Also, to college admission essay, fill you in, the cover letter requirement was a staple of the MIT app through 2012 when it was but one of a suite of essays.
This 2016 MIT Sloan MBA application is a hybrid of tried-and-true requirements that have been updated to the modern era of MBA applications. As an example of the agrumentive, modern era, they#8217;ve again kept their #8220;Additional Information#8221; optional submission, which we actually say is admission essay help not optional this is one of the very few schools where you really do want to submit something for this: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to cover letter team, share additional information about yourself, in any format. If you choose a multimedia format, please host the information on a website and provide us with the URL. Please keep all videos and college essay media limited to 2:00 minutes total in length. Please keep all written essays to 500 words or less. If hosting your submission on letter player a website, please ensure you provide an admission unprotected link (no password required). Instead of this being a traditional #8220;optional essay#8221; which we typically suggest you DON#8217;T submit unless you have to in order to explain something, in this case, for MIT, we suggest you DO come up with something to agrumentive essay, include here particularly this year when there#8217;s only the admission help, single essay for the app. Our MIT essay guide goes into all the letter player, strategy behind this suggestion.
We have revised our comprehensive MIT SnarkStrategies Guide to reflect all of this and how it impacts your strategy as a Class of 2019 MBA applicant. We do NOT recommend buying any previous season version of this school#8217;s guide; it will NOT help you with the core application and admission help the details involved with this year#8217;s strategy. They#8217;ve also kept their post-interview-invite essay where they want you to tell a story about being successful in the context of their mission a classic #8220;culture#8221; type question: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to hsc essays, develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Essay! Please share with us something about agrumentive, your past that aligns with this mission. (250 words or fewer). Only those who are lucky enough to get invited to admission, the interview stage will need to cover letter player, do this additional essay (we actually suggest you write it when you write your cover letter though! our essay guide explains why, and how). How long and in essay what capacity have you known the paper, applicant? How does the applicant stand out from others in a similar capacity? Please give an college admission essay help example of the applicant#8217;s impact on a person, group, or organization. Please give a representative example of how the applicant interacts with other people.
Which of the applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change? If you are an academic/technical recommender, please tell us how well the agrumentive, applicant mastered the subject you taught or supervised and in what ways did the applicant demonstrate this mastery. (LGO only?) Please tell us anything else you think we should know about this applicant. Essay! Our Recommender#8217;s Instruction Sets can be especially useful for tufts supplement essay 2012, this school! [end discussion of MIT#8217;s last-year questions] 2015 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Update 3/9/16: MIT says that 5% of the class will be admitted in Round 3, but they’re discouraging international applicants due to admission essay help, potential visa timing issues. MIT WAS PICKY IN ROUND 1. They#8217;re clearly going for an improvement to their rankings based on a strengthening of the class profile. We expect average GMAT score to spanish, go up even further at MIT for the Class of college admission, 2018, based on the outcomes we#8217;re seeing from them so far this season. (We did predict that, back in May#8230;) Thankfully (. ) MIT has modified its application this year.
Their essay questions the past two cycles were straight-up awful for cover letter player, BSers to college, deal with. This year they#8217;ve gone down to ONE main question which normally we#8217;d be rather unhappy about, except that they#8217;re also introducing a system sort of similar to HBS, where you submit a second essay if you#8217;re invited to interview. (Harvard#8217;s Post-Interview Reflection is essay on inflation not the admission, same, but it#8217;s the letter player, same idea: get another submission from the applicant at the interview stage.) AND while on college help first glance it appeared that MIT retained the worst of the worst of its essay prompts from last year (see below), actually they changed that too! All around positives. The other big change? They#8217;re EXPANDING their admissions cycle to three rounds.
For a very long time, MIT has had just two rounds yet for several years running, we#8217;ve heard that they accepted #8220;late#8221; applications after their January Round 2 date was past. Agrumentive Essay! So they sort of admission, kind of let you apply after their final deadline anyway. Hsc Essays! They#8217;re now standardizing to do what every other top school does. Three Rounds. September, January, April. Cool. The main application essay question is what we#8217;re most pleased about.
Here it is: Tell us about college essay, a recent success you had: How did you accomplish this? Who else was involved? What hurdles did you encounter? What type of impact did this have? (500 words or fewer). This is such a classic #8220;significant achievement#8221; question that we#8217;re practically rejoicing here in Snarkville. Such questions let applicants communicate in ways that are revealing at least, provided the applicant does a good job with the question! The question itself is absolutely awesome: It has subparts that guide you on what to focus on, it#8217;s a reasonable length to convey what#8217;s needed, and it#8217;s unambiguous. Thank you, Sloan!
We have a category for posts here on the blahg called #8220;essay types #8216;achievement#8217; essays#8221; which you may want to investigate if you#8217;re researching how to approach this. Our wait for it Accomplishments Achievements App Accelerator may also be useful in essay hashing through your possible topics and figuring out college essay, which #8220;recent success#8221; is going to be most effective for you to present. What other goodness is coming from the MIT announcement? Well, they’re retaining their “Additional Information” optional submission, which we have always liked. Here’s the wording for research conclusion, that: Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to share anything else you would like us to help, know about you, in any format. Tufts 2012! Good stuff already coming @MITSloanAdcom chat: It is essay help highly recommended you also submit optional essay (tho it#39;s schoolspecific advice!) They#8217;re also introducing a post-interview-invite essay requirement which looks remarkably similar to what they asked as a main essay prompt for hsc essays, the past two years, except that they fixed the awkwardness of it and now they#8217;re just asking you to tell another story about admission, being successful somehow: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to essay, develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Please share with us something about your past that aligns with this mission. (250 words or fewer). MIT had a near-identical question as its Essay 1 for two years and college admission essay help almost entirely because of that, had been recognized here in Snarkville as having the hsc essays, worst essay questions. This new version of the prompt is much better though 250 words is very short.
If you are in the lucky position of being invited to interview at MIT, you definitely will want to avail yourself of the college essay help, benefits in our Sloan essay strategy guide #8212; though hopefully you will get the hsc essays, guide right away so that you can benefit from the college essay, entire strategy we lay forth! As of that early May 2015 announcement of the new essay questions, their app requirements page had NOT been fully edited and updated (once again, MIT exhibits sloppiness as of this writing on 5/10/15, they have the essay on inflation, new essay questions listed at the top but then the discussion of Letters of Recommendation talks about an #8220;essay #2#8221; which is a leftover comment from last year#8217;s app). College Admission! We#8217;re not saying that we never have errors on our site but on a school#8217;s app requirements page? Proofread, Sloan Adcom, proofread. Spanish Language Paper! 7/16/15 Good news! MIT continues to admission help, introduce applicant-friendly changes. Paper On Eating Disorders! We#8217;ve now discovered that they ditched the ridiculous suggestion that applicants submit a resume in Sloan#8217;s own resume format, and that the resume could be only #8220;50 lines.#8221; These restrictions were just silly, and created undue stress for candidates. You still should only be submitting a one-page resume (that#8217;s true for any school) but now you don#8217;t have to worry about a particular format for a particular school (especially when that format did not even demonstrate best practices for MBA applicants). Thank you, Sloan Adcom, for coming around!!
MIT 2015 Dates and Deadlines. MIT now has three rounds! That means: Be careful about admission, any posts you read here on the blahg about #8220;two rounds#8221; and MIT. We have discussed the cover letter team, implications of this change to three rounds in the 2015 MIT Application Guide but we have not gone back over our historical posts here on this site to offer warnings or corrections what we may have said in the past about application strategy at MIT may not apply to essay help, this new world of a standardized admissions cycle. Round 1: September 17, 2015 almost a week earlier than Rd 1 was last year. Traditionally this has been the most advantageous at agrumentive essay, MIT but we don#8217;t know if that will hold true quite in the same way this year (Rd 1 is college admission essay help always recommended but it used to be REALLY recommended at MIT based on how they managed their two-round cycle; Rd 1 will still be an advantage, but it#8217;s a TBD on how big of an advantage it will be going forward at this school). Based on 2012 a 10/7/15 announcement on the MIT blog , interview invitations this year will work the same as they did last year in Round 1: They#8217;ll start going out in mid-October, through the #8220;week of admission, November 9th#8221; (not sure why they can#8217;t name the actual day?). That#8217;s when the Round 1 #8220;release from consideration#8221; happens, which is a nice way to say #8220;no#8221; to team player, you if they#8217;re not interested. For those being interviewed, a final decision comes in mid December like other top schools. Admission! Round 2: January 14, 2016 . This jives with what happened last season, which actually was not what was originally planned. They had set Round 2 to be January 8, 2015, but then at the last minute, it was EXTENDED TO JANUARY 13th.
Round 2 is always viable at hsc essays, MIT. Round 2 interview invitations will going out the week of essay, February 15th (same as last year), with Round 2 release to happen somewhere around March 1st. Round 3 THIS IS NEW: April 11, 2016. Essay On Inflation! We don#8217;t generally post Round 3 deadlines here on the blahg because it#8217;s typically near-impossible to get in then. HOWEVER: Since Round 3 is NEW at MIT, then we can only college admission essay help, expect that they have modified their internal admissions processes to leave spots open for candidates at that stage. We still believe it will be difficult to agrumentive essay, get in on college a Round 3 app but in this case, it may not be quite so difficult as it would be elsewhere. Research Paper Conclusion! YMMV. College Admission Essay Help! Whew! That#8217;s a lot of change! If you want to understand how this works, please pick up the SnarkStrategies Guide for hsc essays, MIT (2015 version) it will help you grasp what#8217;s so very unique about college help, this school#8217;s admissions criteria, compared to hsc essays, other top MBA programs.
And of essay, course, you get a full discussion of the impact of the changes with the addition of Round 3 and everything else. The 2015 guide was totally overhauled from 2014; this is agrumentive not an essay help edit or refresh, it#8217;s a completely new book! [end discussion of MIT#8217;s 2015 questions] Click to tufts supplement, view 2014 questions. 2014 MIT Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when the 2014 questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from a previous year.
The mission of the MIT Sloan School of admission essay help, Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the 2012, mission based on examples of past work and admission help activities. (500 words or fewer) Write a professional letter of recommendation on essay behalf of college, yourself. Answer the following questions as if you were your most recent supervisor recommending yourself for admission to the MIT Sloan MBA Program: (750 words or fewer) How long and in what capacity have you known the applicant? Really, MIT? REALLY. How does the applicant stand out from agrumentive, others in a similar capacity?
Please give an example of the applicant#8217;s impact on admission essay help a person, group, or organization. Please give a representative example of how the applicant interacts with other people. Which of the applicant#8217;s personal or professional characteristics would you change? Please tell us anything else you think we should know about this applicant. At least they kept the Optional Information thing (see the letter player, 2013 Questions section below on admission essay help that; we recommend everyone submit something). They also kept essentially the same deadlines as they had in tufts essay 2013. [end discussion of college essay, MIT#8217;s 2014 questions] Click to view 2013 questions. 2013 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when the 2013 questions came out.
Wow! No cover letter. [They had this cover-letter thing as part of their app for paper on eating conclusion, YEARS. Decades, maybe. Help! They ditched it in 2013.] They really switched things up! Bschool admissions peeps seem to research paper disorders conclusion, be in a contest to do more things differently in 2013. Here#8217;s the college admission essay help, Sloan 2013 essay questions: The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and generate ideas that advance management practice. Discuss how you will contribute toward advancing the mission based on examples of past work and activities. (500 words/one page max) Describe a time [within the last three years] when you pushed yourself beyond your comfort zone. (500 words/one page max) Optional Question: The Admissions Committee invites you to share anything else you would like us to know about you, in any format.
First note: ESSAY 1 IS HARD. Second note: While most every school allows an #8220;optional essay#8221;, in most cases, we advise to only write it when you have something important to explain that you can#8217;t cover elsewhere in the app (typically a gap in employment, not getting a rec from essay, a current supervisor, what happened during college and that low GPA, etc.). For MIT, we recommend that EVERYONE submit the #8220;Optional Question#8221; and in particular that you do so using a non-written format if possible e.g., video or something snappy. Note though: They don#8217;t allow uploads. It must be posted somewhere on the web, but not behind a password (no protected Dropbox links); and no Flash. We talk about all this in the Sloan SnarkStrategies Guide which has been totally revamped to help you with these very unique essay challenges. [end discussion of 2013 questions] Click to college, view 2012 questions. A cover letter and two essays: Please prepare a cover letter (up to 500 words) seeking a place in the MIT Sloan MBA program. Your letter should describe your accomplishments, address any extenuating circumstances that may apply to your application, and hsc essays conform to standard business correspondence. Your letter should be addressed to essay, Mr.
Rod Garcia, Senior Director of Admissions. Essay 1: Please describe a time when you had to convince a person or a group of spanish, your idea. Essay 2: Please describe a time when you overcame a personal setback. [end discussion of 2012 questions] MIT Links, Important App Info, and Some Snark. official school pages: EssaySnark#8217;s posts on MIT: We haven#8217;t reviewed too many MIT essays on college admission essay help the blahg, however there#8217;s plenty of other schools with similar-enough questions that we have covered: We go into great detail in the Sloan essay guide on research paper on eating disorders conclusion how to handle the essay, questions that this school asks. Cover! Start there. Then, if you want an MIT essay reviewed for admission essay help, free! on hsc essays the blahg, try sending it over!
If you#8217;re looking for admission essay help, personalized and private help, then our standard Essay Decimator is tufts essay 2012 ideal (we strongly suggest writing BOTH ESSAYS together at once; that way, you can get your entire pitch critiqued, and you#8217;ll be ahead of the game when it#8217;s time for that interview invite to come along!). 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. College Essay Help! The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from hsc essays, scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to admission essay, help you with the nine short-answer options and essay your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on college admission essay help the cover letter and hsc essays the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too!
The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and essay strategies for your Class of player, 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on college admission a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at research paper on eating, this time in college help past years? 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for your MBA interview 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to use bschool to cover player, find a new path. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark?
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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in college help, all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. Letter. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of college admission essay men.
While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on research paper, which the normative structure of college essay society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is research on eating disorders conclusion concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings.
It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of college mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. Essay On Inflation. This is derived from admission help, two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. Supplement 2012. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’.
The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out essay, those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the hsc essays main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in admission essay, this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is hsc essays essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is college admission help something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to essay grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”.
As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on essay, external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the letter team player root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to college help their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the research paper forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends.
Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of college essay help preserving the tufts supplement essay values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. College Admission Help. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of research paper conclusion two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the essay help eyes, touching the feet.
The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. Cover Team Player. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the admission great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of essay salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods.
There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred.
But a thing is college help holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of on inflation thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the admission essay kind of animal the paper cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is college behaviour with reference to supplement super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. College Help. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in essay, public.
It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the college other world cherish these principles.
The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of supplement guilty. Admission Essay Help. It may also bring upon team player, him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the college admission essay end of life, the team player realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.
The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and college admission essay, political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for essay the wider society. These functions of help religion are discussed bellow.
1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Research On Eating Disorders Conclusion. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of essay help seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by spanish paper giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. College Essay. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world.
This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to player forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in essay help, several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Letter Team Player. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for college the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values.
The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the spanish language research ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon admission, which these values rest.
Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to essay on inflation accept limitations upon his wants and desires. College Essay Help. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the letter means of informal means of social control.
Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against essay God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by essay God but by society. Admission Essay. Hinduism gives sanction to supplement essay the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare:
Religion encourages people to college render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of hsc essays giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.
The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to college admission essay help help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and agrumentive, Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to college admission essay soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and spanish research paper, compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in admission essay, ritualistic exchanges of condolence. Hsc Essays. On God he puts faith and entertains the college admission belief that some unseen power moves in spanish language, mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. College Admission. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable.
In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Research. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and admission help, political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the supplement ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the admission essay help kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right.
Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to essay vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in admission help, the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the hsc essays spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Help. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures.
In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Supplement Essay 2012. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for help the society as a whole. Research On Eating Disorders Conclusion. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and admission, others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and essay, conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.
2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the college admission ethical legitimacy of letter player money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”.
Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is admission essay help evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of tufts supplement essay development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc.
As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to college admission help fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and agrumentive essay, the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the college essay source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being.
Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the essay on inflation God etc. hinder the admission help welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Tufts Essay 2012. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on college essay help, building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and cover letter, ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to college admission help waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality.
They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the hsc essays contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Admission Essay Help. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to tufts 2012 persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. College Essay Help. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic.
They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of essay man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in essay, the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. On Inflation. For him therefore religion is, to college be sure, superstition, but to essay stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is essay help more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough.
The transformation of an hsc essays entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.
Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. Admission Essay Help. “The demand to give up the essay illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of college admission help politics.
As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of conclusion man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is college admission essay static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and essay, eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms.
Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to admission essay help reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of research paper conclusion simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and college essay help, expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of research paper Brahmanic Hinduism.
Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Admission Essay. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the on inflation earlier phases of college essay religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by essay 2012 a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is essay help gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance.
This movement is sometimes referred to agrumentive as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and admission help, practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise.
The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the on eating disorders conclusion God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the admission essay help dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. Research. However, the process of secularisation has affected the college essay help domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the cover player process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society.
First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the college essay diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of supplement social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of help religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the letter team influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.
As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and admission help, various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and cover player, other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. Admission Essay. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and agrumentive, Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of admission essay help religion and agrumentive essay, the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of admission essay society and culture are removed from the domination of supplement religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the college development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on research disorders conclusion, reason rather than faith. College. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways.
Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of research paper meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and college admission, even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and tufts, distinctively Indian or South Asian.
The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is admission help not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind.
In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the research Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is college admission not Europe and hence secularism in paper on eating conclusion, India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of college admission help secularism.
Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the research paper disorders word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and admission help, secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is hsc essays translation of help those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is hsc essays standardly used in help, talking about the tufts role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of help vested interests inherent in our political system.
Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in research, terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. College Admission. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and cover letter player, it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the college admission essay State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to agrumentive any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and admission essay, a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society.
If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in letter player, which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. College Essay Help. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism.
Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the essay following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.
People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of college admission religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Tufts Supplement. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith.
Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. College Essay Help. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and essay, authority of help religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is research on eating disorders occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Admission Essay Help. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Paper. Finally, it is both a product and college admission help, a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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