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Essay about communication skill

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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of essay skill, Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to paper start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the about skill best resumes and essay, you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill, skill level, profession and texas of the, format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Essay Communication Skill. Browse these examples to term delivered only get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on skill, the companies you worked for.

Combination Resume - Combine the essay elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and about communication skill, use a resume that is rubric for writing, unique. Essay Communication Skill. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the deconstruction essay outline best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills.

Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and essay about, your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions.

The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and outline, executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and about communication skill, business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of texas teacher essays, business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and essay about, experience, which will help you along the way. Anecdotal College. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in essay about skill, the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc.

you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for for writing a narrative essay Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to about communication human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in of the year, these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in essay about communication, your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience.

Volunteer experience is college, also a nice addition to essay about communication skill healthcare resumes because it shows the term delivered online hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and essay about skill, it is term paper online only, important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Essay. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to essay troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers.

Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the essay about communication skill most difficult time writing a resume. Of Due. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into essay about skill, writing the most effective resume you can. Essay. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and essay communication skill, have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in process, many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in your resume. About Skill. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. Essay Outline. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and essay, a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise.

Also, be sure to essay outline include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and communication, recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements.

Include volunteer work and rubric essay, accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Communication Skills Essay Example | Topics, Sample Papers

Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on the topic of programming languages and on the nature of research work. Essay About Skill? I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in the context of texas teacher of the, Academia, i.e. within the expectations of essay skill, academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and texas teacher year, Mathematics ). This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the about communication skill one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and a considerable chunk of year essays, my career was made in that area. As a designer, there is about communication something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of any kind.

It’s even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. As a user, I love to anecdotal essay college, use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the languages in question make me curse every other line. But the about communication truth of the essay matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.

Perhaps by the time I am done with it I will have come to terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the epitome of that model). Communication Skill? Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Since the of due 90s, a considerable percentage of new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for essay, tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ” [1] PHP is essay a marvel of how a horrible language can become the essay about communication foundation of large numbers of applications… for a second time! Worse is Better redux.

According one informal but interesting survey, PHP is essay now the 4th most popular programming language out there, losing only to C, Java and C++. JavaScript, by Brendan Eich circa 1995, “Plus, I had to be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened.” [2] According to that same survey, JavaScript is the 5th most popular language, and I suspect it is climbing up that rank really fast. It may be #1 by now. Python, by essay about communication Guido van Rossum circa 1990, “I was looking for a ‘hobby’ programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas.” [3] Python comes at #6, and essay process, its strong adoption by scientific computing communities is well know. Communication Skill? Ruby, by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto circa 1994, “I wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and texas year essays, more object-oriented than Python. That’s why I decided to design my own language.” [4] At #10 in that survey. Compare this mindset with the context in which the about the older well-known programming languages emerged: Fortran, 50s, originally developed by deconstruction essay IBM as part of their core business in computing machines. Essay? Cobol, late 50s, designed by a large committee from the of the year onset, sponsored by the DoD. Lisp, late 50s, main project occupying 2 professors at MIT and their students, with the grand goal of producing an essay communication, algebraic list processing language for artificial intelligence work, also funded by the DoD. C, early 70s, part of the large investment that Bell Labs was doing in the development of Unix.

Smalltalk, early 70s, part of a large investment that Xerox did in for writing a narrative, “inventing the future” of computers. Back then, developing a language processor was, indeed, a very big deal. Essay About? Computers were slow, didn’t have a lot of memory, the language processors had to be written in low-level assembly languages… it wasn’t something someone would do in timed essay, their rooms as a hobby, to put it mildly. Since the essay about 90s, however, with the emergence of PCs and of decent low-level languages like C, developing a language processor is no longer a BigDeal. Hence, languages like PHP and JavaScript. There is a lot of fun in designing new languages, but this fun is not an for writing a narrative essay, exclusive right of researchers with, or working towards, Ph.Ds. Given all the knowledge about programming languages these days, anyone can do it. And many do.

And here’s the first itchy point: there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language and its emergence in the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work. This bothers me a lot, as an academic. It appears that deep thoughts, consistency, rigor and all other things we value as scientists aren’t that important for essay about, mass adoption of programming languages. Term Paper Only? But then again, I’m not the first to say it. Communication? It’s just that this phenomenon is hard to digest, and if you really grasp it, it has tremendous consequences. Anecdotal College? If people (the potential users) don’t care about about communication skill, conceptual consistency, why do we keep on trying to essay, achieve that? To be fair, some of those languages designed in the 90s as side projects, as they became important, eventually became more rigorous and consistent, and attracted a fair amount of academic attention and industry investment. For example, the Netscape JavaScript hacks quickly fell on Guy Steele’s lap resulting in the ECMAScript specification. About Communication? Python was never a hack even if it started as a Christmas hobby. Ruby is online a fun language and quite elegant from the beginning. PHP… well… it’s fun for possibly the wrong reasons.

But the core of the matter is communication that “the right thing” was not the goal. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an important practical need is the key for the popularity of essay outline, a programming language. About Communication Skill? But being opportunistic isn’t what research is supposed to anecdotal essay college, be about… (or is it?) Also to communication skill, be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of these new languages, even when created over essay rubric, a week as someone’s pet project, sit on the shoulders of all things that existed before. This leads me to communication, the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of rubric, concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of communication skill, which came in the 90s)

So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is essay process there still anything to about communication, innovate in programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in this area? I need to make an anecdotal college, important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for essay communication, some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an IT infrastructure to collect the data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to improve the deconstruction outline performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on essay about skill some Mathematical model of for writing essay, computation and want to communication, make your ideas come to life in the form of a language (M for Mathematics). This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of STEM and that denies the deconstruction existence of value in research in/by software itself.

If we want to lead something on our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of communication skill, universes that already exist or that are created by others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at essay outline times, as an expert passenger in someone else’s research project. Skill? The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the code itself and some informal descriptions. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in essay, the “hard” sciences hold near and dear for a very long time. The evolution of information technology in the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. About Communication? Over and over again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of any scientific project, as such, and rubric for writing a narrative essay, that ended up playing a central role in Science. Instead of essay communication skill, trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.

I dare to suggest that the something else is deconstruction outline related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Communication Skill? Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in deconstruction outline, them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.

Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in the context of doctoral work. Now comes the real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and implement programming languages, what are the about skill actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from essay process what anyone can do? Let me attempt to answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of essay about communication, language design: Performance — one can always have more of term online, this; certain application domains need it more than others. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and essay about communication, algorithms for the implementation of PLs that weren’t easy to devise. Human Productivity — one can always want more of this. There is no ending to trying to make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in essay outline, some domains this is essay communication skill important.

There are other goals, but they are second-order. For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in anecdotal college, hardware design — multi-core comes to mind. This is a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to increase performance by essay about communication skill taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to timed essay, do doctoral research work in programming languages ought to have one or more of essay about, these goals in mind, and — very important — ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in deconstruction outline, programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the Engineering side of things. I think everyone in about communication skill, our field understands what this entails, and is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. Of The Year Essays? But a considerable amount of research activities in programming languages invoke the about communication skill human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of term, languages that are believed to essay about communication, increase human productivity. So I’m going to focus on the human productivity goal.

The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on essay process other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. Essay Communication? (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to deconstruction essay, defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. Skill? If you know of such study, please point me to it. For Writing? I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Communication Skill? Unfortunately, they always fall short of essay college, giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the communication skill never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and seem to reach opposite conclusions, best known in timed, the health sciences. We are starting to see that ping-pong in essay communication, software science too, for example 7 vs 9. But at rubric for writing least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and essay about communication skill, they open the healthy discussion about what conditions should be used in order to get meaningful results.

I have seen even more research and informal articles about essay outline, programming languages that claim benefits to human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authors’ or the community’s intuition, at best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for the academic soundness of Haskell. Essay Communication Skill? Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in timed rubric, a blog post designed to evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of communication, doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is not an term paper delivered online only, outlier. The Internets are full of about communication skill, articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about every other language. For Writing? No evidence is ever provided, the argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Programming Languages in any official capacity.

Back when I was one of the main evangelists for AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the about communication line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is essay damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and executing the experiments that lead to essay communication skill, uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and a whole other set of term online only, skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and skills for actually designing programming languages.

We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and communication, used by academics and have been the topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the deconstruction outline benefits of communication, using the rubric for writing essay language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.

Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. I’m just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the “stories” that the communities tell within themselves and to essay, others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by deconstruction essay outline pointing out essay about, that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in rubric essay, academic communities — and therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and depressing… let me try to turn my argument around. Is the high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is what’s keeping me away from that topic, but I’m just a grain of about skill, sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of evidence?

This ties back to my detour on texas teacher year essays the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is joined by essay about communication skill a counterpart: is the provision of scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is not Science, we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by timed essay software. Essay Communication? This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of timed essay rubric, research it is similar to skill, software: partly based on rigor, partly on intuitions, and now also on essay automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is driving that work better put in place a plan for about communication skill, actually testing the theoretical expectations in the context of actual people.

Does the timed rubric drug really do what it is supposed to do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for essay communication, the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for the value of of due process, experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to communication, the consequences of failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in software design experimentation is only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for those, seeking solid evidence of essay rubric, their benefits before deploying the essay about skill production version of the experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.

Therefore the burden of scientific evidence may be too much to bear. It is also often the case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by for writing real use is enough to provide assurances of about skill, all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Nowhere in that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. That’s just a solid good proposal for an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and see what comes of it.

If nothing comes of it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond “in the term second phase, we’ll install it on many machines” maybe the world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in the black hole of trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on essay communication skill previous ideas, including the author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications — down to essay of due, the prediction of search engines and essay skill, graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an unproven design idea doctoral material and other isn’t? If we are to essay, accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?

In order to communication skill, do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to timed essay, let go of claims altogether. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the committee asks the student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of about, interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of work. Of The Year? And that’s ok! It’s very important to be honest. For example, it’s not ok to about communication skill, claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to rubric for writing a narrative essay, prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of doctoral and post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the problem and how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for a piece of design research work.

If the essay about communication design is not well grounded in essay of due, an interesting and important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the novelty of a design lies not in essay about communication, the design itself but in essay rubric, its designer seeing the problem differently. So — surprise me with the problem. Show me insights on the nature of the problem that we don’t already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is possible to do. The ideas should be demonstrated in communication, the form of a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to be placed in a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about process, proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.

I leave that as an exercise to essay about communication skill, the reader! I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities. I would love to anecdotal essay, let my students engage in designing new things such as new programming languages and environments — I have lots of about communication skill, ideas for what I would like to anecdotal, do in communication, that area! I believe there is essay of due process a path to establishing a set of communication skill, rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. All this, however, doesn’t depend on me alone. If my students’ papers are going to term delivered online, be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in essay about communication, many machines” or “and then we make the software open source and deconstruction, free of charge” then my wish is a curse for me. We need buy-in from a much larger community — in a way, reverse the trend of essay about skill, placing software research under the auspices of only, science and engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and scientific methods are all about (the engineering ones — everyone knows about them). At this point there is essay communication skill still a severe lack of understanding of science within the CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.

If we simply continue to year, ignore the workings of science and the burden of essay communication, scientific proof, we end up continuing to deconstruction outline, make careless religious statements about our programming languages and systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from time to time.

Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to about communication, Research in essay of due process, Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline” Indeed!

One of my favorite quotes is Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of communication, them are about teacher year, my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the situation is essay about communication not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. Essay Of Due Process? “…one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in essay about communication skill, them!”

2. Rubric? “…there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language. and its emergence in skill, the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the work now is simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. In other words, the “tech transfer” process for essay, language. design has proven to be decades long…

So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of essay about communication, anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.

which point the features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the rubric for writing essay explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of which has already. “gone mainstream”. The single most astonishing and essay about skill, influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of texas of the essays, other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of communication, this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to rubric essay, my amazement, those who still question the about communication value of this.

feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the basis for many of the performance improvements for JS. And of course, there are the many innovations around Scala and F# which.

are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the anecdotal academic. So, the upshot is that yes, a lot of work in essay, PL (and SE) is indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is teacher of the year bullet proof “evidence” of merit. Nevertheless, all is not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.

anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. About Communication Skill? We should be thinking of ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the most important contribution of texas teacher of the year essays, PL research is the introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Essay About Skill? Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the deconstruction essay outline fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to essay communication, think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in timed rubric, obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.

This is really spot on. I would like to refer you to a couple of about communication skill, things that come to of due process, mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by essay about Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the lines of timed, what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on the ‘nature of communication, order’, referenced. Texas Teacher Year Essays? These texts move far beyond the early work. You would do well to have a look at the first book, which tries to establish an objective theory of design not based on scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to essay about communication skill, read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Rubric For Writing A Narrative Essay? Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an order of about communication skill, magnitude of productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. They’re a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the essay anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and developing them in communication skill, an academic setting. Essay? This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.

Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is discussed: 2002. Miller Puckette, “Max at Seventeen”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the about more interesting fields to look at if you’re interested in ascertaining the future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of texas teacher year essays, forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in essay about, real-time, data must be of a certain resolution (in time and ‘space’) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from texas teacher of the year other fields (musicians) must be able to essay about communication, use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for you. He began in essay, computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.

According to this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. About Skill? human productivity. Delivered Online? I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is about communication skill expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to anecdotal essay college, come from essay about skill better adaption to the task, i.e. from languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an old but fairly well-known and scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. The title is “estimating size and effort in anecdotal, fourth-generation development”.

If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to essay about skill, work with and on the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the teacher of the year commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by a combination of factors including the Web and essay about skill, the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.

– comprehensions didn’t originate in haskell (probably not even from essay process Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and probably that was taken from somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by far the about communication best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in a few lines – I challenge any programmer out there to do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for quite so long, and it’s nice to anecdotal essay, see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.

u might want to add sml languages to your list of developments. also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. I’m in about skill, the industry developing software. Deconstruction Essay? I’m not sure what to think about the 3 goals you state: for performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not “fast”, the essay about communication grid will compensate (as an aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of grids from paper a resource point of view: people don’t care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway…) ; for productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is essay communication that: either the problem is (partially) solved by the use of libraries, or what’s really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess)… and essay college, testing – I think each day of coding results in 2 or 3 days of testing, that testing being a kind of “proof” that the essay communication skill system is not going to… crash and make you lost money. In other words, in my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the anecdotal college most time. Reducing the communication skill amount of testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of bugs would in anecdotal, the end be the most useful (to me), and I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.

I would like to echo Frank’s comment. About Skill? I work in a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of writing production code to writing unit, integration and essay rubric, acceptance tests is about communication skill similar. There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and paper online, complexity for us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to about, be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is term online only not affected. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the about communication skill same way about AOP.

I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to anecdotal essay, be discovering more primitive forms of computation, e.g. Essay About? continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and could use some innovation. Of Due Process? Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. None of the popular languages have anything to offer for these problems. I have been using and essay, advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:

1) the developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and the. rationale behind the code. they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. They will better understand the code which leads to a narrative, better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the code “lives” because it is embedding in human-to-human.

communication. About? There are over 100,000 dead piles of code on Sourceforge. because the author left and process, nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the code. I have been trying to find a researcher at essay about skill a University interested in. creating studies to confirm or deny the essay above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for about skill, instance, could be tested by delivered only taking previously published. software (e.g. cryptographic software).

Give one group the essay about skill book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the actual. source code. Give a second group just the texas of the year source code from the book. Have a group review and skill, post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to rubric, “put some science” behind the opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of interest to essay about, you, contact me. The premise on anecdotal essay college which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the essay about communication idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.

This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of your programs, and timed rubric, therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from a single source, in the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to essay communication skill, get people to think out of the box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to texas teacher year essays, any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in communication skill, one place is not the paper delivered online only purpose of about skill, literate programing.

The main merit of literate programming is to essay, rearrange the code in what best for human mind to essay about, follow. TeX is still a good idea now. Of Due Process? The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to about communication skill, see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on one screen and of due, have the rendered output on essay about the other display. Essay? The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of essay communication, Don Knuth’s books and essay of due process, generally consider myself one of about, his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of being able to essay college, arrange code and take forms in what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. And often, what is best for human reading is what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Writing papers to defend one’s idea are difficult and essay about, not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in practical situations of programing, we are trying to get things done rather than to propagate an essay of due process, idea.

And the current very reason that we need documentation is essay because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of programming research is a system that takes in deconstruction essay, what is essay communication skill intuitive for humans and translate them into what is ready for machines. Essay? This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is how our mind operate. Essay About? Most important that I want to anecdotal college, see is emphasis that the programming system not to communication skill, force machine concepts upon us. If the programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. Essay Of Due? However, the language system should not force the programmer to think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.

Please do! I guess I’m not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is about nice to texas teacher of the essays, see a very well thought out argument in essay communication, this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to a completely new domain of programming languages. Term Paper Delivered Only? Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. Essay? My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is texas teacher of the that you need a zoo different languages to make an enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to talk with the computer about all of about communication, theses domains. I am sorry to have to break this to you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small “personal” developments. Ken Thompson started UNIX in 1969 and slowly brought others in on essay rubric its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of work to include any other developers.

Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of about, science or that one or maybe something else. Rubric For Writing A Narrative Essay? I dare to essay about, suggest that the college something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. Communication Skill? It should not be called Science. Of Due? It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is essay about communication so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in deconstruction, the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on about communication Wikipedia.

Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and seems to have been popularized largely from outline that source. There’s a lot of skepticism about whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of language. And I’ve heard it described in skill, many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way I’ve heard it described is thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in texas essays, complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the system much more complex. About Communication? A good example is essay outline a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by essay about communication skill a bus). This is texas teacher year essays a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.

Although sometimes I am skeptical of essay about communication, CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in that direction in case you want to explore it. I found your blog from Hacker News and a narrative essay, I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to the choir here. Essay About Communication? Hope you see the essay outline connection I’m trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to essay communication skill, me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to do concurrency in for writing, programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.

OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and we learned a lot more about it since. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from communication 1983, Oz is from 1991. For metaprogramming, the college first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in essay communication skill, programming languages?

Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about time the question of term delivered only, “does PL design make for doctoral work?” and “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to essay communication skill, mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. Of The? We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in the minds of people. Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and essay about communication skill, molecular formulae come to mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobody’s gotten an PhD in math for inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in the form of of due process, a paper or a note.

By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out purely syntactic contributions and I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of essay communication skill, syntax on process cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for about communication skill, raising these questions. – “C, part of a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the underground’s underground as it was a demand of Unix. AlsoC didn’t seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and Objective-C. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Guy Steele’s lap). So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by amateurs, are anything close to for writing, the norm. Even in the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.

Example: Larry Wall had a BS in “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in human linguistics–this mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is essential for this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. – Languages are expensive tools; the switch to essay about communication, a new language is rubric for writing a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to the enormous weight of legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and essay about, libraries. This cuses the frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). Delivered Online? “Universal” platforms, from Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to modern Java and now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. Essay About Skill? So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of adoption by millions of rubric a narrative, rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to distinguish the qualities of “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.

This is critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of skill, education and the same focus and values. Well, it’s not that simple because the first stage of adoption is typically driven by some kind of elite, still the language eventually needs to scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.

The CCS book was published in 1980, the work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the concepts themselves.

Improvements are important too, and they have the outline wonderful property that it’s really easy to about, assess their value. But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for design ideas to timed essay rubric, come to the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to essay about skill, mind), others never get mass-adopted.

In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in rubric for writing a narrative, the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and essay communication skill, those old timers stand up and say “but insert vintage language had that back in 1975…”? I used to find it really annoying. But they’re right, for essay of due process, the most part. Essay About Communication? I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and reflect on the reasons for this state of affairs.

Thanks also for those who point out that C was an underdog project. I’ll update the essay one of these days. I guess the point should be that before the PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers — and of due process, that tended to essay about skill, happen only in University labs and rubric, Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of about communication skill, things with software in them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to take apart your essay, but I’d like to add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of exciting activity and steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.

of historical work on the evolution of disciplines. It is essay good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and its relationship to essay about skill, the world. Term Delivered Online Only? It is dangerous to think our own discipline is facing unique problems, and essay communication skill, it is even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at POPL ’88 after working them out for 4 years — fall straight into the steady-state part of PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in a production system.

a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into place.]] 2. Essay? You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of data on. the productivity of programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.

These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of essay about, average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is expensive.

Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and will therefore not release it. 3. As far as ‘design’ is concerned, I agree with you. Timed? Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the essay about communication skill exception of essay process, OOPSLA — give way too little credit to design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in essay, a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on PL. design. I’ll attend.

4. I have heard the lament about hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. Essay College? These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the break-thru.

languages address dire needs of practical work and design — immediately and on the spot. Javascripts evolution — as a Scheme turned into a language without parentheses, now! — is a classic example. Essay About Communication? Brendan Eich should write it down for history’s sake, and not just the of due sanitized version that leaves his superiors blameless. 4b. These languages pose interesting and communication, exciting new problems for PL researchers.

I have worked on adding types to untyped languages for 20 years; since the web placed. languages such as Python and Javascript into term online only, the center of new software designs (1998ish. latest), this work has become tremendously relevant. Essay Communication? I am actually pretty sure that it. will evolve into a nearly-big idea that people will pay attention to. 5. Last but not least, don’t escape.

If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. Deconstruction Essay Outline? But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the need to go and explore other parts of town to essay about communication, see what’s all about and how things are done there. Essay Of Due? I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Essay? Great for paper delivered online only, doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of essay about skill, work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to timed essay rubric, software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to continue this conversation with you some time!

As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. This post had been sitting on my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for it, so I freed it from the essay about communication password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in essay rubric, the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.

all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.

In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the final “credit” not going to the person who. “discovered” an idea, but with the person after whom the idea “stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on essay skill the critical “steady.

state” work that Matthias refers to that is needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the term paper delivered point the “pieces to essay about, fall into place”. This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the “old timers”.

(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in teacher year essays, 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and essay about, the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is incorrect.

Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the of due process data to support this claim, this statement is essay about deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I don’t believe that this is the intent of the essay rubric sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the essay communication sentence altogether or at timed essay rubric least qualify it and say that there is no room for certain kinds of errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is essay not at all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to term delivered online, support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of a whole class of essay about, errors.

So it is a simple fact — an analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is process a requirement in Science. Sometimes the communication skill claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to timed essay, wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Physics). That doesn’t seem to be the case here; the about communication data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of texas essays, dollars need to essay, be spent in building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to term paper delivered, call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of empirical data. Or change the claim to something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is about communication eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and essay outline, people make all sorts of mistakes. So if you want to about communication, prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by people] you need to compare empirically.

You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. Paper Only? I do wonder if these are the only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in essay about communication, the vicinity of software – are so much in the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in most disciplines earns the term “science” – couldn’t hurt. I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the online only case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is essay about communication enough to for writing, provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in essay about, hands” – I think the idiom should be “we have in hand” and not match number unless you wish to write “we have on our hands”. Crista, just in case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in of the, my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of “Java is better than C++ for large projects”.

Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an communication skill, accounting method from the rubric business school that answers the essay about skill question in a positive sense. Matthias, that is something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. I’m less inclined to accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for the benefits of Java vs. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and deconstruction essay, methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an essay skill, innovation but alternating current is just an improvement”. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the essay claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture” a weird claim.

It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is considered better than other theories. Essay Communication? Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:

1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in anecdotal essay, assembler. 2. Notations: the “wars” between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to essay about communication skill, our bidding” comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to those domain experts. Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the foundations to support such a vision. Term Paper Delivered Only? There is about skill far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for teacher year essays, GUI programming. I would be interested in that.

Yes, the new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of language structures to write programs for software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on communication so called visual programming languages and I think, the major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at rubric for writing the following link. Speaking as the developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to essay about communication, suggest a project for some like-minded individual. We’re in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in term paper delivered online, government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and essay about communication, access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the control of the administrator for texas year, that application. So there’s a lot of communication, attention being devoted to doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on deconstruction explicit policy instead of about communication, each administrator’s whims. Paper Online Only? The current/only way of making policy explicit is an Oasis standard called “XACML”.

XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). Essay? So far so good. What’s not so good is that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into texas of the year, practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is skill doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on year essays other functional languages out there. Scala is one good candidate. About Skill? Only the syntax is changed; the new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.

A cheap way of ensuring that is to have the parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to serialize the essay result into communication, real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to turn it into java for runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on rubric a narrative the fly. All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to about communication skill, comply with XACML, and it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the obvious place to start.

Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to Jeeves. Just had a look. Outline? Its targeted at privacy, not access control. Essay About Skill? What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on raw execution speed and deconstruction essay outline, strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to go far beyond XACML compliance. Didn’t spend enough time on it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an inability to accept the communication empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and college, move on to new ways of doing things.

So much for science. Also I am rather surprised that the essay communication skill research by Capers Jones about productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the productivity of thousands of software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the teacher year AI researchers in the 60’s – that they said the breakthrough is just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. Essay About Skill? I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in rubric, which the rate and skill, volume of change is college very high. Productivity is very important to us – the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of essay about skill, home grown tools – the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. But we need more, and we should not have to anecdotal, do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to about communication skill, a programming language.

The hardware side and the human side. Before 1979, hardware side is more expensive than the human side and after that, it shifts to the other way. The hardware side is to timed essay, be easily modeled with mathematics, and as a result, computing science was mostly a branch of about communication skill, mathematics. Expensive hardware, abstract models, and a narrow base of rubric for writing, experts restricts the essay language design to be a “serious” activity. We had many progresses because we already accomplished a solid mathematical background. Afterwards, especially after 1990s, hardware side is no longer critical, so the attention shifts to the human side, which is of due process more of essay about skill, a cognitive science. It is hard for academic rigor but easy for term online, intuitive insights. FORTRAN, COBOL, C, LISP, all emphasize on the hardware efficiency. LISP goes to the extreme of making the language itself a data structure. PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, none of essay about, them concerns with hardware efficiency, they are concerned with human intuitions.

The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of science is very difficult and we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of progress in programming languages, and progresses in many other things as well. I am working on a drastically different approach to programming languages. Rubric? https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the essay skill poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of essay, C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.

If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to essay, develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an teacher, already crowded field of good existing languages. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of this are the about communication new “fringe” languages such as Scala and Ruby.

With the exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and dynamic generation in year essays, Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the essay about communication programming world. Essay? Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to essay communication skill, come out in college, the past 30 years or so was Prolog. Essay? It promoted a completely different type of timed rubric, design paradigm for development but it was only viable for expert systems development for which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to about skill, include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to develop large-scale applications as a result of its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to re-develop a bit of the essay internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and communication skill, separate some of the issues.

* Who’s the audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to anecdotal college, evaluate papers in essay communication, POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to term paper delivered only, evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?

* It’s nice to try to figure out why some languages succeed and others don’t. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to communication skill, aspects and monads both of of due process, which came in the 90s) I beg to differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by communication Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book “Elements of FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. The last one was invented by Peter Landin in the 60s, I believe.

See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. There is nothing new on earth, really… This is the goal of essay, Language Design. Essay About Communication Skill? Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of composition – this influences syntax and support for rubric for writing a narrative essay, extensional metaprogramming (i.e. “Growing a Language” through the specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to get results quicker for the human user and to boost the overall productivity of the system of which it is a part. Essay About Communication? This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the program is a mix of interpreted and compiled modules – where the latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. All work on separation of of due process, concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.

Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and essay, methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the anecdotal essay college recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for writing this.

As a software practitioner without formal education in communication skill, computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in rubric, the works, it’s heartwarming to know that somebody in essay communication, academia shares my sense of how to deconstruction essay, go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about. “Necessity is the mother of essay skill, invention.” So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to anecdotal essay, formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at essay what we want to say. MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of Design in timed, PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of essay, Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about.” Yes!

Pretty much! I’m not the essay first one to essay about, suggest this, btw. I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the choice of the word “Science” there sends everyone down the for writing essay wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. It’s easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to assess them. They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to deal with them.

Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and essay communication skill, not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an indicator of wanting to say something but not having the linguistic tools to say it directly. This is deconstruction where I whine that FORTH is the essay communication skill one and term online only, only true language. FORTH is another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the essay communication syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.

You bend the language to the application, not the application to the language. Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for essay of due process, embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is essay about skill created. This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read. Thanks very much!

I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to human productivity isn’t language anymore. Essays? Library availability and quality is probably the essay communication skill most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, it’s more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to a point of rubric a narrative, diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to about skill, a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the actual impact is paper only far from clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in essay communication, a few avenues: importing capability from computer algebra systems (e.g. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the same thing, and so forth, to teacher essays, facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the about communication skill time taken for the program to run, and rubric, tag variables as “to optimize with respect to M”, leaving it to a JIT to figure out optimal values for essay communication, performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to texas teacher essays, adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to invent a new library, even for the simple things like finding a substring. Essay? This is essay college really tiresome.

The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Alan Kay and essay, the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of world weariness to me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by designers is because of the rigor of the deconstruction essay outline underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by essay communication designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of essay outline, it.

Lopes is not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is essay emerging from its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in the end). An analogy is online with the auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and do significant amount of work and essay, customization to them. The 50’s and 60’s even up till the 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to get involved. The same is happening with computers in general … to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is two fold … firstly education is a problem in that parts of academia is still catching up with industry but this is changing … almost to rubric for writing a narrative essay, the point where many of the best bits of software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by communication students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on this idea that any single programming language is going to rubric essay, be applicable to all things. Its a fundamentally western ideal to pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the way for dealing with exactly the essay communication skill right tool for the right job. We need to term delivered only, embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of convergence judiciously … not just bet on about communication programming ‘horses’ and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for of due process, so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the adoption curve … I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is communication dead’ and actually the technology goes on to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.

Teaching these languages shows that people have issues with basic programming idioms irregardless of paradigm in term delivered only, effect. Like any actor, musician who wants to communication, play to an audience or mother who wants the world to know of their child’s genius or even a soldier who wants to get a chance to illustrate their devotion to duty … its understandable that all the hard work that Lopes does results in how she feels. But this is very common in science where hard work and graft support and anecdotal essay, underpin each little micro step which eventually leads to future breakthroughs … its highly annoying that ‘crowd think’ results in essay communication skill, us doing unholy things with javascript but I’m not going to worry about it anymore, think back far enough and things were much worst in computers (and if javascript killed flash thats enough for me). my thoughts only, Jim Fuller. Nice post!

I’m also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Students only paper delivered, get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of about communication, doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Some of essays, these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and more “fun” (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of thousands of about communication skill, objects and source and config files). But I can never put a student on that for teacher year, some of the essay reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. Of Due? This is the key to the problem, you have to have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and posters at a large conference on about communication computers in texas of the, particle physics – in essay about communication, a small side parallel session for the about 10 of us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and essay, “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about science?

Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of C++, C#, and about skill, python – C++ is just *too* slow on deconstruction essay the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is essay about communication out there. Research has to essay, be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an impact on language design and generalization of concepts. Essay? But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. And don’t stop pushing the boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and for writing essay, your journal editors!

Speaking from 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. About Communication Skill? Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is process fairly quick once the specification is known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. From the limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the development time”, I think that any improvement in about skill, a new or revised PL would be of a narrative essay, little benefit to reducing development time. Essay About Communication Skill? If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the commercial success and ease of use and the ease of learning of delivered, a computer depended on it’s programming language.

The personality of the computer depended on the programing language. I would say the language was the computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the essay about modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the integrated software from deconstruction essay outline framework from Ashton Tate and it’s programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and essay communication, good syntax error detection. And the essay of due language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in skill, the 80’s. I don’t think much of essay of due, java.

I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is maybe only framework or emacs besides the about skill zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.

I think it’s a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is important. I like the concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in the 80’s. Music is interesting in that it is anecdotal a parallel language has loops and is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of just buffers.

Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to learn and communication skill, understand for the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and timed, its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is essay about a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is list of benefits of texas of the year, PHP. most of the reasons are legal and financial. others are technichal support and rich set of essay about skill, libraries, at last comes the learning curve. nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is discovery of problems and solutions for them. tools are only essay of due process, made to faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for essay about skill, research. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and for writing a narrative, sell tools made with that idea.

what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and about skill, hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. Timed Essay Rubric? they are a culture. Essay Communication? it is the language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to essay rubric, write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the essay about skill wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.

I’d like to timed essay, add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the about communication example. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. I’ve no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is why I use the language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and I was going to rubric, make the communication same point if no one else did. Perl has been around a long time and I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the job, and in on tenth the essay college time of the about communication C#/C++/VB’s of the world. My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.

This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of for writing, academia is the communication fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is useful) is not well rewarded in academia. It could be that the focus on delivered publishing papers is actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of about communication, building interesting systems in my field, at paper delivered least at essay skill the moment (see the explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). However, it certainly isn’t the right one for of the, me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the essay communication skill languages discussed are text based languages. They rely on tools that convert series of characters into anecdotal college, computer actions. Where is the research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the computer do something.

b. allow another human being to understand what is being asked of the essay communication skill computer to do and to be able to modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into texas teacher, human behaviors and perceptions. About Communication Skill? Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!

As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to essay, pretend you’re following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for essay, a proposal and even the essay less for a topic. I had no PhD topic for more than four of essay skill, of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the of due process smartest people possible and about, delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to term delivered online, great results (and great failures). Now as I am working at essay about communication an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to rubric for writing a narrative, fake the system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the system again or I’ll leave to essay skill, industry. I had been working in industry before so I know pretty much what to essay, expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.

I know that the questions raised here, and the directions that the community takes, are much more important for essay communication, the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from each other, which I will try to term paper delivered online only, keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on about communication “academic” programming languages to genetics research on timed rubric fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and low maintenance) that allow us to skill, use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and term online, logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.

2. Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Essay Communication? Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.

That deep understanding came from many years of exploration of those systems, involving a chain of essay process, researchers and teachers extending back to Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Essay Skill? Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in essay, my opinion. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to undeserving developers? How can we find out if the number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of about communication, generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?

These are the kinds of questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and texas teacher of the essays, the main purpose of skill, this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into anecdotal, one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). About? The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for those codebases to essay college, remain exactly the same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to essay about communication, be, at essay rubric best, a good solution to an ugly problem endemic to functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon essay about communication anyone the crown of “world’s greatest language designer”.

Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the thoughts and frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to essay, obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of Wiki Wiki, is another example of essay communication, someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Like you, I’ve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in and in which it is easier to publish work following the timed essay scientific method. Essay Communication? So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at outline least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. It’s not the essay about skill end of the world for of the year essays, me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?

Does it allow me to do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at least allow me to essay communication, do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at essay “the quality without a name”. About Communication Skill? How subjective! How difficult to essay of due, assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to about communication skill, do like the for writing a narrative essay Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of rules and criteria (you have already listed some in essay communication skill, your essay. That’s a good starting point.).

We need some reputed and essay rubric, risk-taking leaders. Essay About Communication Skill? We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to texas, have an communication, open mind, and yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to be based on essay outline mixing up science with engineering, and then wondering how the engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. Essay About Skill? Let me try and disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasn’t laid the parts out clearly enough to make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to deconstruction essay, have discussed the philosophy of our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in essay skill, both. Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and a narrative essay, purposes. The purpose of science is to understand something that is essay skill not currently understood, and essay rubric, it does so through application of essay skill, its one and only MO, the extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.

Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and an empirical half in teacher essays, which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against the predictions in order to disprove the hypotheses. Skill? If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in anecdotal college, the domain tested within the bounds of essay communication, experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Its purpose is to create something useful by combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Timed Essay? Its MO is also completely different from that of essay, science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and testing prototypes, and in rubric for writing a narrative, the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on essay communication skill the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.

None of this is in dispute in the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to centuries, although the language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, “Computer Science” is essay of due a relatively new kid on the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the essay about skill label “Computer Science” is essay rubric a poor reflection of what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and uses the MO of an engineering discipline to make things. Theoretical CompSci is a branch of mathematics, and quite rightly has its own label because its domain is communication skill so specific. Timed Rubric? And finally, only very rarely is the MO of science applied to investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci — the computer scientist is then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the computer scientist is doing. So now we get to the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the essay about communication Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesn’t use the Scientific Method then it is not. This is *by definition*.

THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on this score, although of course it is possible that the MO of science is applied poorly by essays a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Essay About? Even then however, whether the MO of deconstruction outline, science is being used or not is pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be ‘No’, science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, although the possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: “If science is not being done because the communication skill MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work?” No, of rubric, course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the essay about MO of essay of due process, science is about not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of paper delivered online, computation. About? Getting hung up on deconstruction outline “evidence” (which is not a term generally used in the MO of science anyway, observation and measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for essay about skill, different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on “evidence” is not an essay, effective way of determining whether science is essay about skill being done.

And so finally to Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Design is not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by rubric a narrative any engineer through its distinctive purpose and MO. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the observational half of the MO of science is essay about skill not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of “Is the MO of science being used?” to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about what is going on evaporate. Even when you’re using *mathematics* to term delivered, *design* an instrument to about, measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. Essay Of Due? They truly are orthogonal in practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from essay about skill perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.

Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of PLs doesn’t really exist from my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at any given time, at least those with an of due process, engineering background, and they employ the MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of science is not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of communication skill, engineering is essay rubric extremely appropriate. Skill? Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to anecdotal essay, anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.

Nowadays the word for it is ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an about skill, open source toolkit for VWs in which we share a common interest) is a perfect example of an engineering project, and rubric for writing essay, quite an ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is science when they’re designing and communication, implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of a CompSci research project, because the for writing essay MO of science — the Scientific Method — is essay not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the essay purpose of about, engineering and uses the MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of disciplines by their respective MOs. It’s a powerful tool for determining what a computer scientist is doing at any point in essay rubric, time. I agree with comments by essay about Richard and Joe that we can still gain.

(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the language fits. better to the job we are solving. The challenge is then still how to rubric, study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to study the fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is about communication skill not advancing. There is no need of software to essay, advance.

There is no need of the software industry to advance. There is essay no need of CS to advance in software. There is paper delivered only no need of PL research. 2) There is no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.

PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is composed by vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and skill, pure.

Interdisciplinary research is fashion and get the funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of research for timed rubric, the sake of about communication, other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.

In other words, the subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is just the essay tech support of the rest of the sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.

Replace the word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is essay communication skill conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.

is to rubric for writing essay, take his/her favorite PL and add some features from other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.

The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the communication original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and deconstruction essay outline, Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to communication, consider the term paper delivered online innovation of essay skill, PL paradigm research. along the innovation of PL language research posed by Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)

Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to deconstruction essay, have emerged since 1979” … is related to the question of: In order to something new to about skill, emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in essay rubric, Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhn’s perspective to the PL scenario the exploration ended.

in the 70s and communication, it will not be unlocked until the anecdotal essay college next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in the availability of essay about communication skill, technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the for writing a narrative essay discipline of engineering is the essay solution of problems. by the application of paper delivered online, science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and about communication skill, calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).

Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to anecdotal essay, produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of about communication, a science is concrete, i.e. it exists in outline, the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is abstract. It is a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is no science of software. There is no theory of software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the essay about communication skill kind needed by.

software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.

understand and predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of rubric for writing a narrative, our systems and the corpus of knowledge of CS and SE. does not aid in to essay communication, getting the profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to deconstruction essay, industrial and applied aims.

Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to essay communication, industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of rubric for writing, focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an essay skill, industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.

But should a research PL language be judged by the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to essay of due process, produce technology. and satisfy the needs of the essay about communication skill industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of PL to succesive new generations. So far the outline continual patching of PLs worked and was enough.

Hardware evolution is essay communication still insufficient incentive for further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is teacher of the year conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.

11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by industrial or applied aims. But this is part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of about communication, PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.

a science in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is used in “scientific evidence”, but it is not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to essay, produce technology. So the evidence is about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.

The internal agenda is to advance the state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and the external agenda. is to apply its results in communication, benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and it is about doctoral proposals.

fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is natural in Crista’s words “that not much seems to have emerged. In the term delivered online only most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.

On the other hand CS is devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the most mature sciences and essay skill, engineering. took centuries to texas of the essays, develop. CS and SE have about half a century.

But the skill regard or disregard of the scientific method by texas of the year CS. determines it to be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the communication skill regard or disregard of the engineering method by SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.

However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of deconstruction essay outline, any specific kind. Essay About Skill? It’s a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the MO of science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of mathematics, and rubric for writing a narrative essay, Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the term SE coming into disuse in about communication skill, recent times. You’re right that the vast majority of people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.

Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of teacher year essays, this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and about communication, rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. CompSci has really missed the deconstruction essay boat on essay this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to essay outline, feed one of its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and essay about skill, being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is no sign of it yet though. I restricted to timed rubric, present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the about realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and timed essay, more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.

The realistic position is about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of essay communication, society and the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and what are you doing. so the realistic position is necessary as well.

Certainly the discipline in essay outline, its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to about, the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the term paper delivered online only item he makes.

He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and communication, repair it. But their understandings are partial and superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the teacher engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the dimension it has.

Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the fluids and gases involved, or the combustion process and about communication skill, the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and timed essay rubric, math. to make the impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of a software engineer is closer to essay about, the craftsman and to the mechanic.

A SE understands the term delivered online software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the skill software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the deconstruction essay outline sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is essay communication skill what languages have enough depth to build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the other language’s to boot. Rubric For Writing? I can think of only three, Assembler because of about, it a necessity, C/C++ because of its proliferation, and Ada because of year, its expressive power.

Most of the other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to about communication, light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to term online only, know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of about communication skill, programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. You seem to essay, be biased in that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for you. Well, let’s make one then.

We’ll use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and about skill, PHP. Tell them to write a web app where the user types in a sentence the app returns both a list of words in the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. Timed Rubric? If your view is essay about communication skill correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of 30. Half will use Java to anecdotal essay college, code an enterprise web app. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and toolkit.

Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. Communication Skill? If your position is essay correct, then the essay about DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. Rubric? (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of people write an app with certain safety requirements. One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to essay about skill, produce/test arguments, time to essay, build application, size. Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. It must have high performance and essay communication skill, no observed reliability/security issues over a year.

One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Compare the time to a narrative essay, produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and general bug count over essay about communication skill, the year. If your position is correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for processing log files producing a report about them. One team uses Pascal and one uses Perl. If your position is correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the job done faster. Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for for writing a narrative essay, a standard console app that doesn’t rely on either language’s specialties. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. Communication? One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.

Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and term delivered only, ease of modifying the application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from essay about dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and teacher year, incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for either. One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to about skill, completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over teacher year, a year, cost of IDE’s and time to train developers to achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to communication skill, C/C++ for most apps. There’s no features that the rubric a narrative latter language has over the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?

Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and specific cases. It’s beyond obvious. If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for essay, six years before attending college, your analogies follow the only line of “a tool for every job”. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is communication skill a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is writing code for teacher essays, deeply embedded products. Essay About Communication? The kind of texas of the, stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. Essay About? It is all (with the exception of very few lines of asm) written in C. Texas Of The Year Essays? The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Perl, though some are written in Python. The build tools are a combination of essay communication, ‘make’ (and the assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).

Configuration is outline through XML. Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for about skill, me as well. I think that gets to process, the heart of essay about, your comment. If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.

You’ve certainly struck a nerve in the PL community. As a reformed academic, I would agree with you that the most successful programming languages are completely uninteresting from a research perspective. Essay Of Due? As you say, they are all mashups of object-orientation, (usually) dynamic memory management, and algol syntax. We’re still working with a dominant paradigm developed in the 70s. As a software business person, these languages are interesting not because of the language itself, but because of the frameworks and target markets that they co-evolve with. Ruby would be just another language without the about skill high productivity Rails framework, and PHP and anecdotal, Javascript would never have happened except that we needed “good enough” languages to build applications for the web. Academics tend to dismiss this as “worse is better”, but software business people would rephrase this as “good enough today is better”, and about, would recognize this as a trivial corollary of the axiom that “time is money.” So I agree that in order to do credible programming systems research, you would have to accompany it with controlled experiments that showed efficacy in anecdotal college, the form of programmer productivity improvements and skill, better runtime performance.

Unfortunately this kind of rubric for writing essay, work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and rarely of interest in the business world.

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A Rough Response to The Armies of the communication skill, Night. I’m finding it hard to essay of due process, take the protestors of essay, our nation’s past seriously when they suffered all the same problems our Occupy Wall Street Movement has today, but run by exactly the same sorts of people who they were fighting against. It was all old white men. Rubric A Narrative Essay! Smart, intelligent, and important old, white men, but reading The Armies of the Night suggests to me that many of those smart, intelligent, and stupidly important old, white men were not open to listening to anyone other than themselves. What makes our activism today any different or any worse than theirs? In fact, the issue many have with ours is apathy or disorganizationdisorganization comes from trying to listen, adhere to, and essay communication skill make heard every voice possible because we can and we must.

Apathy comes when we feel that no concrete action can truly be takenbecause what did they actually accomplish? They got people hurt and killed and hurt and essay killed others without any real progress. Communication Skill! What they did was white noise on deaf ears. And they settled for compromise! Martin Luther King Jr. didn’t settle. He made himself heard. He demanded to be heard and made it so. So what did you do, Bill Ayers, who I found very compelling when I met, and you, Abbie Hoffman? You hurt people for no reason other than attention that got nowhere. Your actions did not quicken the end of the war. And Norman Mailer, all you did in your novelistic history and historical novel was make assumptions of texas teacher year, everyone around you that were not only ignorant, but offensive.

As a novelist, sure, you can imagine what transpired. As a historian, sure, you must document on both sides what happened. You did those things. But then you made assumptions about whole groups of people. Called women bitches and reduced their input to attempting to seduce soldiers. Called black protestors Negros and praised them for their particular brand of irony and tormenting skill. Perhaps I am taking too small a portion of your novel and essay harping on that, but that is neither novelistic nor historical. It is precisely as ignorant, racist, and pointless as your essay on why black people are better at of the year jazz than white people. Why should your voice be heard among others? I am struggling with a certain level of disillusionment. Communication! My parents were not part of the baby boomer generation, so I don’t have any romanticizations about the hippie movement.

I did, I suppose, assume that like revolutionaries from all over, theirs was something more powerful, important, and essay outline functional than the mess that I have learned about. Essay! But these were not revolutionaries as they so desperately want to essay of due process, claim. Revolutionaries have an organized purpose and goal, and though frightening, will achieve it by whatever means necessary within their moral compass. Essay Communication Skill! While in the history of revolutions, more often than not some voices were overstepped and texas year quieted, every person played an about skill important role. The hippie movement as told by hippies reduces others roles, emphasizing key players for personal artistic egos.

Perhaps that’s just the truth behind revolutions? I would hope not. I sincerely hope not. I think we’re overdue for anecdotal essay a revolutionary change. And I think we are more capable of it than ever before. I am simultaneously disheartened in reading this account of our predecessors, and gladdened because I know we are a special generation of about communication skill, people.

We have new tools at our disposal, and a new way for all voices to texas of the year essays, be heard and about skill accessed. Perhaps we will lead the timed, first Revolution where no voice is trampled into essay skill, nonexistence by pointless, egotistic personalities. I sincerely hope so. And I sincerely hope that our new Revolution is graced with the absence of an intelligentsia. Everything that can be bought or sold in this world has a value attached to it. This value goes beyond the numerical, monetary value that stores and timed essay rubric individuals assign; this value is meaning. In our consumer world of meaning and “the importance of communication,” we make valiant, yet still feeble, attempts to locate and define ourselves.

We look for difference so we feel special, and communication skill we find others who are different like us so we can feel special together. I don’t know if I have an identity or if everything I know is essay, just a mechanical response to society and its many constructions. It is about communication skill, mattering less and less where you come from, and timed essay rubric is becoming more and more about what you choose to do with your lot. But who are you? Are you a bundle of about communication, nervous, well-meaning responses like me? Or are you a full person on your own? There are no full people. We buy things to fill the texas year essays, hole: clothes, toys, stories, culture. We buy these things so others can know us without speaking with us.

We buy these things to speak volumes silently. These things, that can be touched, perhaps they are meaningless things - like us. There is no self - just mechanical responses - and that’s okay. After all, as we have already learned, machines, like us, can still do good. A Tale of communication, Two Optimistic Authors: Both Dickens and Hussie Would Find This Title Cheesy. Fiction has always been the preferred tool for understanding humanity, history, and our place in process the world.

The question of whether art imitates life or life imitates art is an ongoing debate, but either way, fiction holds up a mirror to our world to give us a better understanding of the irrational, mindless, or strange. Charles Dickens was famous for his realistic, yet comical and tragic depictions of the world around him. In no story does he capture the realistic comi-tragedy of life better than in his take on the French Revolution in A Tale of essay communication, Two Cities, in which he attempted to make sense of essay rubric, instability of the skill, time period, as well as how the rubric, anxiety of the Revolution was still relevant and affecting English society decades later. About! A Tale of Two Cities addresses the revolution within the framework of a familiar storyone of love and sacrifice. This achieves a sort of comfort, which a mere history cannot give to the event. Similarly, though not in direct response to college, any massive tragedy, Andrew Hussie, a modern webcomic writer, is attempting to encapsulate and comprehend the entirety of the Internet and the experience of the essay about, Internet into his current project Homestuck.

Since its inception, the Internet and how it would affect culture was hotly discussed and rubric a narrative debated. No one was sure what kind of people the Internet generation would create. Essay About Communication Skill! A period of texas of the, instability occurred as the older generation waited to essay about skill, see what would come from this new medium.In response to the instability of their new cultures, the writers of A Tale of Two Cities and Homestuck attempt to utilize that instability within their characters and essay of due process balance it with a revolutionary (yet familiar) format that ultimately ends with a hopeful message for the future. Neither writer had any idea what the future held, but their tales act as a warning as well as an optimistic look to about skill, progeny as if to essay, say that surely the essay about communication, next generation will create something good from this “madness”. A Note on rubric for writing a narrative essay, the New Modern Essayist.

I forgot to write this! But I just wanted to let the internet know that the Modern Essayist is no longer just little ol’ me, Sarah, and my ramblings, but a collective effort by myself and my friends who will post their creative essays and essay about communication thoughts when they please! You’ve already read a film critique by my boyfriend, Ken, and you can check his stuff out at dejamooproductions.tumblr.com, or the countofmontecritic.tumblr.com, one of which has his film projects and the other are his film critiques! His personal blog is inlovelikethemovies.tumblr.com, if you’d like to check that out too! He’s a pretty cool dude. Our other contributor is my very good friend, Amanda Shiew! You can check her out at her personal, amandashiew.tumblr.com, and she writes great music, draws amazing comics (which I think you can see at wheatbreakfastbagel.tumblr.com) and deconstruction outline is all around an essay about awesome fantastic person! Both of them will be posting essays when they like or can, as will I. Teacher Year Essays! All of us are college students, and so don’t have a lot of time on our hands, but hopefully we will get more members soon and maybe there will be a steady flow of essayists running about. :) My fellow contributors, feel free to edit this post at your leisure. I cannot find the button thing, but thank you for the follow, florentinolomarin! We’re all excited to have you aboard! :D.

would really love to read your response and discusshaven’t finished. I would love to discuss with you to! As soon as you’re done reading. :) It’s worth getting through so you don’t get spoiled. Communication Skill! Too much good stuff happens! I really liked the points you brought up in your argument though. :)

One more reason George R. R. Outline! Martin is skill, one of my favorite authors. In his books George R. Outline! R. Martin writes about experiences that are very uniquely female. And never once while reading what he’s written on these subjects have I been suddenly reminded oh I’m just reading a book some guy wrote. I don’t know if anyone else has this problem but I can usually tell a lot about an author when I’m reading something they’ve written about female experiences. Even without knowing their name or anything else about them usually I can figure out essay about communication what gender they were raised as, and to a certain extent how their adolescent environment felt about gender lines.

So when an author writes about a uniquely female experience, especially from a female perspective, it can be quite jarring. For Writing Essay! Because despite how much I am able to immerse myself into the story and the world it creates for most of the books it is in these moments that I’m suddenly reminded that this is a book it isn’t real and essay about communication skill it was written by some guy who doesn’t really get this experience (whatever experience it is). Because the simple fact is that there aren’t a lot of male authors out there that can successfully write the female perspective on having their first period, or feeling as though they are only worth as much as they are useful to a man simply due to timed essay rubric, the fact that they are female. It’s not their fault, these are experiences they have never had and sans getting a sex change they will never have. It’s entirely possible that there are a lot of female authors who do not accurately portray the essay about skill, male perspective as well, I’m not denying that. It’s just not something I know because the male perspective is not something I’ve ever had the privilege of having. For Writing! This though, the male portrayal of the female perspective, is something I have had much too much experience with. Once again I’d like to stress that I’m not blaming male authors who try and essay communication fail to accurately portray the female perspective of these very female experiences. Male privilege means they have never had to know what it is deconstruction, like to essay about communication, live in a rape culture that blames the rubric, (overwhelmingly female) victims instead of the essay communication skill, rapists, that they have never had the experience of being seen as less entitled to anecdotal college, their own autonomy because of their gender. Essay Skill! What I am saying is that it is wonderfully fantastic to deconstruction essay, come across a male author who somehow ( and I don’t know nearly enough about Martin to even guess at how) not only understands these things, but understands them to the point that he can write about them so amazingly well.

I’ve never actually had the pleasure of finding any other male author who in essay about communication my opinion portrays uniquely female experiences so well. Some spoilers below, sorry I find this interesting because unfortunately my experience with Martin has been a mix. Some of the uniquely female experiences he writes about are perfect. But others take me completely out teacher of the year of the story. Dany is a good example of both of these situations as her crush on Daario is essay, perfectly fitting within how I remember viewing boys as a 14-16 year old girl, with the timed essay rubric, added complications of her being a queen and a little bit more sexually mature and communication skill still quite innocent (those scenes are beautiful in a whole lot of ways and I love them). But then the instances where Martin describes her clothes or her dress, I feel, spent a great deal of outline, time observing and objectifying her own body in essay communication a particularly sexualized way as opposed to looking at rubric one’s own body as if it were their own body. Skill! Dany comes into her own as a sexual being in a realistic way, and I appreciate how she is written in that regard. However, in a narrative essay other instances in her point of communication skill, view there are times where we feel outside looking at her rather than inside looking out, if that makes sense. The same happens with Sansa frequently. Another issue I see in Martin’s work is that frequently we see women saying no to sex, but the men pursue it anyway and essay have to force the skill, women into it, but afterwards the women enjoyed it.

The examples that come to mind are Jaime forcing Cersei into sex in front of their son’s dead body, despite the fact that she protests due to wanting to grieve over her son. When she wants to have sex with Jaime in a narrative his “sacred place” of the White Tower, he refuses and the audience is supposed to interpret Cersei’s behavior as wrong. Another example is Asha and essay about communication her lover (whose name I unfortunately don’t remember), who forces himself on her despite her protestations, rents her legs apart forcefully, and they proceed to have sex. Deconstruction Essay! This might be more forgivable, as it seems to be a part of their foreplay, I guess, but if I remember correctly, Asha is annoyed, and does not want to participate at this time. In the end she still enjoyed the forced sex. Neither of about communication, these situations are presented as a rape. This is not to essay of due, say that Martin doesn’t have his strong points. Communication Skill! The examples in the above essay from timed, bt-may are great instances of Martin’s understanding of feminine experience. Sansa’s first period is a frightening and moving scene. As I’ve mentioned before, Dany’s crush on Daario is essay about communication skill, handled fairly realistically, where she’s embarrassed, but thinking about him all the time, day-dreaming about him sure some claim it to rubric, have been annoying, but I thought that it read like most teen literature written by men or women.

That’s how teenagers work and it’s silly and irrational and perfect. Essay! Catelyn’s grief as a mother, Brienne’s awkwardness, Margaery’s use of moon tea, all of these different things are handled well, and believably. Deconstruction Essay Outline! While I’m reading, I’ll just be blown away by how amazing Martin’s ladies truly are (The Mormont Ladies are FABULOUS. SERIOUSLY). But occasionally there are still some problematic moments. For me, personally, these moments are a bit jarring, especially when more often than not, these women are amazingly strong, dimensional characters with complete agency over themselves.

It’s hard for essay about skill me then to deconstruction, get over seeing Dany talk about how her breasts moved gracefully from under her silk dress, when in previous scenes Dany’s been planning on how to skill, properly execute traitors to her cause. For others though, I can see how these small things are inconsequential to the larger effectiveness of the narrative, and that’s why I can’t bash on Martin (too hard at least). Essay Outline! He’s very good, especially with women. I think though, like many authors male or female, he falls into some traps and while it happens to everybody, it is essay communication, worth thinking about. Another Earth (Definitely Spoilers) Another Earth is a 2011 indie flick that seems to have done well at a few of the larger film festivals (including Sundance).

And I have absolutely no clue why I will start with the positives: The movie had a pretty solid story on paper. A young woman, Rhoda (Writer Brit Marling), kills a man’s, John, family in a drunk driving accident and deconstruction spends four years in prison. Communication Skill! On her release she hopes to find this man and make amends to the best of her abilities. But falls to weakness and ends up cleaning his house under the guise of a maid service. (This piece was the crowning jewel of the rubric for writing a narrative essay, indie-quirk infused into the movie). But the story succumbs to essay about communication skill, cliché relatively quickly and moves a bit to slow for my taste; but nothing unforgivable. The portion of the story this film lost me on was when Rhoda and John indulge in deconstruction outline a sexual relationship near the penultimate conflict.

All the while, we are shown the about communication, discovery of a new planet (first appearing the night of the accident). Texas Teacher Of The Year Essays! This, the title sake, is both the movie’s largest asset and its largest flaw. Essay About Communication Skill! The point is term paper only, that “Earth 2” is a ‘mirror’ of about communication skill, our earth. Rhoda hopes to deconstruction essay outline, escape her misery on our planet by applying to a contest allowing a civilian to join the exploratory mission to essay, Earth 2. Delivered Online Only! This was what I thought the movie was going to be about. That was wrong. This provided several beautiful shots and essay about communication skill a greatly compelling scene in which some official tries to online, communicate with Earth 2 and discovers she is speaking to herself but film hints at essay about a only a few very compelling ideas surrounding the concepts this scientific discovery brings about. For the most part it falls to the wayside and simply acts as a false McGuffin and just less than Deus Ex Machina for the films resolution. Having said all this I would still love to watch a film that actually deals with the anecdotal, implications another earth would bring about. Essay Skill! I will accept that this film was simply not about the other earth, but you can’t just throw that out and expect me to rubric for writing, not want to hear lots about the awe-striking second earth I can see out of every character’s window. Regardless, the about skill, films story was solidly entertaining; the real downfall was that of director/ director of photography Mark Cahill. (This is where I get mean) My interpretation of the camera work done for this film was that either Cahill never went to rubric for writing a narrative essay, a single film class teaching how to essay communication skill, operate a camera or he went to everyone of those classes just so he could actively ignore them.

First off, the cliché blue tint could be written off as a post-production choice that I simply disagree with artistically, but, I have to say, It seemed more like Cahill just had no idea how to white balance his camera. Secondly, at term paper online least forty minutes of communication, this ninety-two-minute piece were closeups of for writing a narrative essay, Rhoda’s face or eyes doing very little emoting. Finally, and worst of all, there seems to have been no room in the budget of this film for a tripod And this isn’t to say some of the hand held shots weren’t successful - I have many times defended the artistic merit of noticeably hand-held camera work (i.e. Hunger Games). But for the most part, unlike Hunger Games, the lack of tripod didn’t create a tense mood (which obviously would have worked well in this movie) it just kind of took me out of the shots Instead of using mobility to well move, Cahill simply had the camera mostly still and then would accidentally jerk away and mess up the frame - so if this was intentional I did not get it at about all. Rubric! And further more in every scene it seemed like someone was just playing with the focus wheel, racking back and forth not actually drawing focus to anything. Overall I think this film’s downfall was, to be blunt, filmmaking. Rotten tomatoes gives it a 64%, Imdb gives it a 7/10, and I give it about skill a 5/10.

But this is just my opinion and who the hell am I? What are your thoughts? Thanks for listening! Going to be reblogging friends’ writings as well, as the blog is essay college, a little slow, and essay about communication if I can figure out submitting maybe we’ll get that working too! :)

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Essay on importance of communication skills in today s world - Scribd

Evaluation Essay Essays and Research Papers. ENG 102 WP-1 - Evaluation Essay Write an essay that evaluates the value or effectiveness of something . according to criteria you establish or identify in the essay . The Genre: You’re familiar with the book and movie reviews that appear in communication newspapers, magazines, and websites. They are just one kind of evaluative writing, but from them we can identify the key components of the genre. First, there is the of due process object to be evaluated. Often this is a single thing—a music CD, a scholarly study, a corporation—but.

Academia , Academic publishing , Essay 768 Words | 3 Pages. Choose a topic that you would like to essay communication write about. Since you will need to make a value judgment based on a set of criterion, you should know your subject . Essay Of Due Process. well. Formulate your thesis. The thesis of an evaluation essay is its overall purpose and should be stated clearly, giving you the direction that will allow you to essay about distinguish between criteria and select, appropriate examples. It should state value, or the lack of it, in regard to what you are writing about. Think of the criteria that you are. Essay , Linguistics , Philosophical terminology 1404 Words | 4 Pages.

Kristine Angelica A. Sacanle|IV-Star Evaluation Essay An evaluation essay is an essay . which deals with the delivered online only analysis and evaluation of the properties of some object. The student writing the evaluation essay has to fix an about communication skill, object for the evaluation , to analyze its properties, and to grade them, which is to evaluate. An evaluation essay is one that rates or evaluates something - a book, a movie, a music album, or an deconstruction essay outline, employee's performance. There is a nearly infinite number of topics that can be the. Critical thinking , Difference , Essay 1156 Words | 4 Pages. Essay #3: Evaluation Essay This essay will evaluate an skill, item (automobile, restaurant, film, . Of The Essays. television show, book, or a recent or prospective purchase).

The evaluation essay is an argumentative essay , so it requires evidence to communication skill support your opinion and conclusion that you draw about the rubric a narrative item that you are evaluating. Skill. The assignment: Decide on an item to term delivered only evaluate, develop criteria (standards) by which to judge the item, then make a recommendation to about communication skill the reader as to rubric for writing essay how well (or not) the. Essay , Peer review , Psychometrics 906 Words | 6 Pages. In the essay communication skill given example, the deconstruction essay company’s current evaluation form is inadequate and does not provide a complete picture of communication skill, employee’s performance. . The current evaluation method only texas essays focuses on communication, personal characteristics of the employee being evaluated. Another problem with the current method is term, that only the plant manager evaluates the employee, without getting input from the essay about skill individual being evaluated or anyone else. Furthermore the evaluation method currently being used focuses on perceptions and does. 360-degree feedback , Assessment , Big Five personality traits 1084 Words | 3 Pages.

Evaluation and Education Essay Education and evaluation are inter-related processes. Evaluation is . as old as the essay process of education itself. Education in communication skill its wider sense implies not only acquisition of knowledge, but also development of abilities, skills, personality qualities which are important in individual's personal and social life. The function of evaluation in education is to provide a systematic assessment of the essay development of these qualities as an outcome of essay communication, educational endeavour. Since. Cost-utility analysis , Costs , Education 743 Words | 3 Pages. housing stabilization for the prevention of homelessness. Evaluation techniques and practices were not built into the project from the . beginning. The federal government released evaluation information after the RFP, applications and contracts were signed. Therefore, the evaluation needs for the program were not discussed and agreed to by all parties from the online only outset. About Communication. Consequently, data necessary for am comprehensive evaluation was not tracked and thus could not be analyzed. (Langbein.

Evaluation , Homelessness , Poverty 732 Words | 6 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the way the essay is essay, structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. About. The structuring of an rubric, essay is communication, very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Evaluation essay is a narrative essay, one in essay about which the writer analyses all the aspects of an object and draws his/her own conclusion on that. Essay. It is . a process of examining facts and information about a topic and then reaching on a personal judgment. These types of essays are mostly used for the purpose of evaluation of communication, books, movies, etc. An evaluation essay employs both the positive and negative aspects of the object before reaching on a final conclusion on it. Rubric For Writing. Examples and statistics are helpful in evaluating any. Essay , Evaluation , Police 445 Words | 2 Pages. ? Contents 1. Definition 1 a. How to communication do evaluation of sources 2 1. Definition e-val-u-a-tion /??v?lju?e???n/ (noun) [ . uncountable and countable ] A judgment about how good, useful, or successful something is.

Synonym: assessment (Longman Dictionary, Professor John Wells, Jan. 10 2011) Word family Word origin verb evaluate Date 1700 - 1800 noun evaluation Language French Origin evaluation , from evaluer ‘to evaluate’, from of due process, value ‘value’ Example. Evaluation , Judgment , Noun 363 Words | 3 Pages. Evaluation involves the assessment of the effectiveness of the training programs. This assessment is done by collecting data on whether the . participants were satisfied with the about communication deliverables of the training program, whether they learned something from the training and are able to apply those skills at texas teacher essays their workplace. About Skill. There are different tools for assessment of a training program depending upon the kind of training conducted.Since organisations spend a large amount of money, it is therefore important. Donald Kirkpatrick , Evaluation , Learning 1730 Words | 6 Pages. Evaluation Essay Evaluations are important tools to understand why decisions are made and the factors evaluated to teacher year . assist individuals in determining his or her goals, career choice, skills, and interest. Evaluations may be accomplished by self-assessments, and performance evaluations . Self-assessments and performance evaluations are essential tools to encourage and essay communication develop critical thinking skills.

These tools may assist in rubric personal and about skill professional skill development. Understanding why we make. Critical thinking , Decision making , Employment 503 Words | 2 Pages. ? Science Essay Evaluation Rubric assignment # __11________ Student Name:Julia Score:100 This analytic rubric is essay rubric, used . to verify specific tasks performed when producing an essay . Essay About Skill. If the task has been successfully completed, all points are awarded. No points are awarded if the essay of due task is not complete.

Category Scoring Criteria Points Student Evaluation Self Peer Teacher Evaluation Introduction 20 points A thesis statement makes the purpose of the essay clear. (Thesis. Education , Essay , Essays 406 Words | 4 Pages. ? Evaluation is essay about skill, more subjective, since it involves human judgment. We make evaluations of people and their performance not only in . school, but also on the job and at for writing a narrative home. Essay About Communication. As teachers, we strive to reduce the chance for misjudgment in the evaluation of students Reasons for year essays, evaluation According to Robert Slavin there are five reasons for evaluation and these are: 1.) Motivation of students – rewards for good work can stimulate further good work. 2.) Feedback to students- evaluation can reveal strengths. Assessment , Education , Evaluation 829 Words | 3 Pages. NUBS China CSR international talent development program A post- evaluation system on essay about, fixed assets investments . Zhang Kun GM stream, group B M a y 2 0 1 3 A post- evaluation system on fixed assets investments 1.Background With the development of CSR,more and more money was put into of due process fixed assets investment, such as purchasing equipment , building new plants and so on. Due to the slide of the essay about communication skill external market, the company will have to bear an unprecedented. Critical path method , Depreciation , Evaluation 1063 Words | 5 Pages. An Essay is a piece of for writing, writing which is often written from an essay skill, author's personal point of view.

Essays can consist of a number of essay, . elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the about author. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 746 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by deconstruction essay outline, a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts.

For example, an essay could be about how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. Exam Objective This exam evaluates the degree to which the student can successfully construct a four-paragraph expository essay . (introduction, two body paragraphs, and conclusion), as well as revise and edit their essay using a rubric and pre-established classroom criteria. The student should present a perspective on American values using logically sound and essay about communication grammatically correct paragraphs, basing their reasoning on clearly stated themes and concrete, illustrative examples. The produced paragraphs. 2005 albums , Assessment , Essay 739 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt.

Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. Deconstruction Outline. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. About Skill. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. Paper Online Only. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an about communication skill, introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and delivered only support). English and communication literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of rubric for writing a narrative, classes. Essay exams are also a.

Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Questions Q1. Essay About Communication. Define Evaluation and explain the concept in your own words.

Q2. Teacher Of The. Enumerate the Principles of Evaluation Q3. . Skill. Explain any two models of evaluation . Identify the one closest to your training needs and objectives and give reasons for the same, Q4. Choose one Training Programme that you would like to paper online conduct/direct. What methods would you choose for setting training objectives for that program? Q5. Selection of the method of evaluation depends on the criteria of evaluation . Elaborate with. Computer program , Donald Kirkpatrick , Evaluation 1839 Words | 6 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to essay about communication give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family.

Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in essay writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. Communication Skill. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and for writing essay Carne, P., (2011). Essay About Communication Skill. Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in teacher year essays WRITING TASK 3. Essay About Communication Skill. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course.

Please select a title from the college list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on essay skill, your area of study in of the year essays terms of application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the essay problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in rubric the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on communication, honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an texas year, opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei.

Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and skill writing essays . I have never written an . essay in rubric a narrative essay my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for communication skill, me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse.

I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence.

For . Timed Essay Rubric. example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on essay, a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of college, being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to essay communication register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Peer Evaluation Procedure You are responsible for evaluating each member (other than yourself) of your work group. Please do what the essay . About Communication Skill. instructions request. This evaluation is very important because the dollar outcomes, when evaluated for timed, consensus, will generate a multiplier or factor that will determine your project grade relative to your team members. Instructions: Evaluate members of your group (but NOT YOURSELF). There may or may not be the right number of spaces. Use just the.

Division , Evaluation , Factorization 462 Words | 3 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to essay skill bring the anecdotal reader from his or her world into the world of the communication skill essay . Anecdotal Essay. This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the communication skill essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an rubric for writing a narrative essay, essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and communication skill evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Writing the for writing essay Essay U.S. History Organization • Basics – Introduction (4-5 sentences) – Body (4-6 sentences each) – Conclusion (3-5 . sentences) • Paragraphs – Should be concise and TO THE POINT • Avoid paragraphs that are longer than one page • Helpful Hint – Use a concluding sentence to each body paragraph to summarize main idea and reiterate your thesis • **This does not differ between FRQs and DBQs Introduction • Length: 4-5 sentences • Be sure of what the question is asking. Essay , Sentence 616 Words | 4 Pages.

disabilities. About Communication. The process is based on timed rubric, a systems theory approach. The system is designed for a guide for a well-defined, goal-oriented purpose to communication the activity . or program being provided. It involves four phases: assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation . Term Delivered Online. Use of the therapeutic recreation process is essay about communication, not dependent on location, but on systematic and rubric for writing a narrative essay consistent use of assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating services for people with disabilities. Essay About Communication Skill. The process is applied in process settings like hospitals. Assessment , Computer program , Disability 1387 Words | 5 Pages.

?Employee Performance Evaluation Name Job Title Employee Number Effective evaluation of job performance is an . About Skill. on-going process. Annually each manager or supervisor provides a summary of progress toward meeting job expectations and last year’s goals. This form is to be used for annual evaluations , and at other times during the year when formal feedback is needed. Evaluation Period (month/day/year) From: To: Evaluation Criteria - Describes. Communication , Critical thinking , Decision making 340 Words | 3 Pages. Question: Write an essay on monitoring and evaluation (ME) in which you: describe the difference between monitoring and . evaluation distinguish between participatory ME and conventional ME describe how participatory monitoring and texas of the year essays evaluation (PME) is used in practice with specific reference to case studies from about communication skill, China Title: Monitoring and Evaluation (ME) TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1 Introduction 3 2 The difference between monitoring and rubric evaluation 3 3 Distinguishing. Construction , Critical path method , Evaluation 1936 Words | 7 Pages. Personnel Evaluation Week 5 Hilda Vazquez 11/11/12 PAD 530 Dr, Lee Abstract With the ever evolving status of the . development of Personnel Management comes the evolvement of strategizing the guidelines, and structure for the foundation of about skill, Personnel Management Evaluation . The importance of Personnel Management is high, and paper only has been progressively growing into the fast pace of society.

The idea behind having personnel management is to find ideal candidates who are self sufficient. Evaluation , Human resource management , Human resources 1536 Words | 5 Pages. Performance evaluations are designed primarily to tell employees how they had done over about communication, a period of college, time and to let them know what pay raise . them would receive. The biggest strength of our performance appraisal system at Fairfield Medical Center, would be “feedback”, however other factors like documentation and development do play an important role as well. Essay Skill. I will talk about different performance measurements used at FMC, their strength, weakness and paper delivered online then proposed solution. Behavior Based Measures.

360-degree feedback , Evaluation , Feedback 888 Words | 3 Pages. result of introspection into past experiences or memorable events in our lives. We introspect into these memorable events and communication skill reflect over them with . regards the emotions and influences they have left in our lives. In simple words a reflective essay is a piece of ‘you’ being presented in rubric a narrative words. What is Reflection?

In a reflective composition you really need to think about yourself and how a particular personal experience changed you. It is not merely a recollection of your experience but. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1498 Words | 5 Pages. performance against communication skill what was expected. Evaluation is a time-bound and periodic exercise that seeks to texas year essays provide credible and useful information . to answer specific questions to guide decision making by staff, managers and policy makers.

The aim is to determine the essay about communication relevance and fulfilment of objectives, development efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability (Policy Framework for the Government-Wide Monitoring and Evaluation framework). An evaluation should provide information that is credible. Better , Decision making , Evaluation 1895 Words | 6 Pages. RUNNING HEAD: Grievance Procedures An Analysis on texas year essays, Grievance Procedures Robert Trejo . An Analysis on Performance of Evaluations Introduction This paper will discuss several aspects of the procedures of the performance of evaluations in the work place. First, this paper will discuss some information of the procedures to file a grievance. Then this paper will talk about the about skill importance of a grievance procedure. Furthermore. Collective bargaining , Discipline , Employment 1426 Words | 5 Pages.

Evaluation of texas of the essays, Training: Meaning and Types Khan Sarfaraz Ali[1] Training evaluation ( is the essay skill objective assessment of the past to rubric for writing . facilitate better forecasting and controlling of the future. Communication. In the context of training it is used to determine the effectiveness of a training program. Training evaluation means “any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on for writing essay, the effects of a training program and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information” [Hamblin]. Training evaluation is a. Assessment , Better , Evaluation 564 Words | 3 Pages. Evaluation Essay Structure and essay skill Format Tips Evaluation essays set out to create criteria and then . judge or evaluate the subject based on these criteria. Writing an evaluation essay requires you to fully analyze both sides and determine an arguable judgment. You must fully explore the subject and then provide views and evidence to support that judgment.

Your writing starts with gathering necessary and relevant materials. Then you formulate a thesis, that is your judgement upon the topic, create. Academia , Essay , Evaluation 406 Words | 2 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is timed essay, our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to essay about skill an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on timed essay rubric, the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples.

Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. create a training evaluation . Essay Skill. “A training evaluation is the process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine whether . training is effective.”(Noe, 2008, pg 197). “An evaluation is important because it will help improve the quality of anecdotal college, training, insure that money is being spent on training, insures that objectives are being met, improves performance of employee and essay communication skill the company and increase profitability.“(Noe, 2008). College. In the essay communication skill training evaluation process, our first step is the evaluation design. This. Evaluation , Measurement , Practice 1081 Words | 3 Pages.

that once we make the essays initial evaluation , other information has little affect on how we view that person, so the first impression sticks. We . also evaluate people based on about communication skill, Self-fulfilling prophecy, which is basically having expectations about a person which elicits certain behavior that confirms your expectations. Stereotypes is a very common evaluation people make about other groups of people, such as black, whites, Asians and so on. Usually this type of evaluation turns to be negative Q2: How. Archetype , Evaluation , False Impression 814 Words | 3 Pages. Job Evaluation at of due Whole Foods Week 3 Assignment Tanisha Reynolds Prepared For: HR 598 – Professor T. Essay About Communication Skill. Clark May 23, 2010 Evaluate the . jobs listed in the case study and prepare a job structure based upon essay outline its evaluation . Assign titles to communication skill jobs, and show your structure by title and job letter Whole Foods stores are organized into teams based on the different product categories: * Produce (vegetables and fruits) * Meat * Seafood * Grocery (dairy, frozen) * Specialty (cheese. Evaluation , Grocery store , Job description 581 Words | 3 Pages. Writing a Research Essay in anecdotal college Economics You've been given an essay communication skill, economic research essay topic for your assessment task and completed . your research. Your textbook and syllabus outline should be the starting points for the research.

Make sure you read the criteria on which you will be assessed. You are now ready to rubric a narrative essay organise your ideas and the information you've collected into a logical sequence. But where do you start? It is about communication, useful to begin with an essay outline. The Structure of the Essay Outline The. Consumption function , Debut albums , Economics 1577 Words | 5 Pages.

Use these questions as guidance when critically evaluating your texts, but remember that you do not have to use them all in your writing. Critical . Evaluation of Sources Is the source: Source type a book, a journal, an e-journal, an Internet article, a newspaper, a magazine, a blog Why the timed rubric source was chosen How does the text relate to your research topic – does it provide background information, support for an argument, relevant data / details about the issue? Authority of the writer . Critical thinking , Evaluation , Peer review 408 Words | 3 Pages. The Golden Rules of about communication, Essay Writing. ?The Golden Rules of process, Essay Writing Below are some useful tips to essay about skill consider when you are writing your essays . Use this sheet as a . reference and check your essay against for writing it before you hand it in 1. Keep subjectivity to a minimum Always support your points with referenced evidence. About Communication. Avoid use of the words ‘I’, ‘me’ and ‘you’. Write in of due process the third person. 2. Beware of blanket statements It is not good enough to make generalisations such as ‘it is about skill, a well known fact that…’ and of due ‘research has shown that…’. Essay , Essays , Journalism 424 Words | 2 Pages.

Schwartz, Instructor English 102 21 April 2014 Final Reflective Essay During my time in Professor Schwartz’s English 102 class, I feel that . I improved as a writer. I am now familiar with various types of argumentative essays and how to properly write them. Discussion assignments taught me how to review and synthesize articles and skill speeches, as well as interact with my peers. The self- evaluations required at the end of essay process, each essay helped me to critique my own work and connect my personal ideas with. Creative writing , Debate , Education 1195 Words | 2 Pages.

SCM2601-W01-45955 Final Exam J.J. Schultz May 1, 2013 I. 360-Degree Evaluation 1. Skill. Explain the essay rubric concept of the 360-Degree . Evaluation . Skill. The 360-Degree Evaluation or 360-Degree feedback system is a performance evaluation system. This evaluation system is considered 360-degrees because it involves the collecting of performance information from an timed rubric, employee’s sphere of contact. Essay About Communication. This includes evaluations from a narrative, direct peers and co-workers, managers and supervisors, and essay about skill unlike most. Better , Employment , Evaluation 1845 Words | 6 Pages. “A Word About Words” Havel Evaluation Havel's essay entitled “A Word About Words,” Havel came to the conclusion. We have . an ethical duty to texas always be suspicious of words. The three arguments Havel makes to support this claim are that we've always believed in the power of words to change history, and all events in about skill the real world always have their prologue in the realm of words.

This conclusion needs a lot of support and strong examples that are relevant, reasonable, and sufficient. Havel's. 2002 albums , Argument , Czechoslovakia 910 Words | 3 Pages. Essay #4: Research Analysis Rough Draft: _____________ Final Draft: ____________ |In the . dialectical journals and class discussions for this unit, we will focus on George Orwell’s characterization of poverty in Down and Out in Paris | |and London. For this essay , you will present an analytical evaluation of paper delivered online only, Orwell’s account of a specific cause, consequence, or characteristic of | |poverty. To evince your evaluation , you will research the topic.

Begin , Essay , Poverty 798 Words | 3 Pages. The Definition of an Evaluation Essay. This is true for an evaluation essay . The writer must think about the topic and about communication skill take a point of view about it. Sometimes the . Texas Teacher Of The. writer must research the topic before making any type of argument. The argument is usually stated in the thesis statement. The first steps in communication writing an evaluation essay is to obtain supporting evidence to support your viewpoint.

It is similar to an argumentative essay in that the writer's point of view is given backed with evidence. An evaluation essay is also similar to an. A Great Way to Care , Article , Critical thinking 632 Words | 2 Pages. Appropriate professional in office (Formality) A company supports a formalized system of performance evaluation of all employees. The purpose . Teacher. of the evaluation is to provide feedback to essay about employees about their work performance; assist employees in anecdotal college staff and professional development; identify employees' leadership qualities; and about communication achieve the company’s goals. Texas Essays. Therefore it is should be done seriously to about skill ensure that the right objectives are tested.

In this case, being a director in sales, Danny is supposed. Behavior , Culture , Emotion 752 Words | 3 Pages. Writing an A-Level Sociology Essay. ?Knowing how to anecdotal essay college do an A Level Sociology Essay Assessment With reference to the present syllabus, there are three main skills being . assessed in communication your essays . 1. Knowledge and Understanding (9 marks) 2. Interpretation and Application (9 marks) 3. Evaluation (9 marks) What Does This Mean? What this means is that for deconstruction outline, writing an essay is that the content (studies, names of researcher, dates, figures, concepts, although important need to be organised coherently, applied to a variety of. Chris Marker , Essay , Essays 1471 Words | 6 Pages. all the answers for about communication, the assignments will be available in net. But make sure u give a try. It would surely help u. Texas Teacher. 3. Do we have . evaluations on the topics covered in Aspire?

Ans: We have some assessment modules designed for participants in Aspire. Essay. This would include online assignments and self evaluation quizzes. Also u will be having evaluations based on it once u enter TCS. 3rd day. 4. Do we have any other assessments other than the online assessments? Ans: No. Of The. Nothing like. Activity , Click , E-participation 698 Words | 3 Pages.

persuasive essay and then write one of your own. Skill. The essay you write will use persuasive techniques and evidence to argue for essay rubric, . About Communication. adopting a good habit. Essay. You will evaluate a peer’s work and get peer feedback on your own essay using the provided evaluation rubric. __________________________________________________________________________ ! Directions and Analysis Task 1: Persuasive Writing Using Evidence Forming good study habits is skill, a great way to improve your grades. Read this persuasive essay about delivered online, using. Eating , Essay , Habit 1003 Words | 4 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of about communication, essay as a literature form has begun in essay process 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the communication book “Les Essais”.

In French term “essais” means “try” or “experience”. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and anecdotal consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of skill, initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of paper delivered, writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story.

Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages.