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arousal homework Strategies for Sensory Success. by Sasha Fureman, OTR/L and Tiffany Sahd, M.S., OTR/L. Does your child have difficulty falling asleep at night, waking up in the morning and getting ready for school? Is homework a battle, with your child unable to sit still and an essay words work? If these are common occurrences in college your house, read on words to discover how to implement sensory strategies that may help your child be more successful in essay his daily routine, as well as make your life easier. Sensory processing is the function of the brain that processes information from concluding an essay words our senses. The information received from the senses organizes behavior and interaction with the environment. Our senses play a crucial role in how we interact with the world around us, and essays we rely on them to give us information about our body and our surrounding environment. All of the sensory input that we receive is registered, processed, integrated and an essay organized for use in producing an appropriate response to a situation.
When sensations are integrated, the brain can use that foundation to function successfully in daily life. Our brains receive the write college admissions, necessary input to help us function through seven different sensory systems. The first is tactile or touch input, which gives us information about pain, temperature and concluding pressure. The second is the vestibular system, which gives us information about movement and gravity. Essay On Scientific Inventions. The next system is an essay words, proprioception , which tells us where our body is in space or in relation to people and objects in the environment. The olfactory system is our sense of essay on scientific smell; the concluding an essay, gustatory system is our sense of democracy essay power state taste.
The last two sensory systems, visual and auditory (or sight and hearing), influence how we take in and perceive our environment and enable us to words, interpret and interact with our surroundings. All seven basic senses take in calming or alerting input to help modulate the sensory system. Different types of sensory input are required for different situations. On Scientific Inventions. People whose sensory systems are integrated and functioning properly will automatically be able to process and organize sensory input and use this information to respond appropriately to a particular situation. They instinctively use different calming or alerting techniques depending on words the requirements of a given situation. For example, if they are trying to relax before going to bed, they probably will not listen to loud or fast music, choosing instead calming or soothing tunes. Our senses are constantly receiving input from the environment, and our brains use this ongoing input to organize an appropriate response to essays, environmental stimuli.
Therefore, if our brain receives alerting auditory input, such as fast music right before we attempt to sleep, this input tells our brain that it is an essay, time to wake up our body. Children and life essays religion adults with typically developed sensory systems are more aware of which types of sensory input they need to function in a given environment. This ability to alert or calm one's arousal level is an innate or automatic function that does not involve much thought. The strategies that these individuals use are common and socially accepted. For example, the next time you are sitting in a long meeting or attending a lecture, you will notice that many people are fidgeting with something. Concluding Words. They may be tapping their pencil on the table, twisting their hair with their finger or swinging their foot back and forth, all in an attempt to stay alert and attend to inventions, the speaker. Concluding An Essay. This type of sensory input is minimal, but it is self-organizing for individuals with integrated sensory systems. Children whose sensory systems are not integrated require much more intense sensory input, because their sensory systems fail to receive the necessary input they need to function properly. When sensory integration is compromised, the brain and body are not communicating effectively. Essay Modern Power State Theory. Children with this type of sensory integration might have to excuse themselves from class every 30 minutes for a sensory or movement break. Instead of concluding just swinging their feet to attend to what the teacher is saying, they may need to implement more intense strategies to address their needs.
Also, these children are usually not as aware of what sensory input their body needs at a given time. If they have a deficit with their proprioceptive sensory system, they may not even know where their body is in space, let alone what to do about receiving the essay, necessary input needed to regulate their arousal level. Arousal refers to a continuum of alertness that extends from high arousal to words, low arousal, with the optimum arousal level being in essay the middle of the spectrum. It is concluding an essay words, important that teachers, clinicians and parents provide these children with self-regulation strategies in order to improve their daily functioning. Some children prefer input to soda in schools essay, all seven sensory systems, while others may crave input from just one or two.
Some children are easily aroused and may be labeled as hyper. In general, these are the children who benefit from calming strategies to help them slow their bodies down. Other children are more difficult to arouse and an essay require alerting strategies to wake their body up throughout the be sold essay, day. The following are characteristics of children with a high arousal level: always in motion; overly active or antsy; have difficulty sitting still and concluding words increased amount of energy; and should be sold essay are distractible, impulsive and loud. Characteristics of children with a low arousal level are: lethargic; have difficulty focusing on class work; restless or fidgety if seated too long; and have decreased motivation. Concluding Words. It is important to identify which of the above characteristics your child exhibits, prior to choosing appropriate sensory strategies.
Take time to on scientific, observe the types of activities in which your child chooses to participate. Being aware of these sensory preferences is the key to understanding the types of sensory input that will benefit your child. For example, if your child prefers to stand up while he does his homework, realize that he is doing this for a reason#150;to fulfill his sensory needs and improve his attention. Children frequently develop their own adaptations to concluding, receive the sensory input that their body is craving. Inventions. If your child enjoys rough play, such as wrestling, he is most likely craving proprioceptive (deep pressure) input. Concluding Words. Even though his actions may be perceived as misbehaving, this input actually helps to calm and organize his sensory system. The following are examples and suggestions to use during your child's most difficult transitions of the day. Morning Routine (Alerting strategies for business plan, the child who has difficulty waking up)
Tactile: Wake up the child with the beating water droplets from a shower. You can also briskly rub your child's arms and an essay words legs before he gets out of bed. Vestibular: Swing or spin. Proprioceptive: Stretch for a few minutes, or try doing 10-20 jumping jacks. Olfactory: Provide strong scents, such as the smell of brewing coffee, strongly scented toothpaste, a rejuvenating candle scent.
Gustatory/Oral: Use an electric toothbrush, drink a glass of business in south africa cold water or juice or eat a breakfast of chewy or crunchy foods. Concluding An Essay. Visual: Open the shades to let in the sunlight, or turn on bright lights. Auditory: Turn on the radio or television while your child is getting ready for school. After School/Homework Time. Calming Strategies (for a high-energy child) Tactile: Firmly rub lotion on essay inventions arms/legs using slow strokes. Vestibular: Swing back and forth or do slow, rhythmic rocking. Proprioceptive: Do wall pushups, climb on concluding playground equipment/trees. Olfactory: Use vanilla scent. Gustatory: Eat chewy snacks like licorice or chewing gum or suck on democracy essay modern political state theory a lollipop or hard candy. Concluding An Essay. Visual: Do homework in soda in schools a space with good lighting, but decrease visual distractions by covering toy/book shelves with a sheet or minimizing posters/wall hangings. Auditory: Listen to music with a slow, repetitive beat.
Alerting Strategies (for the less active child) Tactile: Give back scratches, rubbing arms/legs vigorously. Vestibular: Do spinning and fast, unpredictable swinging. An Essay Words. Proprioceptive: Encourage any type of skatboarding essay sport or exercise that involves running/jumping. Olfactory: Provide citrus or peppermint scents. Gustatory: Offer crunchy snacks like pretzels, carrots, celery or apples; cold popsicles; a sour lollipop. Visual: Do homework in a well-lit area; place a brightly colored tablecloth on table/desk during homework time. Auditory: Listen to music with a fast beat or strong bass.
Encourage your child to hold any small object (i.e. stress ball) to increase his alertness and ability to concentrate. An Essay. Household object: flour-filled balloon. Soda Be Sold In Schools Essay. Practice writing or drawing in sand or rice. Use a seat cushion during seated activities, allowing slight movement to help increase attention. Household object: half-inflated beach ball or camping cushion. Words. Provide a small enclosed space (i.e. fort) for your child to essay on scientific inventions, complete his work. Use colorful paper and writing utensils to increase alertness in your child.
Make sure your child's environment is not too visually distracting (i.e. Concluding An Essay Words. flickering overhead light). Provide headphones to either block out noise/distractions or to essay, listen to concluding an essay words, alerting/calming music. Write College Admissions. Bedtime Routine (Calming strategies for concluding, the child who has difficulty falling asleep) Tactile: Take a warm bath before bed. Vestibular: Rock slowly in skatboarding essay a rocking chair. An Essay Words. Proprioceptive: Have your child wear snug or stretchy fitting pajamas, use a heavy blanket/sleeping bag/comforter, and democracy modern political power state state give firm hugs to provide deep pressure.
Olfactory: Provide a lavender scented candle or pillow spray. Gustatory: Give a warm drink like hot apple cider, hot chocolate or tea. Visual: Darken the room, dim the lights, or use a slowly rotating night-light (i.e. lava lamp). Auditory: Play soft, slow music. Learning how to incorporate sensory strategies into your child's daily routine is essential to supporting his needs and enabling him to feel well regulated. If you suspect that your child is having great difficulty with self-regulation, and you have tried various strategies without success, consult an concluding words, occupational therapist for further evaluation of your child's sensory needs. Remember that each child has unique sensory needs, so trial-and-error may be the key to on scientific inventions, finding what works for your child. Once you have identified sensory strategies that work well for him, it is an essay, important to incorporate them into each day. A predictable and consistent routine including sensory strategies can help your child feel organized and regulated.
This will enable him to be alert each morning, available during homework time and allow him to get a good night's rest.
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How to Write an concluding words, Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the skatboarding essay most popular in the history of The Practical Art World. Some of the words most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to modern power state theory, school?” For new and concluding words, emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You don’t have much or any experience to put on your CV, but to apply for “experience” in the form of exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into skatboarding, an artist’s CV format. Words. Just remember: don’t lie, and essay, don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist. Just tell the concluding an essay words truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into business in south africa, the established CV format. An Essay Words. If you haven’t already read How to Create an essay on scientific inventions, Artist’s CV in 10 Steps, start there. Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the points, aimed specifically at “professionalizing” the CV of an artist who has yet to gain, appropriately, professional experience as an artist.
Refer to point 1 in the original article. Concluding. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you don’t have a lot of other material and college, experiences to add to the rest of the CV, this is a good opportunity to tell your reader about words, yourself. Soda In Schools. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to concluding words, talk about experiences which don’t fit into the rest of the CV. If you are going to do this, just remember to keep it brief and concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. You will look desperate if you pretend to be something you are not. Example of bad contact details: Sometimes called the democracy modern state world’s most famous artist. Email me! email@example.com
Example of good contact details. Currently lives and works in Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for some reason the education section of a CV tends to be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesn’t have to be that way.
DON’T list any education on your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of a good education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of a bad education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund. Has received feedback from concluding words, Geoff Parker. Bachelor of Science, Biology major. One way to life, add exhibitions to your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to include it on concluding an essay words, your CV before it’s happened. Just add “(forthcoming)” to each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet. Another trick for plumping up your exhibition history is a little bit cheeky.
I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on a CV. After a little digging, I realized that the essay state state artworks were installed guerrilla-style. In other words, someone made art and put it somewhere without invitation or the concluding an essay words formal facets of a traditional exhibition. I’m all for this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property. It’s a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and essay inventions, certainly an artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history. Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone! DON’T make anything up. Example of a good exhibition list.
2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of words a bad exhibition list. Refer to point 5 from the original article. If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in should soda be sold in schools, any public collections. Luckily, it’s fair game to list anyone who owns your work, including people to whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as “Private collection,” followed by their location.
You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to words, be listed as a collector of power state theory your work, and / or if you have some other reason to do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of an essay people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to “Private collection,” followed by modern state location. DON’T put your Mom’s name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an image of concluding your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is better). Skatboarding Essay. Center your text with large margins. Yes, this is cheating when you’re writing an essay.
But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and striking. Include an artist statement and CV on words, one single page. Often these are asked for plan africa separately, but if you are able to words, combine them, it’s a great way to make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on “ How to essays religion, Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! I’ll be coming to concluding an essay, read this again for sure.
Have a lovely day. Skatboarding Essay. God Bless. Nice. Concluding An Essay Words. Always a pleasure to read a well thought out post. Hello, I’m an democracy essay power state state, emerging artist writing a CV. Concluding An Essay Words. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question.
I am an religion, assistant for two artists – one well-known in my area and an essay, one very well-known in the larger art world. I would like to include this work experience in should, my CV somewhere. Concluding An Essay Words. The local artist is a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is best business writers in south africa, unpaid. While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on these positions in order to concluding an essay words, gain experience in the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist. I believe it would be helpful to have their names on my CV and I am very proud of modern state state my work with them. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all? Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to list them under. I think it gets the point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this!
I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of young and emerging artists do not have a lot of concluding words exhibitions to add to their CVs but it is essay, worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to words, their passions and to their craft. Your blog reminds me of soda in schools essay a women who is currently offering a very unique service by showcasing her skills in an essay words, spray-painting. I implore anyone and everyone to click the best writers in south following link to see what she has to offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for this help, i really need it! Questions : In the concluding words exhibitions should i also include the essay title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”?
My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and it looks a little repeating!! Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to concluding, include the title of the show if there is one. Very helpful for life religion the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you! How should I include online features?
I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to do with features/interviews that are not in an essay, English (I’m from Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to include. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in democracy essay state state, brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary). and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the concluding an essay more creative resumes/cvs? the ones where it practically looks like an artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it!
I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV. Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in my about me. Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners. I’d like to get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an exhibition. I have had work for sale in life essays, several different galleries over the course of several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is meant to be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading. I have had my work in a few short term shows (not in galleries), and I’ve also just been juried in to an essay words, show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling.
Could you please give us some guidance as to what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to be in a “gallery” or does a bunch of write admissions artists getting together to concluding, put on a show count? Does it have to be a juried show or is democracy essay political state theory, it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in a gallery for five years count, and if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition? Whenever your work is exhibited, that is an exhibition. I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an an essay, acceptable rule of thumb for your CV. If you have work on exhibit for a long period of inventions time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for concluding the date. This is essay, one of the best, and easiest articles to an essay words, understand,I would refer you to everyone.Thank you. Thank you for such awesome and informative articles! I was invited to apply for an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the residency.
I feel proud to democracy essay modern political theory, be invited, should I add this to an essay words, my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is worded in on scientific, such a way to make clear that you didn’t actually complete the words residency. This is super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to democracy political state, put together a CV [I am mainly an abstract painter] and I do have some experience and exhibitions to list but not a huge amount. Concluding. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of soda sterling silver cutlery. Through this I have had some press and many juried shows. Should I include some of that in concluding, my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side?
I would include this on your CV, as it is part of your artistic experience. You don’t have to essays religion, differentiate between the two mediums or state what kind of work you showed–you can just list all the exhibitions together. An Essay Words. Likewise with press. I’m kind of wondering the same thing as the business person in a reply a few posts up. I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to do with art. Write. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. Concluding An Essay. What I’ve learned about art is from (lots of) reading and doing. I feel like I’m creating a body of work that is relevant and has plenty to say, but my only best africa, meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is words, slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that I’d rather not get into should soda be sold essay, here, I want to words, remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to just speak for itself. Best Writers In South Africa. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this? Thanks very much. This is very helpful as I’m getting ready to submit works for an upcoming arts festival.
I’m using your ideas of naming instructors and private collections, A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in concluding an essay words, a family of artists and writers, such that being around paint and other materials is second nature to me. I also plan on enrolling in skatboarding, school with the goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college. Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks. Hey… Thank you for concluding this great article.
I have a question to ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to put on business, CV — should I put them all??– or only the award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in art major so I’m very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. You don’t need to put them all, just the concluding an essay ones which seem most relevant to your current practice. Should Soda Be Sold In Schools Essay. You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the “winner”, just make sure to indicate. This is extremely helpful.
Thank you. Echoing the concluding long line of thank yous for this and a quick question – I’m primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and while I think I probably should include it because it’s in a creative field and it relates, I’m not sure how much to include and what to talk about. This is write college admissions, very helpful! I wonder how best to show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to stop for financial reasons.
hi there all again…. Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing artists bio’s by concluding an essay any chance?! Thanks for essay inventions the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on my CV. I also had my work on display/for sale in an attached shop how should I reflect that on my CV? You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and include the info about the agricultural fair. If the works were on display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there! This blog is an essay words, wonderful and this post has been most helpful.
My query: I sold one of my photographs to a large, well-known company for use in a film, and I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Thanks for essay on scientific inventions your help and concluding words, time in essay, replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the an essay well-known company is life essays, now the owner of the work. Side note: since the piece was in a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it. If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to list them by name unless they have given you permission to share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you. I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to whether I could list them under “collections”. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is commissioned for personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on a CV?
It’s remarkable in support of mee to have a site, which is beneficial designed for my knowledge. Thanks so much for this. It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild. Is that ok to have on the CV and concluding an essay words, if so, where should I put it?
Wao! This is great info…i am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to creat a great artist CV n dis is essay state theory, incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to put in the pictures of the works you had done for an artist in your portfolio. An Essay. I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of his art works. Best Business In South Africa. Do let me know before I request him for pictures of the work. thank you for this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at concluding an essay words, an art market and wanted to essay, include this on an essay, my CV. Where would this fit under?
Also, just to clarify on the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the same state(or county in college admissions, England). Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for concluding words this– it’s so useful. One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV?
I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in a local makers market. How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and what about previous stockists? Reblogged this on Cricketswool and commented: I’m entering the Ellarslie Open in life essays religion, Trenton NJ and for the first time encountered a request to concluding an essay, submit an inventions, artist’s resume along with my work. This led me to a post on The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to all artists. hi there, thank all of you very much to concluding words, share your experience. i’m a self-taught painter and not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from a national academy, should i include in essay, my cv under the ‘education’? thank you a lot in concluding an essay words, advance best regards berkeley.
I have an interesting situation. College. I started out as a fine artist in an essay, the 80’s. Then I veered off and became very successful as an best business plan africa, illustrator. Then I took off a decade to be an concluding, actor. I came back to illustration at the turn of century and skatboarding essay, had lots of success. About four years ago, I quit illustration and concluding words, came back to fine art. I instantly won a bunch of awards at should soda be sold in schools, high profiles competitions. Concluding An Essay. I’ve sold and still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and write college essay admissions, through an agent in Germany. I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but I’m evolving on that. All of a sudden I’m getting interest from several representational galleries.
I’m given speaking engagements and words, workshops. And everyone wants a CV. Be Sold Essay. Problem is that though I’ve been doing art for concluding an essay a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of my winnings and exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Should I be putting in my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. Democracy Essay Modern Power Theory. What should I do? You have no idea how this helped me! Your post was so easy to concluding words, follow and skatboarding essay, had such good examples. Although I really have very little to put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent!
Thank you! Very helpful the comments too. Thank you for adding that part about “guerilla art”. Concluding An Essay. As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to only add one very large piece I did in my CV. Democracy Essay Modern State Theory. As you say, don’t OVER play it. Thank you again for this.
Writing the CV is putting a knot in concluding words, my stomach. You helped me break it down simplify it. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;
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The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics. Beneficent actions and words motives have traditionally occupied a central place in morality. Essay Inventions? Common examples today are found in social welfare programs, scholarships for needy and meritorious students, communal support of health-related research, policies to improve the welfare of animals, philanthropy, disaster relief, programs to benefit children and the incompetent, and preferential hiring and admission policies. What makes these diverse acts beneficent? Are such beneficent acts and policies obligatory or merely the pursuit of optional moral ideals? These questions have generated a substantial literature on beneficence in both theoretical ethics and applied ethics. In theoretical ethics, the concluding an essay words dominant issue in recent years has been how to place limits on the scope of beneficence. In applied and professional ethics, a number of issues have been treated in the fields of biomedical ethics and business ethics. 1. The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence.
The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and essay on scientific charity. It is suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of concluding others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is write college essay, understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all forms of words action intended to benefit or promote the good of other persons. The language of a principle or rule of beneficence refers to a normative statement of a moral obligation to act for the others' benefit, helping them to further their important and legitimate interests, often by preventing or removing possible harms. Many dimensions of applied ethics appear to incorporate such appeals to obligatory beneficence, even if only implicitly. For example, when apparel manufacturers are criticized for not having good labor practices in factories, the ultimate goal of the criticisms is usually to obtain better working conditions, wages, and benefits for essay on scientific inventions workers.
Whereas beneficence refers to an action done to benefit others, benevolence refers to words the morally valuable character traitor virtueof being disposed to best business plan africa act to benefit others. Many acts of beneficence have been understood in moral theory as obligatory, as determined by principles of beneficence that state moral obligation. Concluding Words? However, beneficent acts also may be performed from nonobligatory, optional moral ideals, which are standards that belong to a morality of meritorious aspiration in which individuals or institutions adopt goals and practices that are not obligatory for everyone. Exceptional beneficence is commonly categorized as supererogatory , a term meaning paying or performing beyond what is obligatory or doing more than is required. This category of extraordinary conduct usually refers to write college high moral ideals of action, but it has links to virtues and to Aristotelian ideals of moral excellence. Such ideals of an essay action and moral excellence of character need not rise to the level of the moral saint or moral hero. Even moral excellence comes by skatboarding essay degrees.
Not all supererogatory acts of beneficence or benevolent dispositions are exceptionally arduous, costly, or risky. Examples of concluding an essay words less demanding forms include anonymous gift-giving, uncompensated public service, forgiving another person's costly error, and complying with requests to provide a benefit that exceeds the religion obligatory requirements of concluding words ordinary morality or professional morality. Saintly and heroic beneficence (and benevolence) are at the extreme end of a continuum of beneficent conduct and commitment. Write College Essay Admissions? This continuum is not merely a continuum mapping the territory beyond duty. It is a continuum of beneficence itself, starting with obligatory beneficence. The continuum runs from strict obligation (grounded in an essay the core norms of democracy modern power state theory beneficence in ordinary morality) through weaker obligations (the outer periphery of words ordinary expectations of persons, such as great conscientiousness in attending to a friend's welfare) and on to the domain of the essay morally nonrequired and exceptionally virtuous. The nonrequired starts with lower?level acts of supererogation such as helping a stranger who is words, lost find a desired location in a city. An absence of modern state state theory this sort of beneficence constitutes a defect in an essay words the moral life, even if not a failure of obligation. The continuum ends with high-level acts of supererogation such as heroic acts of self-sacrifice to benefit others. Beneficence is best understood as spread across this continuum.
However, there is considerable controversy about where obligation ends and supererogation begins on the continuum. A celebrated example of beneficence that rests somewhere on this continuum, though it is hard to locate just where, is the New Testament parable of the Good Samaritan. In this parable, robbers have beaten and left half-dead a man traveling from Jerusalem to Jericho. A Samaritan tends to his wounds and cares for him at admissions an inn. The Samaritan's actions are beneficent and the motives benevolent. However, they do not seemon the information givento rise to the level of heroic or saintly conduct. Words? The morally exceptional, beneficent person may be laudable and emulable, yet neither a moral saint nor a moral hero. 2. Essay? The Historical Place of Beneficence in Ethical Theory. The history of ethical theory shows that there are many ways to think about beneficence and benevolence.
Several landmark ethical theories have embraced these moral notions as central categories, while proposing strikingly different conceptual and moral analyses. An Essay? Prime examples are found in the moral-sentiment theory of David Hume, where benevolence is the central “principle” of human nature in his moral psychology, and in essay inventions utilitarian theories, where the principle of utility is itself a strong and demanding principle of concluding an essay beneficence. Beneficence in these writers is close to the essence of morality. Essay? Other writers, including Kant, have given less dominance to beneficence, but still give it an important place in an essay words morality. Hume's moral psychology and virtue ethics make motives of benevolence all important in moral life.
He argues that natural benevolence accounts, in great part, for what he calls the origin of morality. A major theme is his defense of benevolence as a principle in human nature, in opposition to theories of psychological egoism. Much in Hume's moral theory is directed against Mandeville's (and perhaps Hobbes's) theory that the motive underlying human action is private interest and that humans are naturally neither sociable nor benevolent. Hume argues that egoism rests on a faulty moral psychology and maintains that benevolence is an should soda be sold in schools “original” feature of words human nature. Essays Religion? Benevolence is Hume's most important moral principle of human nature, but he also uses the concluding term “benevolence” to designate a class of virtues rooted in goodwill, generosity, and love directed at others. Hume finds benevolence in many manifestations: friendship, charity, compassion, etc. Although he speaks of both benevolence and justice as social virtues, only benevolence is a principle of human nature. Rules of justice, by contrast, are normative human conventions that promote public utility. In his inquiries into on scientific inventions, the principle of self-love, Hume does not reject all aspects of the an essay words egoists' claims about the absence of impartial benevolence in human motivation. He acknowledges many motives in human nature and uses metaphors of the dove, wolf, and serpent to illustrate the mixture of elements in our nature.
Principally, he sees human nature in life religion the domain of moral conduct as a mixture of benevolence and self-love. Whereas the egoist views human nature as limited to concluding an essay motives such as survival, fear, ambition, and the search for happiness, Hume regards persons as motivated by a variety of passions, both generous and ungenerous. He maintains that these elements vary by degree from person to person. Lacking distinctive information about a particular individual, we cannot know whether in that person benevolence typically dominates and religion controls self-love, or the converse. In Utilitarianism , John Stuart Mill argues that moral philosophers have left a train of unconvincing and concluding an essay incompatible theories that can be coherently unified by a single standard of beneficence that allows us to decide objectively what is right and wrong. He declares the principle of utility, or the “greatest happiness” principle, to be the basic foundation of morals: Actions are right in proportion to college essay admissions their promotion of happiness for all beings, and wrong as they produce the reverse. Concluding An Essay? This is a straightforward principle of beneficence and potentially a very demanding one. Mill and subsequent utilitarians mean that an action or practice is right (when compared with any alternative action or practice) if it leads to the greatest possible balance of beneficial consequences (happiness for Mill) or to the least possible balance of bad consequences (unhappiness for modern state Mill).
Mill also holds that the concepts of duty, obligation, and concluding words right are subordinated to, and determined by, that which maximizes benefits and business writers minimizes harmful outcomes. An Essay? The principle of utility is presented by Mill as an absolute or preeminent principle, thus making beneficence the be sold essay one and only supreme principle of ethics. It justifies all subordinate rules and is not simply one among a number of prima facie principles. Mill's theory of morality is welfare-oriented at an essay words its core because moral rightness is essay on scientific, determined by goodness, which is itself to be understood in terms of the welfare of individuals. It is a consequentialist theory because the moral rightness and obligatoriness of an essay actions are established by essays religion their beneficial results. It is an aggregative theory because a judgment about right or obligatory action depends on an appraisal of the effects of different possible actions on the welfare of all affected parties, which entails summing positive benefits and negative effects over all persons affected. Beneficence has rarely occupied such a central role in a moral theory.
Kant notoriously rejects the utilitarian model of a supreme principle of beneficence, but he still finds a vital place in concluding an essay the moral life for beneficence. He seeks universally valid principles (or maxims) of duty, and beneficence is political, one such principle. A motive of benevolence based on sentimentso admired by concluding an essay words Humeis morally unworthy in Kant's theory unless the motive behind benevolent action is a motive of duty. Essay On Scientific Inventions? The motive likewise cannot rest on utilitarian goals. Kant argues that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, i.e. to be helpful to others according to one's means, and without hoping for any form of concluding an essay words personal gain thereby.
Benevolence done from friendly inclination he regards as “unlimited” (a term subject to different interpretations, but meaning at least “having no boundaries in potential scope”), whereas beneficence from duty does not place unlimited demands on best business writers africa persons. Nonetheless, the limits of duties of beneficence are not clear and precise in an essay words Kant. Write College Essay Admissions? While we are obligated to some extent to sacrifice some part of concluding an essay words our welfare to benefit others without any expectation of recompense, it is not possible in the abstract to fix a definite limit on how far this duty extends. We can only say that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, according to that person's means, and that no one has an unlimited duty to do so. Kant here anticipates, without developing, what would later become one of the most difficult areas of the life religion theory of beneficence: How, exactly, are we to concluding an essay words specify the life religion limits of beneficence as an obligation? 3. Is Beneficence Obligatory or Merely a Moral Ideal? Deep disagreements have emerged in moral theory regarding how much is demanded by obligations of beneficence. Some ethical theories insist not only that there are obligations of beneficence, but that these obligations sometimes demand severe sacrifice and extreme generosity in the moral life. Some formulations of utilitarianism, for example, appear to derive obligations to give our job to a person who needs it more than we do, to give away most of our income, to devote much of our time to an essay words civic enterprises, etc. It is skatboarding essay, likely that no society has ever operated on such a demanding principle, but it does seem embraced, at least abstractly, by a number of moral philosophersarguably even on Kant's theory of the categorical imperative (although, as already mentioned, Kant seems to deny such scope to concluding obligatory beneficence). By contrast, some moral philosophers have claimed that we have no general obligations of beneficence.
We have only duties deriving from specific roles and assignments of essays duty that are not a part of ordinary morality. These philosophers hold that beneficent action is virtuous and a commendable moral ideal, but not an obligation, and thus that persons are not morally deficient if they fail to act beneficently. An instructive example is found in the moral theory of Bernard Gert, who maintains that there are no moral rules of beneficence, only moral ideals. The only obligations in concluding an essay words the moral life, apart from duties encountered in write essay admissions professional roles and an essay words other specific stations of duty, are captured by life moral rules that prohibit causing harm or evil. Concluding An Essay? In Gert's theory, the general goal of morality is to minimize the causation of evil or harm, not to promote good. Soda Essay? Rational persons can act impartially at all times in regard to all persons with the aim of not causing evil, he argues, but rational persons cannot impartially promote the good for all persons at all times.
Those who defend such a beneficence-negating conclusion (regarding obligation) do not hold the extreme view that there are no obligations of beneficence in contexts of role-assigned duties, such as those in professional ethics and in specific communities. They acknowledge that professional and concluding an essay words other roles carry obligations (or duties, as Gert insists) that do not bind persons who do not occupy the relevant roles; they claim that the soda be sold in schools actions one is obligated to perform within the words roles are merely moral ideals for any person not in the specific role. Skatboarding Essay? That is, these philosophers present beneficence not as a general obligation, but as a role-specific duty and as institutionally or culturally assigned. In rejecting principles of obligatory beneficence, Gert draws the concluding an essay words line at obligations of nonmaleficence. That is, he embraces rules that prohibit causing harm to other persons, even though he rejects all principles or rules that require helping other persons, which includes acting to prevent harm to them. Thus, he accepts moral rules such as “Don't kill,” “Don't cause pain or suffering to others,” “Don't incapacitate others,” “Don't deprive others of the goods of life,” and the like. His theory therefore makes nonmaleficence central to the nature and theory of moral obligation while denying that beneficence has any place in the theory of obligation. However, the mainstream of moral philosophy has been to make both not-harming and helping to be obligations, while preserving the distinction between the two.
This literature can be confusing, because some writers treat obligations of essay on scientific nonmaleficence as a species of an essay obligations of beneficence, although the two notions are very different. Rules of beneficence are typically more demanding than rules of nonmaleficence, and rules of nonmaleficence are negative prohibitions of action that must be followed impartially and business that provide moral reasons for legal prohibitions of certain forms of conduct. By contrast, rules of beneficence state positive requirements of action, need not always be followed impartially, and rarely, if ever, provide moral reasons that support legal punishment when agents fail to abide by the rules. The contrast between nonmaleficence and beneficence notwithstanding, ordinary morality suggests that there are some rules of beneficence that we are obligated to follow impartially, such as those requiring that we make efforts to rescue strangers under conditions of concluding minimal risk. Even some legal punishments for failure to rescue strangers may be justifiable.
Significant controversies have arisen in both law and moral philosophy about how to formulate and defend such requirements, but one more or less classic idea has been to argue that a person P has an skatboarding essay obligation of concluding words beneficence to help another whenever the other is at skatboarding risk of significant loss of or damage to some basic interest; P's action is necessary (singly or collaboratively) to prevent this loss or damage; P's action (singly or collaboratively) is likely to prevent the loss or damage; and P's action does not present significant risks, costs, or burdens to P while the benefits that the other person can be expected to gain outweigh any burden that P is likely to concluding incur. 4. The Problem of Over-Demanding Beneficence. Some philosophers defend extremely demanding and far-reaching principles of obligatory beneficence. Peter Singer's theory is the most widely discussed example. In his early work, Singer distinguished between preventing evil and promoting good and contended that persons in affluent nations are morally obligated to soda be sold in schools essay prevent something bad or evil from happening if it is in their power to an essay words do so without having to sacrifice anything of comparable importance. In the face of preventable disease and skatboarding poverty, for example, we ought to donate time and an essay resources toward their eradication until we reach a level at which, by giving more, we would cause as much suffering to ourselves as we would relieve through our gift. Singer leaves it open what counts as being of comparable importance and as being an appropriate level of sacrifice, but his argument implies that morality sometimes requires us to invest heavily in rescuing needy persons in the global population, not merely at the level of local communities and political states.
This claim implies that morality sometimes requires us to make enormous sacrifices. It would appear that the demand is skatboarding essay, placed not only on individuals with disposable incomes, but on all reasonably well-off persons, foundations, governments, corporations, etc. All of these parties have moral obligations to refrain from spending resources on nonessential items and to use the available resources or savings to lend assistance to those in urgent need. Frills, fashion, luxuries, and the like are never to determine expenditures, and one is to give to concluding an essay words the needy up to the point that one (or one's dependent) would be impoverished. Singer has not regarded such conduct as an enormous moral sacrifice, but only as the skatboarding discharge of a basic obligation of beneficence. Singer's proposals have struck many as overly demanding, impracticable, and a significant departure from the demands of ordinary morality. This assessment has generated a number of concluding an essay criticisms, as well as defenses, of demanding principles of beneficence such as the one proposed by Singer. Skatboarding? Critics continue today to argue that a principle of beneficence that requires persons, governments, and corporations to seriously disrupt their projects and plans in order to benefit the poor and underprivileged exceeds the limits of ordinary moral obligations and have no plausible grounding in moral theory. They argue that the line between the obligatory and the supererogatory has been unjustifiably erased by such a principle. In effect, the claim is that an aspirational moral ideal has redrawn the concluding words lines of real moral obligation.
Singer has attempted to reformulate his position so that his theory of beneficence does not set an overly demanding standard. He maintains that no clear justification exists for the claim that obligations of ordinary morality do not contain a demanding principle of beneficence, in particular a harm-prevention principle. He apparently would explain the lack of concern often shown for poverty relief as a failure to draw the correct implications from the very principles of essay beneficence that ordinary morality embraces. Later in his series of publications on concluding an essay the subject Singer attempted to take account of write admissions objections that his principle sets an unduly high standard. Concluding An Essay? He has not given up his strong principle of religion beneficence, but he has suggested that it might be morally wise and most productive to publicly advocate a lower standardthat is, a weakened principle of beneficence. He therefore proposed a more guarded formulation of the principle, arguing that we should strive for donations of a round percentage of income, such as 10 per cent, which amounts to more than a token donation and yet also is not so high as to make us miserable or turn us into moral saints. This standard, Singer proclaimed, is the an essay words minimum that we ought to do to conform to essay on scientific obligations of beneficence. Controversy continues today about how to analyze and evaluate the commitments of a principle of beneficence, including how to formulate limits that reduce required burdens on agents' life plans and make meeting the obligations of beneficence a realistic possibility. Various writers have noted that even after many persons have donated generous portions of their income, they could still donate more while living decent lives; and, according to a strong principle of concluding an essay beneficence, they should donate more. Establishing the theoretical and practical limits of donation and sacrifice is clearly very challenging, and perhaps an impossible ideal. However, it does not follow that we should give up a principle of beneficence.
It only follows that establishing the moral limits of the demands of beneficence is profoundly difficult. Essay On Scientific? Liam Murphy has proposed to fix the concluding words limits of individual beneficence to meet global problems of need by using a cooperative principle of fairness in which, in any given circumstance, it must first be determined what each reasonably affluent person must do to contribute a fair share to an optimal outcome. An individual is only required to aid others beneficently at the level that would produce the best consequences if all in society were to give their fair share. Life? One is not required to do more even if others fail in their fair-share obligations of beneficence. Unlike act-consequentialism, this theory does not demand more of agents when expected compliance by others decreases. Murphy's cooperative principle is intuitively attractive, but it may not have the necessary moral punch to address issues such as global poverty. An Essay? Murphy seems right to suggest that large-scale problems requiring beneficence should be conceived as cooperative projects, but his limit on individual obligations seems unlikely to have a practical effect of increasing international aid and the like beyond present commitments and levels.
If, as is to be expected in virtually all situations of global poverty, others fail to essay comply with their fair-share obligations of beneficence as set out in this theory, it is not clear why each person's obligation is set only by concluding words the original calculation of a single fair share. This is not to say that Singer's approach is superior. The more demanding a principle is, the less likely are people to comply with its demands. Also, at business in south africa an intuitive level, Murphy seems right that an individual's obligations of beneficence should not increase to fill gaps merely because others are failing to meet their obligations. In his Uehiro Lectures on Global Poverty, Singer defended his arguments about beneficence including the public advocacy thesis (see the concluding an essay words Other Internet Resources). Here a difference of emphasis emerged in his theory, together with a somewhat sympathetic response to Murphy. Essay? Singer seems concerned with which social conditions will motivate people to give, rather than with attempting to determine obligations of beneficence with precision.
Singer responds to critics such as Murphy by conceding that perhaps the limit of what we should publicly advocate as a level of giving is no more than a person's fair share of what is needed to relieve poverty and an essay the like. Unless we draw the line here, we might not be able to motivate people to give at all. Life? A fair share is words, a lower threshold of one's obligations than the essay modern power state state theory obligations Singer originally envisaged, but more realistic. The emphasis on concluding an essay words motivation is presumably intended to give is college essay admissions, a more subtle and convincing approach to the nature and words limits of beneficence. Wherever the business plan writers in south africa line of precise limits of obligatory beneficence is drawn, the line is an essay words, likely to be revisionary by drawing a sharper boundary on essay our obligations than exists in an essay ordinary morality. Singer's proposals, unlike Murphy's, seem to represent a revision of ordinary morality's requirements of beneficence, despite the faint presence in the history of Western morality of religious obligations of tithing. A variety of proposals regarding the limits of should be sold beneficence have been made by philosophers, but no agreement on even a general principle exists. Accordingly, many now doubt that ethical theory or practical deliberation is equipped to establish precise conditions and limits of obligations of beneficence. 5. Liberty-Limiting Beneficence: The Problem of Benefit Paternalism. A still much-discussed issue about beneficence descends historically from Mill's On Liberty , where Mill inquired into the nature and limits of concluding justifiable social control over the individual. Essay On Scientific Inventions? He argues that the measure of a person's libertyor personal autonomyis the measure of the person's independence from influences that control the person's preferences, thoughts, and behavior.
Various principles commonly assumed to words be moral principles have been advanced to justify the limitation of individual liberties. Joel Feinberg, who was philosophically close to various of Mill's views, called these principles “liberty-limiting principles.” Mill defended the view that only one principle validly limits liberty. Feinberg called it the harm principle : A person's liberty (or autonomy) is justifiably restricted to prevent harm to others caused by that person. Mill and Feinberg agreed that the principle of paternalism , which renders acceptable certain attempts to benefit another person when the other does not prefer to receive the benefit, is life essays, not a morally acceptable liberty-limiting principle. The term paternalism has its roots in the notion of paternal administrationgovernment as by a father to administer in the way a beneficent father raises his children. The analogy with the concluding father presupposes two features of the paternal role: that the father acts beneficently (that is, in accordance with the interests of his children) and that he makes all or at least some of the decisions relating to his children's welfare, rather than leaving them free to on scientific make those decisions. On this model, “paternalism” may be defined as the intentional overriding of one person's known preferences or choices by another person, where the person who overrides justifies the action by concluding words the goal of skatboarding essay substantially benefiting or avoiding harm to the person whose preferences or choices are overridden. (Both “benefiting” and an essay words “avoiding harm” can here, though not always, be understood as forms of beneficence.) An act of paternalism, then, overrides moral obligations to respect autonomous choice on grounds of business writers beneficence.
Philosophers divide sharply over whether some restricted form of paternalism can be justified and, if so, on what basis. Concluding? One plausible beneficence-based justification of paternalistic actions places benefits on a scale with autonomy interests and balances the two: As a person's interests in autonomy increase and the benefits for that person decrease, the justification of democracy essay modern power paternalistic action becomes less cogent; conversely, as the benefits for words a person increase and essay modern political state state that person's interests in autonomy decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes more plausible. Thus, preventing minor harms or providing minor benefits while deeply disrespecting autonomy lacks plausible justification; but actions that prevent major harms or provide major benefits while only trivially disrespecting autonomy have a highly plausible paternalistic rationale. Though no consensus exists over the justification of an essay paternalism, virtually no one thinks that benefit paternalism can be justified unless at write admissions least the following conditions are satisfied: A person is at risk of an essay a significant and preventable harm or loss of a benefit. The paternalistic action has a strong likelihood of preventing the harm or obtaining the essay benefit. The projected benefits of the paternalistic action outweigh its risks. The least autonomy-restrictive alternative that will secure the benefits and reduce the risks is adopted. Debates about benefit paternalism have also emerged in public policy contexts. Often health policies have the concluding goal of avoiding a harm or providing a benefit in a population in which most affected parties are not consulted.
Some percentage of the population will not support the write essay policy, for example, because they are given no choice in the matter, whereas others will approve the policy. In effect, the policy is an essay words, intended to benefit all members of a population without consulting the preferences of individuals affectedall the while foreseeing that many individuals will reject the imposed control that the policy exerts over their lives. So-called neopaternalists have argued for government policies intended to power theory protect or benefit individuals through shaping or steering their choices without, in fact, altogether disallowing or coercing those choices. Some recommend policies that pursue values that an intended beneficiary already, at least implicitly, holds but cannot realize because of limited capacities, limited resources or limited self-control. In this context, the individual's own stated preferences, choices, and actions are deemed unreasonable in light of other standards the person is regarded as embracing. This conception faces the problem that what an informed and competent person chooses to do is generally the best evidence we have of his or her values. An Essay Words? For example, if a deeply religious man fails to follow the dietary restrictions of his religion, although he is in the abstract strongly committed to all aspects of the democracy essay modern power state state religion, his departures from an essay words, dietary laws may be the best evidence we have of his true values on the particular matter of dietary restrictions. Essay Admissions? Because it seems correctshort of counterevidence in particular casesthat competent informed choice is the best evidence of a person's values, a justified paternalism must, among other things, have adequate evidence that this assumption is an essay words, misguided in skatboarding essay any given case. 6. Beneficence in concluding words Biomedical Ethics.
Since the late 1970s, principles of beneficence have been a mainstay of the literature of biomedical ethics. Persons engaged in medical practice, research, and public health appreciate that risks of harm presented by interventions must often be weighed against possible benefits for essay modern political state state theory patients, subjects, and the public. Their professional obligations are deeply informed by their commitments to concluding an essay words prevent or reduce harm and to produce a positive balance of writers goods over inflicted harms. Beneficence has played a major role in a central conceptual issue about the nature and goals of medicine as a social practice. If the an essay words end of medicine is healing, a goal of beneficence, then arguably medicine is religion, fundamentally a beneficent undertaking. If so, beneficence grounds and determines the professional obligations and virtues of the physician. An Essay? Authors such as Edmund Pellegrino write as if beneficence is the sole foundational principle of professional medical ethics. In this theory, medical beneficence is essay inventions, oriented exclusively to the end of healing and not to any other form of benefit. The category of words medical benefits does not, for should soda in schools Pellegrino, include items such as providing fertility controls (unless for the prevention and concluding words maintenance of health and bodily integrity), performing purely cosmetic surgery, or actively helping a patient to effect a merciful death by the active hastening of death. This characterization of the ends of medicine allows Pellegrino to limit severely what counts as a medical benefit for patients: Benefit in medicine is limited to democracy essay political state theory healing and related activities such as caring for and preventing injury or disease.
This thesis is concluding, controversial. Even if healing and the like are interpreted broadly, medicine does not seem to have such precise boundaries to many other writers. If beneficence is a general moral principle and if physicians are positioned to life essays religion supply many forms of benefit, there is no manifest reason why physicians' hands are tied to the single benefit of healing, even in their role as medical professionals. The range of benefits that might be considered relevant seems broader and concluding words could include prescribing pharmaceutical products or devices that prevent fertility (where there is no healing-related purpose), providing purely cosmetic surgery for aesthetic (by contrast to essays reconstructive) reasons, helping patients write realistic living wills, complying with terminally ill patients' requests for physician-assistance in dying by hastening death, and the like. If these are bona fide medical benefits, then how far does the range of benefits extend? If a physician runs a company that manufactures powered wheel chairs for the elderly, does this activity supply a medical benefit? When physicians consult with an insurance company about concluding cost-effective treatments that save their patients money, is this activity a beneficent component of the practice of medicine? Controversy over the ends of medicine requires decisions about business in south what is to count as the practice of medicine and, derivatively, what counts as medical beneficence. Controversy appears not only in words the literature of biomedical ethics, but also in best writers some split decisions of the U. An Essay Words? S. Should In Schools Essay? Supreme Courtmost notably in Gonzales v. Oregon , a case dealing with physician-hastened death. The majority decision in this case asserts that there is no consensus among health care professionals about the precise boundaries of the an essay words legitimate practice of medicine , a legal notion similar to the medical-ethics notion of the proper ends of medicine. Democracy Political State Theory? The court notes that there is reasonable disagreement in the community of physicians regarding the appropriate process for determining the boundaries of medical practice and that there is disagreement about the extent to which the government should be involved in drawing boundaries when physicians themselves disagree.
This court opinion allows that, depending on state law, a physician may legitimately assist in various ways to help bring about the death of a terminally ill patient who has explicitly and an essay competently requested this assistance from the physician. 6.2 Harms and Benefits in Health Care. A health professional's conception of both harm to and benefit for a patient can differ sharply from that of the patient, but the should in schools health professional's understandings of benefits also often depend on an essay the patient's view of what constitutes a benefit or a worthwhile risk. Different patients take different views about what constitutes a harm and a benefit, and when each view is reasonable it is morally unacceptable to maintain that the notions of medical benefit and soda in schools essay harm are objectively independent of the patient's judgment. Physician-hastened death by request of the patient controversially characterized as physician-assisted suicideis again a prominent example of concluding words this problem. Essay On Scientific Inventions? Physicians and nurses have long worried that patients who forgo life-sustaining treatment with the intention of dying are killing themselves and that health professionals are assisting in their suicide.
These worries have recently receded in significance in biomedical ethics, because there is now a consensus in law and ethics that it is never a moral violation to withhold or withdraw a medical treatment that has been validly refused. An Essay? This consensus began to be developed with the case of Karen Ann Quinlan in 1976 and eventually was formed around U. S. Essay Modern Political Theory? Supreme Court decisions, especially the Cruzan Case of an essay words 1990. The writings of numerous philosophers and lawyers contributed to the formation of this consensus. A clear part of the consensus is should soda in schools, that it is a moral violation not to withhold or withdraw a validly refused treatment. If death is words, hastened in this way by a physician's omission or action, there can be no moral objection to what has been done, and a physician's cooperation can rightly be viewed as merciful and benevolent. However, this problem has been replaced by another: Is it harmful or beneficial to skatboarding help a competent patient who has requested a hastened death? In addition to vexed questions about the purported distinction between killing and letting die, the issue presses the question of words what counts as a benefit and what counts as a harm. Is requested death in the face of miserable suffering a benefit for essay political some patients while a harm for other patients? When is it a benefit, and when a harm? Is the answer to this question determined by the method used to bring about death--for example, withdrawal of treatment by contrast to use of lethal medication? 6.3 Social Beneficence and Public Policy.
A number of controversial issues in biomedical ethics concern how public policy could, and should, change if obligations of social beneficence were given more strength in concluding words policy formulation than they have traditionally been afforded. Democracy Modern Power? The foundations of public policy regarding organ procurement provide an concluding an essay instructive example. Established legal and essay policy precedents in many countries require express consent by a decedent before death or by the family after death. Concluding Words? A near absolute right of autonomy to decide about the disposition of write college essay organs and tissues has been the prevailing norm. However, this approach impairs the efficient collection of needed tissues and organs, and many people die as a result of the words shortage of organs. The scarcity of organs and tissues and the inefficiency of the system have prompted a spate of proposals for reform of the current system of democracy essay state theory procurement, with the goal of creating more space for social beneficence.
One policy proposal with a notably strong social-beneficence commitment is the routine retrieval of organs and tissues. In this system of procurement, a community is permitted to, and encouraged to, routinely collect organs and tissues from the deceased, unless the dead person had previously registered his or her objection to the system with the state. The routine retrieval of tissues and organs from the deceased is unjustified on traditional grounds of respect for words autonomy. However, advocates of the policy of routine retrieval argue that members of a community have an obligation to provide other persons with objects of lifesaving value when no cost to business plan writers themselves is required. That is, the justification is in beneficence, not respect for autonomy.
The debate will continue for many years about whether beneficence or respect for concluding autonomy should prevail in should soda in schools essay public policy governing organ retrieval. Advocates of the current system argue that individual and family rights of consent should retain dominance. Advocates of an essay routine retrieval argue that traditional social priorities involving beneficence in write college essay conflict with autonomy have been wrongly structured. Most contributors to the literature on the subject agree that the present situation of low-level organ-procurement is morally unsatisfactory and in need of some measure of reform. 6.4 Social Beneficence and Social Justice.
Some of the most important issues in the ethics of health and health care today are widely classified as issues of social justice. However, at the hands of many writers, social justice is concluding, notably similar to be sold in schools social beneficence. The underlying moral problem in global ethics is how to structure both the concluding words global order and business plan africa national systems that affect health so that burdens are avoided, benefits are provided, and then both are fairly distributed using a threshold condition of equitable levels of an essay words health and access to health care. Globalization has brought a realization that problems of protecting health and providing beneficial services are international in nature and that their alleviation will require a restructuring of the global system. John Rawls's A Theory of Justice has been an enormously influential work in discussions of these problems in biomedical ethics. Rawls argues that a social arrangement forming a political state is a communal effort to advance the good of all in the society. His starting assumptions are layered with beneficent, egalitarian goals of write college admissions making the unequal situation of the naturally disadvantaged members of society both better and more equal. An Essay? His recognition of essay on scientific a positive societal obligation to eliminate or reduce barriers that prevent fair opportunity and that correct or compensate for various disadvantages has implications for concluding an essay discussions of both beneficence and justice in health care, although Rawls himself never pursued these health issues. Rawls's theory has influenced many writers on moral problems of health and biomedical ethics, including Norman Daniels, Thomas Pogge, Martha Nussbaum, and Madison Powers and Ruth Faden. One of Daniels' main questions is “How can we meet health needs fairly under reasonable limits to resources committed to the task?” The “fairly” part of this formulation may be justice-based, but the notion of “reasonable limits to soda be sold essay resources” is closely tied to the problems of the limits of beneficence mentioned previously.
Daniels argues that because health is affected by many social factors, theories of justice should not center entirely on access to health care, but also on the need to reduce health inequalities by improving social conditions that affect the health of societies, such as having clean water, adequate nutrition, and general sanitation. Pogge views the well-being of the concluding worst-off members of global society as the proper starting point for democracy power state theory a practical theory of concluding an essay justice, but his theory can also be expressed as an argument from democracy political state state, social beneficence. Pogge has been concerned with the sweep of global poverty and its impact on health and welfarean interest almost identical to an essay words the theories of Singer and life religion Powers and Faden. Concluding? The consequences of extreme poverty for health are well-documented, and these consequences inform Pogge's and Powers and Faden's theories of both basic well-being and justice. Among other things, these theories assess the degree to which institutional structures can be expected to fulfill the mandates of the business plan in south theory. They demand that persons have access to basic goods of housing, food, and health care. Recently, so-called “capabilities theory” has, at the hands of some writers, merged concerns of justice and beneficence. Concluding Words? This type of theory focuses on essay distributions intended to enable persons to reach certain functional levels essential for a flourishing life that is protected by social institutions, The idea is to start with an understanding of health and individual well-being and then to connect that account to basic capabilities for achieving levels of functioning essential to well-beingthrough, for example, proper nutrition and access to health care. Some core capabilities are bodily health, ability to play, ability to affiliate socially, freedom of movement, and adequate educational level. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum are advocates of a capabilities theory. Some writers closely connected to bioethics and health policy have moved beyond capabilities theory with a twist toward beneficence and well-being.
Powers and Faden provide a theory closely connected to global health policy. They start with a basic premise: Social justice is concerned with human well-beingnot only health, but what they call six distinct, core dimensions of concluding well-being. The six are health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and self-determination. Each of these dimensions is an independent concern of justice. While this list of six dimensions is in some respects similar to Nussbaum'sfor example, “attachment” resembles what Nussbaum calls “affiliation” Powers and Faden reject the language of capabilities as misleading and wide of the target of a theory of justice. Theirs is a list of essential core dimensions of well-being, not core capabilities. Being healthy, being secure, and being respected are desirable states of essays being, not merely capabilities or functionings. For example, we want not merely the capability to concluding an essay be well-nourished, but to be well-nourished. Justice is concerned with the achievement of well-being, not merely achieving the capabilities to pursue it. In this account, the justice of societies and of the global order can be judged by how well they effect these well-being dimensions in their political structures and social practices.
The job of justice is to secure a sufficient level of each dimension for each person and to alleviate the social structures that cause the corresponding forms of ill-being. This theory of well-being and its place in moral theory and social policy could also be expressed in terms of the role of social beneficence. Business ethics is life, a second area of applied ethics in concluding words which questions about admissions beneficence have emerged as central. Hume's immediate successor in sentiment theory, Adam Smith, held a important view about the concluding words role and place of benevolence that has influenced a number of writers in business ethics. Smith argued that the wealth of nations and the well-being of their citizens are dependent upon social cooperationfundamentally, political and economic cooperationbut that this realm is not dependent on the benevolence of moral relations. Essay On Scientific Inventions? Smith proposes that it would be vain for us to expect benevolence in market societies.
In commercial transactions the an essay only successful strategy in motivating persons is to appeal to personal advantage: Never expect benevolence from a butcher, brewer, or baker; expect from them only a regard to their own interest. Essays? Market societies operate not by concerns of humanity and benevolence, but from concluding words, self-love. Several problems in essays business ethics are attempts to come to grips with Smith's view. Discussions of the role of the corporation in concluding words society and the very purpose of a corporation as a social institution are examples. It is not disputed that the purpose of a for-profit corporation is to make a profit for stockholders, but there is an intense debate about whether maximizing stockholder profits is the sole legitimate purpose of best in south africa corporationsas Milton Friedman and others have arguedand whether truly beneficent corporate conduct is justifiable.
This question is concluding an essay words, normative, but there is also the question of moral psychology raised by Smith: Is it reasonable to expect benevolent acts from the business community? Does beneficence have any place in the world of best business writers africa business as we know it? Corporate social programs often appear to involve a mixture of limited beneficence and self-interested goals such as developing and sustaining relationships with customers. An Essay Words? An example is found in public utilities' programs to help customers pay for electricity, gas, oil, phone service, and college essay admissions the like. These programs often decrease rather than increase corporate profits. Concluding Words? They are, in effect, a form of corporate philanthropy. The programs locate and attempt to remedy the root causes of bill nonpayment, which typically involve financial distress.
The programs also seek to rescue people in the community who are in unfortunate circumstances because of industrial injury, the ill health of a spouse or child, drug dependency, and the like. The company may even pay for consumer advocates, who are social workers trained to deal with customers and their problems. These programs, by design, make life better for soda essay various members of the concluding community who have suffered misfortune. Life Essays? They may not be entirely motivated by benevolence, however, because they may also be designed to achieve a positive public image as well as to receive payment for overdue bills. Some firms have charitable programs that seem to be cases of pure beneficencethat is, not ones admixed with forms of outreach that will help the company. Money is taken directly out of profits, with no expected return of an essay words benefits. It has been questioned, however, whether programs of in schools essay even this description are instances of pure benevolence. In the concluding an essay precedent U. Life Religion? S. case of A. P. Smith Manufacturing v. Barlow (1953), a judge determined that a beneficent charitable donation to Princeton University by the A. P. Smith Co. was a legitimate act of beneficence by responsible corporate officers.
However, the concluding words judge acknowledged that such beneficence may not be pure beneficence, but rather an write admissions act taken in the interest of the corporation by building its public image and esteem. In effect, the judge suggests that such a gift, while beneficent, may not derive from entirely benevolent motives. If beneficent acts by corporations are nothing more than clever ways to maximize profits, then these actions seem to satisfy Friedman's conception. Whatever the concluding truth about businesses' motives, a separate question is whether businesses have obligations of beneficent action. Stakeholder theory is an example of an approach that answers in admissions the affirmative. In the classical profit-to-stockholder view, stockholders' interests were supreme, but what about the interests of concluding an essay other stakeholders, particularly those whose efforts are necessary for a firm's survival and flourishing? Who deserves to benefit? A stakeholder is any individual or group that can affect or benefit, or be affected by or benefited by, a business organization. Stakeholders include customers, employees, suppliers, communities, consultants, and stockholders. Stakeholder theory is commonly regarded as a theory of corporate responsibilitythe theory that managers of a firm have obligations to a specified group of stakeholders. Many of democracy essay modern political power state these obligations are ones of beneficence, especially with regard to employees and an essay words other stockholders.
Stockholder theory, by contrast, is the skatboarding theory that managers have obligationsconceived as fiduciary dutiesonly to stockholder interests. An Essay? In contemporary business ethics it is best business writers in south, now widely held that corporate responsibility requires some form of an essay stakeholder perspective, but this perspective has not been adequately developed, because there may be additional obligations of beneficence to democracy power state theory contribute to social awareness and concluding an essay public policy even when the affected community is not truly a stakeholder. But do corporations have obligations of beneficence to some larger community? Many corporations have answered yes to this question. Life Essays Religion? In a statement of an essay words “The Johnson and Johnson Way,” the Johnson and Johnson Company credo, it is said that Johnson and Johnson is responsible to the communities in which it thrives, and on scientific indeed to the world community. The company asserts an obligation to words be good citizens, including offering the support of charities, the encouragement of civic progress, the bettering of public health, and writers the improvement of education. Words? Johnson and Johnson and many other companies assert that they have obligations to on scientific inventions these ends, but to many writers in business ethics this claim of obligations is either misguided or overstated. Concluding An Essay? They regard such moral demands as moral ideals or institutional commitments, especially if they reach out to the world community. Paternalism is often found in the practices of business and in government regulation of business. For example, many businesses require employees to deduct money from their salary for a retirement account; they may also deduct salary money to pay for a life insurance policy.
If employees do not want these “benefits,” they are not free to reject them. Paternalism is here assumed to be an appropriate liberty-limiting principle. Another commonplace example comes from the construction industry and the chemical industry. If an employee wishes not to skatboarding wear a particular suit, mask, or other protective device, the company (also the government) will compel it anyway, often (though not always) for paternalistic reasons. An ongoing example of paternalism is the restriction for paternalistic reasons (there might be other reasons as well) of concluding words various pictures, literature, or informationoften violent depictionson the internet, in bookstores, and in video stores. Customers may wish to democracy power theory purchase or receive information about these products, but paternalism thwarts their preferences. Arguments are put forward maintaining that those exposed to violent conduct will harm themselves by an essay such exposurefor example, pornography might reinforce their emotional problems or render them incapable of essay love and other distinctively human relationships. A classic problem of paternalism in business ethics derives from the principle of caveat emptor Latin for “let the buyer beware.” This property-law-derived principle is a general principle governing sales: A buyer is an essay, responsible for determining any unfitness in a product and is not due any form of refund or exchange unless the seller has actively concealed the unfitness. The buyer is free to make the purchase or not make it.
Paternalistic restrictions on purchasing have the objective that buyers not harm themselves or not fail to receive benefits that they otherwise might not receive. For example, the control and inspection of pharmaceutical products and controlled substancesthrough government policies and licensed pharmacieshas often been justified by appeal to in schools paternalism. Many believe that the an essay words Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the U.S. is business in south, fundamentally a paternalistic agency that operates to protect the public even while some members of the public do not approve of the protections afforded. As the marketplace for products has grown complex and the products more sophisticated, buyers have become more dependent upon salespersons to words know their products and to tell the truth about them. An enduring question in business ethics is essay, whether a salesperson's role should be viewed as that of paternalistic protector of the interests of the buyer. Suppose, for example, that a consumer wants a sprinkler system in his yard to water his grove of words evergreens. He loves the sound and look of sprinklers. However, these sprinklers are worthless for appropriate watering of the roots of his evergreens: The owner needs drip-hose for essays his large collection of pine, spruce, cedar, and cypress. Should a salesperson insist on selling only drip-hose, refusing to sell sprinkler heads; or should the salesperson acquiesce to the customer's strong preference for sprinklers? Traditionally salespersons have not viewed their obligations of beneficence in this way, but perhaps paternalistic beneficence would be a commendable change of concluding practice?
Adler, Matthew D., 2012, Well-Being and Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis , New York: Oxford University Press. Arneson, Richard J., 2004, “Moral Limits on the Demands of Beneficence?” in The Ethics of Assistance , Deen K. Chatterjee (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Beauchamp, Tom L., and Childress, James F., 2013, Principles of Biomedical Ethics , 7 th edition, New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 6. Life Essays? Braybrooke, David, 2003, “A Progressive Approach to concluding an essay Personal Responsibility for Global Beneficence,” The Monist , 86: 30122. Cullity, Garrett, 2007, “Beneficence.” In R. Democracy Modern Power? E. Ashcroft, A. Words? Dawson, H. Draper, and essay on scientific J. Concluding An Essay? R. McMillan (eds.), Principles of inventions Health Care Ethics (2nd ed.), pp. 1926, Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. , 2004, The Moral Demands of Affluence , Oxford: Clarendon Press. An Essay? Daniels, Norman, 2006, “Equity and essays religion Population Health: Toward a Broader Bioethics Agenda.” Hastings Center Report , 36: 2235. , 1998, “Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What does it Encompass?,” in Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics , Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 31628.
Donaldson, Thomas J., and concluding Preston, L. E., 1995, “The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications,” Academy of Management Review , 20: 6591. Essays Religion? Egonsson, Dan, 1999, “Local Solidarity,” Ethical Theory and an essay words Moral Practice , 2: 14958. Feinberg, Joel, 1988, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law , 4 volumes, New York: Oxford University Press. Fishkin, James A, 1982, The Limits of Obligation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Freeman, R. Edward, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach , Boston: Pitman. Gert, Bernard, 2005, Morality , New York: Oxford University Press. Essay? Gert, Bernard, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser, 2006, Bioethics: A Systematic Approach , New York: Oxford University Press. Gert, Bernard, 2008, “The Definition of Morality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of concluding an essay words Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/morality-definition/. Essay Admissions? Griffin, James, 1986, Well-Being , Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hume, David, 1751, An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals , Tom L. Beauchamp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hurley, Paul, 2003, “Fairness and Beneficence,” Ethics , 113: 841864. Concluding An Essay? Kant, Immanuel, Ethical Philosophy , second edition, James W. Ellington (trans.), Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1994. Inventions? Levine, Robert J., 2005, “The National Commission's Ethical Principles with Special Attention to Beneficence”. In J. F. Childress, E. Concluding? M. Meslin, and H. T. Shapiro (Eds.), Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for Research with Human Subjects , pp. 126135, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Livnat, Yuval, 2004, “On the Nature of Benevolence,” Journal of Social Philosophy , 35: 304317.
Mack, Eric, 2002, “Equality, Benevolence, and Responsiveness to Agent-Relative Value,” Social Philosophy and Policy , 19: 314341. Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism and On Liberty , in the Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969. Miller, Richard W., 2004, “Beneficence, Duty, and Distance,” Philosophy Public Affairs , 32: 35783. Murphy, Liam B., 1993, “The Demands of on scientific Beneficence,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 22: 26792. , 2000, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Narveson, Jan, 2003, “We Don't Owe Them a Thing! A Tough-Minded but Soft-Hearted View of Aid to the Faraway Needy,” The Monist , 86: 41933. Nussbaum, Martha C., and Amartya Sen (eds.), 1993, The Quality of Life , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, and David Thomasma, 1988, For the Patient's Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in Health Care , New York: Oxford University Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, 1994, “The Four Principles and concluding an essay The Doctor-Patient Relationship: The Need For A Better Linkage,” in soda be sold essay Principles of Health Care Ethics , Raanan Gillon (ed.), 1 st ed. Concluding Words? London: John Wiley Sons.
Pogge, Thomas W. (ed.), 2007, Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right: Who Owes What to the Very Poor? , Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ed.), 2001, Global Justice , London: Blackwell Publishers. , 2005, “Human Rights and life Global Health: A Research Program.” Metaphilosophy , 36: 182209. , 2002, World Poverty and concluding Human Rights , Cambridge: Polity Press. Powers, Madison, and Ruth R. Faden, 2006, Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy , New York: Oxford University Press. Richardson, Henry S., 2012, Moral Entanglements: The Ancillary-Care Obligations of Medical Researchers , New York: Oxford University Press. Sen, Amartya, 1992, Inequality Reexamined , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Singer, Peter, 1972, “Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1: 22943. , 1993, Practical Ethics , 2d edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2009, The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty , New York: Random House. Slote, Michael A., 1977, “The Morality of soda in schools Wealth,” in World Hunger and Moral Obligation , W. Aiken and H. LaFollette (eds.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. Concluding An Essay? 12447.
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Ending the Essay: Conclusions
american essay west This essay will explore the three dominant paradigms in concluding an essay, the history of the American West. The first paradigm, the Frontier Thesis, was developed by Frederick Jackson Turner and presented by him at democracy essay modern political power state theory, the Chicago World#8217;s Columbian Exposition in concluding an essay words, July 1893 and write essay was intended to serve as a model for the development of American institutions in words, general. However, it also greatly impacted the business plan writers africa, study of the American West. The work of new western historians, especially Patricia Nelson Limerick, is the second paradigm and emphasizes four themes within the field of western history including convergence, conquest, complexity, and continuity. Finally, world-systems analysis will be examined through the work of William G. Robbins and other historians who argue that the role of capitalism in the development of the American West is a necessary and important field of inquiry.
Paradigm I: The Turner Thesis. Background of the Frontier Thesis. In his study of concluding words American historical interpretations, Gerald Nash argues that there are several important factors to essay on scientific inventions, consider in an essay words, tracing the evolution of Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. On Scientific Inventions! First, Turner#8217;s personal experiences growing up in a frontier region of Wisconsin between 1870 and 1890 shaped his thoughts and left lasting impressions.  Second, Turner was influenced by the intellectual climates at the University of an essay Wisconsin and Johns Hopkins, where his instructors shaped his thinking of historical processes. At Johns Hopkins, for example, Turner studied under Herbert Adams who taught him the germ theory of American institutions. Should Soda In Schools Essay! According to this theory, American institutions evolved from an essay, Anglo-Saxon and skatboarding essay Teutonic origins in Europe that were centuries old.  Based on an essay, his experiences in Wisconsin, Turner rejected most of Adam#8217;s theory. Turner wanted to focus instead on the forces that made American institutions exceptional. Finally, Turner#8217;s concerns with contemporary events found expression in his professional writings. Turner was concerned about the business in south africa, decline of the agrarian character of the nation in the face of words industrialism, the rise of cities, and the changing face of the United States as immigrants continued to arrive in the late 19 th century. These concerns, and others, found an outlet in Turner#8217;s nostalgic writings on be sold, frontier life and words the Old West. The Frontier Thesis.
In his highly influential essay, The Significance of the Frontier in American History , Frederick Jackson Turner proposed a paradigm to should soda, explain the development and expansion of American institutions. According to Turner, the development of these institutions could be explained by #8220;the existence of an concluding area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of best plan writers in south American settlement westward.#8221;  There are several important component parts related to the frontier thesis which require discussion. These include American exceptionalism, the frontier as both a process and place, the significance of the frontier for American history, and an essay post-frontier anxiety. American exceptionalism, the belief that America is the model for freedom and liberty in the world, is a key part of Turner#8217;s paradigm. In the process of westward migration, Turner argues that a unique American identity was created where wilderness conditions gave way to American national vitality. Through their interaction with an untamed wilderness environment, settlers were forced to develop unique institutions to survive. This process resulted in the development of a specific American type, one largely characterized by individualism, pragmatism, and should soda be sold in schools egalitarianism.  In the immediate decades following the publication of his famous 1893 essay, many American historians believed that the Turner thesis explained American development; however, historians today have shown that a number of an essay words nations experienced periods of frontier and territorial expansion.  In describing the frontier in his essay, Turner avoided monolithic definitions, choosing instead to describe the best business plan, frontier as both a process and a place.
Turner argues that the frontier process is illustrated by words the struggle with wilderness that turned Europeans into Americans. In adapting to essay on scientific, the demands of the frontier, Americans had to be innovative, individualistic, and rugged, among other traits. The frontier was also a place, one that moved westward throughout the early history of this nation. In terms of nailing down a definition of #8216;frontier#8217; Turner argues that it is the place where civilization meets savagery. The collision of words different cultures produced uniquely American characteristics and institutional forms; because of this, Turner argues that the center of American history could be found at its edges. As Americans migrated westward, the admissions, frontier represented the outer edge of a wave of civilization; this line represented the most effective and rapid force for the Americanization of foreigners. The western environment is central to this theme of transformation and is of great importance for Turner#8217;s overall thesis, which is national rather than regional in explanatory aim.
While the criticisms of Turner and concluding his essay have been effusive, especially during the should soda be sold in schools, last three decades, there are aspects of his paradigm that remain useful today. Foremost among Turner#8217;s key points is a focus on the role of the environment and an essay words geography in shaping Americans and their institutions. As William Cronon points out, #8220;it is no accident that much of what we today call #8216;environmental history#8217; has been written in this country under the democracy political state, guise of western history.#8221;  Turner believed that the concluding words, environment or #8216;free land#8217; west of the Mississippi River, exerted a transformative influence on immigrants, turning Europeans into Americans; this is one of the major themes of his thesis. Historians were influenced by the Turner thesis for decades following its publication. Democracy Political Power Theory! The work of historians such as Walter Prescott Webb, Frederick Logan Paxson and Ray Allen Billington added depth and nuance to Turner#8217;s original thoughts. Theme: The Transformative Power of the Environment. Beginning in the early 20 th century, historians including Frederic Logan Paxson wrote extensively using Turner#8217;s model. These historians focused on an essay, the American West specifically, while developing and essay modern political power state augmenting Turner#8217;s basic thesis. Paxson, for example, did not break with the Frontier thesis; however, after Turner#8217;s death in 1932, many historians began to reassess the validity and application of the thesis.
One of these individuals was Walter Prescott Webb, who more than Turner, saw the frontier and the West as a place rather than a process. Concluding!  Webb#8217;s conception of the soda, American West was centered on the arid plains west of the 98 th meridian. Webb defined the West as a specific and locatable area on a map, which marks an important difference between him and concluding an essay Turner. Webb was a regionalist while Turner was attempting to offer an explanation for best business plan writers, the development of the entire country. There were also similarities between the two men. For instance, both believed that the natural environment was responsible for innovation within American institutions. Webb argues that when Americans encountered the mostly level, treeless, and semi-arid environment of the plains, they were forced to transform their institutions in order to settle the region. In adapting to concluding, the environmental conditions of the Great Plains, American settlers relied heavily on new technologies imported from the essay political state theory, East. Adapting to life on the Great Plains shaped the American character, requiring settlers to be innovative in solving problems while making them stronger in their efforts to cling to the land in the absence of material comforts. The transportation problem on the Great Plains was solved with the arrival of railroads, a process that intensified following the Civil War.  The significance of the an essay words, railroad is that it made communication and transportation over large areas possible, while bringing construction materials from the East that enabled settlers to build communities.  The issue of fencing was resolved with the introduction of Joseph Glidden#8217;s barbed wire invention of 1874.  Webb argues that the invention of barbed wire revolutionized land values on the Great Plains and without it, the business africa, plains homestead could never have been protected from the grazing herds of neighboring ranches.  Webb#8217;s emphasis on the natural environment as a field of study links him to new western historians, including Elliott West and others.
The overriding influence in Webb#8217;s work was his focus on the study of civilizations and cultures from the physical foundation on which they rested.  In the late 1940s, Ray Allen Billington began a career dedicated to preserving Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. Throughout his long career, Billington modified Turner#8217;s thesis to concluding an essay words, say that the frontier was not the only factor in the development of American institutions. For example, Turner had long argued that the spread of democracy owed its origins to the forests of New England, one of the earliest frontiers. Billington understood that he would need to compromise with Turner#8217;s critics if he was going to salvage the frontier thesis. Therefore, Billington admitted that there had long been a trend toward democracy in the western world; the American environment was important, but not as important as Turner and other frontier historians had originally argued.
The more Billington was forced to modify the thesis, the more people questioned which aspects were still valid for essays, historical explanation and analysis. Earl Pomeroy offers an excellent segue from old western historians to a discussion of new western historians. Long before the publications of Patricia Limerick, William Cronon, Richard White, and an essay Donald Worster, Pomeroy called for a reappraisal of the on scientific inventions, #8220;Turner-Webb environmental-deterministic#8221; paradigm.  Where Turner saw innovative, nation-building frontiersmen, Pomeroy saw class stratification and hierarchies of power. Foreshadowing the new western history, Pomeroy argued against the significance of Turner#8217;s closing frontier. Instead, he chose to stress the continuity of history in the West from the 19 th to the 20 th centuries.  Paradigm II: New Western History. The origins of the new western history movement can be traced to the new social history movement of the 1960s and 1970s.  Many within the post-war generation who grew up in the 1960s became alienated by the crimes of our society, including nuclear testing, the concluding, violation of civil rights, the essays, assassination of JFK, and especially the war in Vietnam. Practitioners of the new western history generally advocate new perspectives that illuminate the experiences of an essay words diverse groups of people. Gender, race, class, and essay the environment are some of the important lenses western historians began employing in the 1980s. Concluding An Essay Words! The accomplishments of four new western historians have added a great amount of depth and clarity to the field; they include William Cronon, Richard White, Donald Worster, and Patricia Nelson Limerick.
Each of these historians emphasizes distinct ways to practice the essay modern political state, new western history. In explaining his take on the new western history, William Cronon argues that there remains some value in Turner#8217;s thesis. Cronon believes that one of Turner#8217;s most fruitful suggestions was that invasion, settlement, and community formation followed certain broad, repeating patterns throughout most of North America.  Turner described a large-scale process referred to as parallel historical change through his argument about the ways in concluding, which the frontier process repeated itself as it moved westward. Cronon links his conception of western history to Turner while simultaneously striking out on his own by stating that he believes that Turner#8217;s comparative study of parallel regional changes has much to on scientific, offer the field today, especially in formulating new approaches. According to Cronon, a new approach that stresses the connectedness of frontier areas, as opposed to their isolation, will help to make sense of western history in the broader context of European colonialism.  Richard White argues that the frontier thesis remains a source of environmental history and a window to the popular mind.  For White, the major source of continuity and the source for discontinuities between the old western and new western histories is the way that each group has formulated the role of the environment in creating a western region. Words!  While both groups of democracy essay political power state theory historians acknowledge the importance of the environment, White argues that old western historians continue to wear #8216;frontier blinders#8217; that restrict and narrow their view of the past. The narrative of the an essay, old western history is the story of on scientific inventions a journey, a challenge, and a dual transformation of land and people. Concluding Words! However, White argues that new western historians have abandoned #8216;frontier blinders#8217;, choosing instead to focus on three things in constructing western environmental history narratives. First, they look at the contesting groups, second, they examine the various perceptions of the land and ambitions for it, and finally, they examine structures of power that shape these contests over land use that result in essay, environmental change.
While this model goes beyond the concluding an essay, simple dichotomy of the old western historians, it does retain the focus of the importance of the business plan writers africa, environment as a foundational belief. Concluding An Essay! In his book, It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own , White presents a new history of the should soda be sold in schools, American West. He argues that the West is a distinct region, however, for reasons other than those presented by Turner, Webb and others. White argues that the West is characterized by distinct sets of concluding relationships that set the region apart from other regions in the nation.  Of great importance is the relationship between the federal government and the West, a dual labor system based on race, and patterns of political participation and organization. Essay Inventions! Taken together, these relationships have combined to make the American West a distinct region. In his book, Under Western Skies , Donald Worster presents his understanding of the goals and concluding an essay direction of the new western history.  Worster argues that with the new western history, we are beginning to get a history that is beyond myth, beyond the traditional consciousness of the white conquerors, and beyond a primitive emotional need of heroes and heroines.  According to Worster, there are four important arguments that the new western history makes. The first argument is that the essay, invaded and subject peoples of the West must be given a voice in the region#8217;s history. The second argument is the admission that the drive for the economic development of the West was often a ruthless assault on nature, and it has left behind it much death, depletion and ruin.  The third argument is that the West has been ruled by concentrated power, though here, as in other places, power has often hidden itself behind beguiling masks. An Essay!  Finally, the single most important and most distinguishing characteristic of the new western history is its determination not to offer cover for the powers that be#8212;not to become subservient to should soda in schools essay, them, by silence or consent.  While Worster takes Turner to task for his focus on process rather on fixing a specific geographic definition for the American West, he argues that Webb attempted to fix firm coordinates to the West as early as the 1950s.  This illustrates the link between old western historians and Worster#8217;s understanding of western history today.
Worster argues that Webb used aridity in defining his West, the area west of the 98 th meridian; an idea that Webb took from words, John Wesley Powell. Webb#8217;s definition of the West, the region#8217;s aridity, fits with Worster#8217;s own experience of growing up in Kansas and California. This experience has led Worster to accept Webb#8217;s definition due in large part to his own understanding of the region as a place where people struggle for survival under a variety of circumstances, especially aridity.  As has been demonstrated, the new western history coalesced in the 1980s in the writings of William Cronon, Richard White and college Donald Worster; however, the work of Limerick is among the most expressive in words, terms of defining this new paradigm. Best Business Plan Writers Africa! Limerick argues that she did not create this paradigm; rather, she was a part of a larger movement of western historians who believed in trusting their own experiences and beliefs and who questioned the words, authority of the Turner thesis. Limerick articulates her understanding of the new western history in in south africa, several groundbreaking books and articles.  It is helpful to concluding words, compare and essay contrast Limerick#8217;s understanding of the new western history with Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. For Turner, the frontier is both a process and a place; it is the place where civilization meets savagery and an essay words it is the skatboarding, process in which settlers wrestle with wild nature and become Americanized. Concluding An Essay! Limerick also sees the West as both process and place. The West is a place, the region west of the 100 th meridian and she stresses both aridity and the natural environment as barriers to negotiate. The West is democracy essay modern political theory a process due to the convergence of races, ideas, and environmental factors that come together to form something new. Like Turner, Limerick is making an exceptionalist argument about the West; however, she states that the West has characteristics that make it unique, not better.
Among these characteristics are the border with Mexico, the presence of large Native American populations on their homelands, aridity, and the fact that the concluding an essay, bulk of the land remains under federal control. Soda! The Four C#8217;s of New Western History. According to Limerick, new west historians employ new terms that reflect new perspectives; among these terms are the four C#8217;s of the new western history: conquest, convergence, continuity, and concluding complexity. Supporters of the soda be sold in schools, Turner thesis utilized a vague definition of #8216;frontier#8217;, in which they envisioned an ever-expanding zone of freedom, opportunity and democracy. Limerick argues that such a definition exempted the United States from global history while attempting to words, downplay the essay inventions, significance of European actions. Limerick prefers to use the word #8216;conquest#8217; rather than frontier because she believes that this is a more accurate description of what transpired. Using conquest as a lens to study the history of the American West allows historians to make sense of the seizure of resources, the imposition of colonial dominance, intermarriage, and syncretism and to recognize these events when they see them. Limerick utilizes the theme of convergence to uncover and understand how the American West looked historically in terms of race, class, gender, etc.
In the traditional narrative of Western history, the concluding words, doings of white people, especially white men, controlled center stage. Native Americans were recognized as obstacles or barriers to the big process of frontier expansion, while Chinese and Mexican workers could find relevance only best business plan in south africa as they contributed to the building of railroads and the development of agriculture. Contrary to words, this traditional narrative, the West was a place of extraordinary convergence; people from all over the world met, negotiated for position, and tried to better understand one another. A criticism of the Turner thesis is that this paradigm places too much importance on should soda in schools essay, the closing of the frontier in an essay words, 1890 as an event that marks the end of Western history. Democracy Political State! Supporters of the new western history see no gap between the 19 th and concluding an essay 20 th centuries; they argue that narrative and causal ties link the two centuries. For example, there was more homesteading after 1890 than before, major extractive industries saw their principle boom and bust cycles during the life essays, 20 th century, conflicts and dilemmas stirred up in the late 19 th century have remained to concluding words, haunt Westerners in the 20 th and now 21 st centuries. Limerick argues that by stressing continuity within Western history, it will be possible to for Westerners to better understand and navigate through their dilemmas. The final #8216;C#8217; of business plan in south africa new western history is aimed directly at many of those individuals who desire to concluding words, see history in black and white; good guys and bad guys. Contrary to write college, many of the an essay, myths and romanticized notions, Limerick argues that human behavior in the American West, both past and present, has shown the same level of moral complexity as human behavior in should in schools essay, any other part of the planet. This is an important theme of the new western history; it is brutally honest, not romanticized. Limerick goes so far as to state that those who want to preserve their myths enjoy #8220;appealing and colorful legends.#8221; Migration and settlement are illustrative topics within the new western theme of convergence.
The massive influx of migrants to the American West during the 19 th and 20 th centuries brought together different races and an essay cultural groups that resulted in distinct challenges for the communities in which they settled.  White Americans and former slaves migrated West while Asians migrated East and Mexicans continued moving north; at the same time, the prior presence of thousands of Native Americans in soda, the region set the stage for cultural and economic exchange, new understanding, and violence as these groups converged and words interacted. Should Soda In Schools Essay! Richard White argues that historically, there have been three types of western migration, including community or kinship based, utopian (Mormons), and concluding an essay modern. The first two types of migration saw their destination, whether Oregon or Utah, as a site for best business plan, the re-creation of an existing way of life or for the establishment of a new and better life.  The journey to California is an example of concluding an essay words modern migration; this was often seen as a temporary migration with the soda essay, purpose of accumulating portable wealth and property. The question of who took part in western migration remains contentious. An Essay! White argues that networks of information ultimately determined which communities were likely to send migrants to California, Oregon, and points in between.  However, Susan Lee Johnson argues that it was the tentacles of capitalism that determined who could and ultimately would migrate to the California gold fields. Capitalist market economies around the globe linked people, places, and products together in the search for wealth; those individuals who ventured to the California gold fields were grappling with monumental economic changes.  During the post-Reconstruction period in the South, a mass exodus of former slaves was launched with the hopes of evading the political power state, cultures of terrorism and poverty that characterized their existence after 1877. Beginning in 1878, thousands of #8216;exodusters#8217; migrated to Kansas in the hopes of an essay words finding their personal Liberia or Canaan. This movement was one of the first migrations of African Americans westward and as such, it is an excellent example of the convergence of different racial and cultural groups. Best Business Africa! According to the historian Nell Irvin Painter, exodusters encountered discrimination in Kansas; however, by 1900, blacks in the state were generally better off economically than their southern counterparts were.
As far as their impact on words, Kansas communities, Painter argues that the biggest fear many whites held was that Anglo-American migrants would choose to settle in Nebraska or Minnesota once word got out that thousands of former slaves had taken up residence as farmers and laborers in Kansas.  Irish migrations to the copper town of Butte, Montana followed the same general pattern of other mining communities in life essays, terms of push and pull factors; however, there were some unique aspects, including the fact that the owner of the Anaconda Mine was born in words, Ireland. In an article on the Irish in Butte, David M. Plan Writers In South! Emmons argues that the Irish in this mining community were representative of migrants who wanted to gain portable wealth and move on, perhaps back to their hometown or country of origin.  Josef J. An Essay Words! Barton demonstrates that European immigrants in essay, the American West also sought to concluding, recreate and maintain their traditional ways of life in this country without the intention of going back to their home countries, which was impossible for some groups.  Barton#8217;s study of Czech farmers in south Texas details the steps taken by this group to maintain decent and secure lives. Political State! The history of migration in the American West demonstrates that the concluding an essay words, 20 th century saw more migration, in pure numbers, than did the 19 th century. Migration to the East Bay in California has been well documented and discussed by historians. Marilynn S. Johnson traces the development of the East Bay during World War II with an emphasis on how government spending transformed the region. Johnson focuses on essay, the convergence of different races, genders, and generations as new migrants mixed with old settlers and as all of concluding words these groups worked and lived in the same area.  The tension between newcomers and old time residents was palpable, as old timers attempted (successfully) to shape public policy decisions on everything from housing, to land use and the prosecution of write criminals with the goal of maintaining traditional social patterns and limiting the influence of migrants. Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo provides an in depth examination of African American female migrants to the East Bay during World War II. She argues that migrant women were critical agents in the larger migration and concluding an essay settlement process.  Many minority migrant groups faced racism and discrimination as they intermingled with Anglo-American migrants and the older inhabitants.
Santangelo argues that black women were essential to the process of devising coping strategies that enabled themselves and minority males to adjust to this difficult aspect of settlement. Central to this strategy were transplanted Southern values, including economic autonomy, hard work, education, worship, family ties, charity, and independent self-help institutions. The hard work of black female migrants resulted in skatboarding essay, the formation of concluding an essay words viable communities that continue to exist today as well as social problems that continue to demand resolution. In Something in the Soil , Limerick discusses how people around the globe see the American West as a place where one can go to escape complexity. Many individuals, known as tourists, explore the West hoping to find this romanticized and mythologized past still in on scientific inventions, existence. The reality of the situation, of course, is that the West and its inhabitants are as morally complex as any other region and group of people. This section will explore the ways in which tourism in words, the American West both masks and exemplifies moral complexity. Hal K. Rothman sets the tone for the history of tourism in the West by providing a language that gives meaning and coherence to the activities related to tourism. In his book Devil#8217;s Bargains , Rothman argues that the costs of tourism far outweigh the benefits. The zeal of many western civic leaders who have focused on tourism as their salvation from life religion, financial collapse belies a truth about tourism, that the concluding an essay, industry transforms local culture into something new and foreign and all the while it may or may not rescue the soda be sold essay, local economy it was supposed to save.  Modern tourism conceals the complex nature of most western states in several ways.
First, and this is one of the primary functions of an essay words tourism, romanticized visions of the past are created and marketed to tourists. Rothman argues that the skatboarding, restrictive building codes in Santa Fe and the romantic imagery of concluding southwestern tribes are examples of how people and places were commodified for modern political power state, the tourist trade at the expense of understanding. Second, the actual costs of tourism are often hidden from tourists who were led to believe that as a region, the West was both unformed and malleable. Therefore, according to Rothman, the West served as a canvas on which the new nation was constructed following the Civil War. The act of tourism in the West would enable some of the voids regarding the concluding, idea of America and modern its institutions to be filled.  Some Western towns have turned to gambling tourism to an essay, save themselves from financial collapse, which in itself has been a gamble. In communities that traditionally relied on entertaining seasonal tourists with their historic pasts, gambling was seen as a year-round, stable, and dynamic solution to their problems.  The struggle to survive illustrates the complexity of the American West today. Be Sold In Schools! Far from being the romanticized West that many tourists envision encountering and exploring, communities throughout the region continue to concluding words, struggle with the collapse of the should be sold, industries responsible for their creation, e.g., mining, and the success of tourism, which has greatly added to the complexity of existence in words, tourist towns. Essay! Leah Dilworth confronts the romantic mythology of western tourism in her book, Imagining Indians in the Southwest . An Essay Words! Dilworth#8217;s work focuses on the idea of ethnic tourism, specifically involving Native Americans from the Southwest and essay on scientific the ways in which these individuals have been commodified and an essay simplified for tourist consumption.  According to Dilworth, the quest encounters with Native Americans during tours of the life essays, Southwest is part of the search for concluding an essay, simplicity or authenticity that the primitive represents in American culture; however, that simplistic past is political power state theory unattainable. Tourism constructs a simplified version of history and contemporary life in such a way that it is visible but is never attainable. In the search for what she refers to as the words, #8220;imperialist nostalgia,#8221; in on scientific, other words, the search for an essay, a simplistic lifestyle that Americans are complicit in destroying, realistic Indians are undetectable. Write! Complexity is difficult to commodify and package for an essay words, tourist consumption.
The history of skatboarding essay mining in the American West illustrates the theme of continuity in several important ways. First, the concluding words, volume of minerals extracted in Western mines increased during the 20 th century. Second, communities and governmental agencies are still dealing with the environmental impact of 19th and 20th century mining operations. Finally, the mining industry continues to play an important role in communities throughout the American West. These are some of the key connections in the unbroken historical narrative of the best business writers, American West. Histories of 19 th century mining usually emphasize several key themes, including the an essay, role of best plan writers africa technology in the extractive process, economic and political struggles, and the transition miners undergo from gold-seekers to wage-laborers as the placer gold in streams plays out. In his book Mining Frontiers of the Far West , Rodman W. Paul examines both the technological and economic aspects of mining rushes in several western states.  Paul examines the mining movement in its totality through the identification of two unifying forces that occurred across widely scattered mining settlements. The first of these, the concluding an essay words, role of miners as they moved from discovery to discovery and in the process bringing with them extractive techniques and social relationships for the creation of new communities. Paul acknowledges the fact that the development of life mining communities set the stage for words, the displacement of indigenous groups, people of color, and modern political power state state theory whites; however, it was Elliott West who finally added the concluding words, story of the displaced to Paul#8217;s narrative.
Paul continues to develop his theme relating to the impact of new technology on best plan africa, the industry in his final book, The Far West and the Great Plains in Transition . In this excellent book, Paul examines the era of rapid change in the West ushered in with the mining advance. The impact of new technologies on the mining industry is illustrated by his analysis of hydraulic mining and the changes it brought to placer mining, usually the first stage of concluding an essay words mining before more capital intensive hard rock mining begins. Hydraulic mining enabled massive amounts of life essays religion dirt to be worked on a fast scale; however, it brought with it environmental destruction and waste.  As the surface deposits played out, subsurface deposits were developed; this combination of new technology and the necessity for an essay, capital in hard rock mining turned gold seekers into wage laborers.  Historians have continued to analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution not only on the mining industry but also on be sold, miners. In his book Hard Rock Epic , Mark Wyman focuses broadly on Western miners as they experienced economic and technological transformations during the Industrial Revolution.  Wyman examines the response of miners to the introduction of a wide range of concluding words new technologies, such as the Burleigh drill.  The author reveals that the romanticized image of the miner is completely out of tune with the reality of the situation, which by the late 19 th century was characterized by industrialized techniques and democracy modern political state state wage-laborers. Mining corporations developed during the Industrial Revolution in this country and most came to dominate the communities and states in which their mines were located. One example of concluding an essay this historical era that straddles the 19 th and 20 th centuries is Butte and the Anaconda Copper Mining Company. Plan!  Michael Malone#8217;s narrative focuses on the perspective of an essay competing mine owners within the Butte area as they struggled for control of the copper during the late 19 th century. Malone argues that miners benefited tremendously in the four-way struggle for power early on; however, with the consolidation of Butte copper mines under the Amalgamated Holding Company in 1899, that all changed. Essay!  Not only were miners forced to adapt to new technologies that rendered their skills unnecessary (e.g., hard rock miners) but they were also forced to adapt to new corporate management structures of concentrated power. In such a relationship, the new face of mining in Butte was one in which the workers and the people themselves, #8220;lay at the mercy of a much more powerful and less sensitive corporation.#8221;  Historians of 20 th century Western mining continued to chart the development of the industry and to demonstrate the concluding an essay, continuity of the historical narrative long after the closing of the frontier in 1890.
Historians continue to examine relationships between workers and owners, the influence of both groups in terms of economics, politics, and culture, as well as the democracy state, impact of changing federal policies on mining communities, among others. Concluding! James W. Byrkit, in his book Forging the essay, Copper Collar , examines the mining industry in Bisbee, Arizona during the first two decades of the 20 th century.  Bisbee serves as the backdrop to his argument regarding the role of eastern power in sponsoring and manipulating economic, political, social and cultural life in the American West. Byrkit#8217;s book details the ways in which Arizona#8217;s early statehood period was dominated politically and economically within a colonizer/colonized relationship. This book represents an excellent narrative bridge between the Industrial Revolution and the Wagner Act of the concluding words, New Deal, which gave labor the should soda be sold in schools essay, right to organize. Reflecting the new western history#8217;s desire to concluding an essay, uncover the history of previously ignored groups, Mary Murphy#8217;s Mining Cultures explores the social clubs, barrooms, sporting life, and essay other aspects of public leisure within Butte.  Similar to the narrative told by Byrkit, Murphy argues that during the interwar years, labor lost a great deal of their power. They occupied a world in which their working lives, political choices, and economic outlooks were constrained by the Anaconda Company. However, Murphy argues that Butte was different from concluding an essay words, other mining towns in which the controlling company would build towns and seek to control the life essays, morals of the workers. Because of this, a male-centered social landscape developed during the late 19 th century in Butte. The changes to concluding, that landscape are the focus of this book, as Murphy discusses the re-creation of Butte as part of the struggle between women and men to religion, adjust to new gender roles after World War I.  That Western mining is an example of an essay continuity should be clear by religion now, especially when the history of uranium mining communities are examined and compared to an essay, older mining communities. In his book Yellowcake Towns , Michael Amundson analyzes and compares the impact of changing federal policies on four uranium mining and milling communities in the states of on scientific inventions Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Colorado.  As Amundson argues, yellowcake towns are excellent examples of continuity in the West for several reasons, including the remoteness of the places in which the mining took place and the lack of control those distant communities had on concluding, the trade networks that controlled the boom and bust nature of the industry. Similarly, male prospectors often first settled yellowcake town sites and only later would their families join them.
In short, Amundson argues, #8220;the persistence of continuity suggests that as unique as the history of should soda essay uranium mining and yellowcake towns appears, strong undercurrents link them to concluding an essay, major themes in the history of the American West.#8221;  The theme of conquest includes a wide range of behaviors, including the conquest of the natural environment and extraction of resources. A definition of resources could include animals, crops, and minerals; the cattle, logging, and copper mining industries are examples of the diversity of conquests that have taken place in the American West. Conquest also refers to the colonial dominance of minority groups in the West, including Asians, Mexicans, African Americans, and Native Americans. The conquest of humans in write college admissions, the American West will be the focus of this section of the essay. In his groundbreaking work of Native American history, The Roots of Dependency , Richard White examines the economic structures of three tribes in order to better understand why their economies eventually failed to meet their basic subsistence needs by the late 19 th century. White studies agricultural systems, hunting methods, as well as their work as ranchers in attempting to explain the concluding an essay words, economic conquest of the Choctaw, Pawnee, and Navajo. Skatboarding Essay!  The conclusion which White draws from his examination of the changing Indian economies is that attempts by whites to concluding, bring indigenous resources, land and business in south africa labor into the market was the primary cause of the resulting economic dependency and conquest by an essay the United States. In arriving at this conclusion, White attacks the traditional belief that military supremacy and force were responsible for these changes.
Jeffrey Ostler#8217;s work on the history of Lakota-U.S. interactions during the 19 th century, culminating in the massacre at democracy essay modern state state theory, Wounded Knee in December of 1890 provides an excellent example of the new western history#8217;s focus on conquest and indigenous perspectives.  Ostler utilizes colonialism as a lens through which to view Indian agency and resistance at a time when the Lakota were experiencing many political, social, and an essay cultural changes. Ostler explains the development of U.S. colonialism among the Lakota while also discussing the ways that the Lakota developed policies and thereby were not simply acted upon by outside influences. An example of Lakota agency was the should soda be sold, way the tribe reacted to the invasion of their lands by Euro-American settlers using the Oregon Trail beginning in the 1840s. According to concluding, Ostler, the Lakota began to feel the indirect effects of agrarian expansion in the 1840s as settlers and cattle destroyed or consumed the food supply of indigenous animals, especially the buffalo. In retaliation, the Lakota decided to charge settlers for in south africa, the damage they were doing to their economy; this was a good policy in terms of concluding an essay words holding those responsible for the damages responsible for fixing them, but the normal reaction of the United States was to call out the cavalry and skatboarding essay attack local Lakota villages for #8220;harassing#8221; settlers. By discussing the various ways in which the Lakota formulated responses to colonialism and attempts to words, conquer their land, Ostler strips away the myth that their demise as a power on the northern plains was inevitable. Tearing down myths is essay one of the goals of the new western history and this book is an excellent example of how it should be accomplished. Words! Conquest and skatboarding dispossession also occurred during the early conservation efforts within the American West, but for reasons other than seizing land for agriculture or ranching. In his excellent book, Dispossessing the Wilderness , Mark David Spence states that wilderness preservation went #8220;hand in hand with native dispossession#8221;.  Spence#8217;s argument is based on the experiences of a handful of Indian tribes that were dispossessed from certain parts of their traditional homelands by the federal government so that national parks (Yellowstone, Yosemite and Glacier) could be established.
These tribes include the an essay words, Bannock, Shoshone, Crow, Yosemite, and Blackfeet. Spence argues that #8220;uninhabited wilderness had to be created before it could be preserved#8221;.  The reason that these tribes were dispossessed had a great deal to do with changing American perceptions about wilderness, including debates on how to define it and how it should be preserved. According to Spence, in best business plan writers in south africa, the first half of the 19 th century, nascent conservationists such as George Catlin, Washington Irving, Henry David Thoreau, and John Audubon believed that Indians and wilderness areas should be set aside from the influence of civilization. Spence explains that antebellum America did not conceive of wilderness and Indians as separate, but saw them as fundamentally linked.  All of that changed, however, in the years following the Civil War. Spence believes that frontier hostilities between the army and Indian tribes located throughout the Great Plains was one cause for an essay, America#8217;s changing perceptions of Indians to the popular belief that they were #8220;evil savages#8221;. No longer seen as living in essay modern political power theory, harmony with nature, due to words, the fact that they were impeding America#8217;s manifest destiny, setting fires in forests, and hunting game in areas intended for protection, conservationists of the should soda essay, second half of the 19 th century began to reconsider the ideas of earlier conservationists, that is, placing Indians in protected wilderness areas. At the same time that Indians were forced off of their traditional homelands onto reservations in order to concluding words, make the land uninhabited so that it could be preserved, a myth began to circulate that Indians had not inhabited the now-protected wilderness areas located throughout the West for decades. Spence provides evidence linking Indian tribes to each of the three national parks discussed in this book, detailing how that land was used over several centuries and the ways that the various tribes attempted to preserve their treaty rights to practice religious customs and economic tasks in religion, those parks today, long after their ancestors were dispossessed. Paradigm III: World-Systems Analysis.
The final paradigm examined in this paper is world-systems analysis. Immanuel Wallerstein developed this mode of an essay words analysis during the 1970s; however, within the discipline of history, William Robbins has been one of the most vocal advocates for its use and political state state acceptance. According to concluding an essay words, Wallerstein, at its most basic level, world-systems analysis characterizes the global world-system in which we live as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from the periphery to the core. In his terminology, Wallerstein describes a #8216;core#8217; as a developed, industrialized part of the world and a #8216;periphery#8217; as an underdeveloped, raw materials exporting, poor part of the world. Core regions exploit periphery regions through the functions of the market.  In a series of books and articles, Robbins has built an interpretive model of history which states that the best way to understand change and interactions in the American West is through a capitalist framework. The key is his definition of capitalism, which he defines as a system of social relations expressed in characteristic class structures, modes of consciousness, patterns of best business plan writers in south africa authority, and relations of concluding an essay words power.  Robbins#8217; work bears some similarities and shares some intersections with both old and new western historians. Like new western historians, Robbins rejects the idea of American exceptionalism.  Robbins sees the region as a unique arena for scholarly endeavor, insisting that the life essays, American West can be seen as a prototype for modern capitalism. An Essay!  In his emphasis on the association between capitalism and its revolutionary consequences for a particular place, Robbins#8217; work can be seen to skatboarding essay, closely resemble that of Donald Worster, ( Dust Bowl , Rivers of Empire ); William Cronon, ( Changes in the Land , Nature#8217;s Metropolis ); and Richard White, ( Roots of Dependency ). However, Robbins pursues a global perspective on events in the American West by advancing two interrelated themes throughout much of his work.
First, the history of the West should be examined as a part of the worldwide expansion of corporate capitalism. Second, outside managers, financiers, and capitalists often dictated the fates of western communities and determined the fortunes of western residents. In short, Robbins is arguing that the development of the West is the story of the region#8217;s integration into a global economic system. As Robbins explains, the fur trade, settler movement, mineral rushes, and concluding an essay the transportation revolution were all manifestations of the influence of essays religion global capitalism. In seeking to break from the exceptionalist narrative of western history, Robbins again finds common ground with new western historians. Like Limerick and White, Robbins discovers a West characterized by concluding words relationships of power and dependency. The celebrated freedom and skatboarding essay autonomy of the West, if it existed, was the province of the words, few, of those individuals with power, influence, and especially capital. Life! The adoption and use of concluding an essay words world-systems analysis in the writing of essay western history has produced several admirable volumes, two of which will be discussed in this section. The first, William G. Robbins#8217; Colony and Empire has already been briefly mentioned. Robbins#8217; analysis stretches from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, and takes on the entire West, from the concluding, 98th meridian to the Pacific, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, but inclusive of the Mexican and Canadian borderlands. This is write college essay admissions a macrocosmic study divided into four parts in which the author makes his case by outlining the complexity of capitalist networks in the West, the relationship of hinterlands to metropolises, and of eastern and foreign capital to western development.
As Robbins makes clear, part of his rationale for an essay, writing this book is that scholars have yet to forge an analytical tool to explain the best writers, transformation of the American West from an area dominated by concluding words pre-industrial societies to a region that is an integrated segment of a modern world capitalist system.  The basic, broad framework advanced by Robbins reads as follows: the penetration of market forces in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries, the subjugation and colonization of native people between 1840 and 1890, the re-peopling of the western landscape during that same period, and the progressive integration of the West into national and international exchange relationships. Democracy Modern State Theory!  In his book, Capitalism on the Frontier , Carroll Van West provides a microcosmic analysis of the Clark#8217;s Fork Bottom region of the words, Yellowstone River Valley; a 25 mile long region including the essay inventions, city of Billings, Montana. The focus of Van West#8217;s study are the revolutionary impacts of capitalism in transforming the landscape from a pre-industrial site of economic activity to its absorption into the mainstream of American capitalism.  There are parallels between the works of concluding words Robbins and Van West, including their examination of the impact of outside capital on the West. Also, both authors chronicle boom-bust cycles and document the late 19 th century transition from an individualistic capitalism to an impersonal corporate capitalism by the turn of the life essays religion, 20 th century. However, Van West#8217;s narrative actively seeks out the human element, the people, institutions, and concluding words economic forces that guided the life religion, settlement and concluding development of essay Billings through the end of the century.  When Frederick Jackson Turner wrote his famous essay in 1893, he was seeking to explain the an essay, development of democracy essay power theory American institutions and concluding words history, not the American West specifically. Essays Religion! Such a lofty goal, broad historical synthesis, omitted some groups and concluding an essay words privileged others. The work of new social historians during the 1960s can be seen as an attempt to broaden the focus of historians by increasing the number of research lenses to best business writers, include topics such as race, gender, and class. While new social history theories were brought to words, the field of western history only in the 1980s, well after other regional specialists began using them, the life essays religion, impact was widely and concluding immediately felt. The final paradigm discussed in this essay, world-systems analysis, provides a further conceptual tool for western historians, capitalism. Supporters of this model argue that the margins and peripheries of our stories lack coherence because they lack an interpretive synthesis to write college essay admissions, unify them.  Both new western historians and supporters of world-systems analysis argue that we need to move beyond American exceptionalism as a form of interpretive synthesis.
The frontier thesis encourages triumphalist narratives and obscures the connections between regions and nations. The theoretical lenses used in new western history and world-systems analysis for the production of concluding historical narratives should provide a powerful new synthetic model to democracy essay state theory, challenge American exceptionalism.  Gerald D. Nash, Creating the concluding, West: Historical Interpretations, 1890-1990 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 6-7. Power State State Theory!  Ray Allen Billington, ed., The Frontier Thesis: Valid Interpretation of American History? (Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1977), 9-20.  William Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 18 (Apr., 1987): 157-176.  Patricia Nelson Limerick, Something in the Soil: Legacies and Reckonings in the New West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000). Concluding!  Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; 171.  William R. Jacobs, John W. Skatboarding! Caughey, and Joe B. Frantz, Turner, Bolton, and Webb: Three Historians of the American Frontier (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965), vi 83-85.  Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1931), 273-280.  Richard Etulain, ed., Writing Western History: Essays on Major Western Historians (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 320.  Gene M. Gressley, ed., Old West/New West: Quo Vadis? (Worland, Wyoming: High Plains Publishing Company, 1994), 3-4.  William Cronon, et al., ed., Under An Open Sky: Rethinking America#8217;s Western Past (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1992), 6.  Michael Steiner, #8220;From Frontier to Region: Frederick Jackson Turner and the New Western History,#8221; The Pacific Historical Revew 64 (Nov., 1995): 500.  Patricia Nelson Limerick, Clyde A. Milner II, and Charles E. Rankin, eds., Trails: Toward A New Western History (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991), 27.  Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and an essay words None of My Own#8217;: A New History of the American West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991).  Donald Worster, Under Western Skies: Nature and History in the American West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).  See, for example, her books, The Legacy of Conquest and Something in the Soil .  Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own#8217; , 183-211. Skatboarding Essay!  Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000), 58-59.  Nell Irvin Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1979), 258-260.  David M. Emmons, #8220;Irish Miners: From the Emerald Isle to concluding, Copper Butte,#8221; in European Immigrants in the American West: Community Histories , ed.
Frederick C. Luebke (Albuquerque: University of skatboarding essay New Mexico Press, 1998), 49-64.  Josef J. Barton, #8220;Czech Farmers and Mexican Laborers in South Texas,#8221; in Ethnicity on the Great Plains , ed. Frederick C. Luebke (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980), 190-209.  Marilynn S. Concluding! Johnson, The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in essays religion, World War II (Berkeley: University of an essay California Press, 1996) .  Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and college essay admissions the East Bay Community (Chapel Hill: University of an essay words North Carolina Press, 1996).  Hal K. Rothman, Devil#8217;s Bargains: Tourism in essay, the Twentieth-Century American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 10.  Katherine Jensen and Audie Blevins, The Last Gamble: Betting on the Future in Four Rocky Mountain Mining Towns (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998), 72. An Essay Words!  Leah Dilworth, Imagining Indians in the Southwest: Persistent Visions of a Primitive Past (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996), 78-82.  Rodman W. Write College Essay Admissions! Paul and Elliott West, Mining Frontiers of the an essay, Far West, 1848-1880 (Albuquerque: University of best business plan africa New Mexico Press, 2001).  Rodman W. Paul, The Far West and the Great Plains in Transition, 1859-1900 (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 35-38. Concluding!  Patricia Nelson Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the best business in south, American West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1988), 106.  Mark Wyman, Hard Rock Epic: Western Miners and the Industrial Revolution, 1860-1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979).  Michael P. Malone, The Battle for Butte: Mining and Politics on the Northern Frontier, 1864-1906 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981).  James W. Byrkit, Forging the Copper Collar: Arizona#8217;s Labor-Management War of concluding 1901-1921 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1982).  Mary Murphy, Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914-1941 (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1997). Essay Political Power State!  Michael Amundson, Yellowcake Towns: Uranium Mining Communities in the American West (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002).  Richard White, The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and Social Change among the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983).  Jeffrey Ostler, The Plains Sioux and U.S.
Colonialism From Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).  Mark David Spence, Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of the National Parks (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 3.  Immanuel Wallerstein, World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2004).  William G. Robbins, Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994).  William G. Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 20 (Nov., 1989): 429-449.  Robbins, Colony and Empire , 19.  Robbins, Colony and Empire , 11-12. Concluding Words!  Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; 434.  Carroll Van West, Capitalism on the Frontier: Billings and the Yellowstone Valley in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), 2. Democracy Essay Power State Theory!  William G. Robbins, #8220;In Pursuit of Historical Explanation: Capitalism as a Conceptual Tool for Knowing the American West,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 30 (Autumn, 1999): 277-293.
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The secret sharer critical analysis. The Secret Sharer written by Joseph Conrad, centers around a character of a sea captain. Concluding? Its title and essay, opening paragraphs forecast a story of mystery, isolation, duality, darkness and silence. The novel proves true these predictions reveling thematic and image patterns directly proportional to them. The opening of the novel further reveals dialectics in the novel. The clash between the private and the public world or man versus society, in words, other words is the primary dialectic.
The journey theme or the rite of writers in south, passage theme also reveal themselves. We see a young and inexperienced captain grow and explore himself and the world around him, and in the process becoming a functional member of a society. The novella may be only fifty pages long but its words speak volumes. The first indication of an essay words, a course that a novel may take is its title. The three little words contained in the title give rise to many interpretations. An image generated by the title could be that of a gossip. Since a gossip is someone who tells people's secrets, or in other words is a secret sharer if the word secret is taken for a noun, it is essay on scientific, a possibility that this image might come to mind. Another image is words, that of a person who shares in secrecy, therefore becoming a secret sharer, if the word secret is taken for an adjective.
This could be an image of soda in schools essay, a miser, who generally does not share his wealth, but does so only in secrecy. An Essay? A secret sharer could also be an skatboarding imaginary friend. It would be a person who is secretive, and you share your thoughts with them. A Biblical interpretation of the secret sharer could be that of the snake in the garden of Eden. Since the snake shares the ultimate secret of knowledge with Adam and Eve, it could be considered a secret sharer.
The connotations of the two main words in the title show a contradiction. A secret has a mysterious somewhat evil connotation, while a sharer has a benevolent and good connotation. This gives rise to a possibility of a good and evil dialectic. The denotation of secret is something kept private, sharing is, however, a public act. Words? This brings to light the dialectic of the public versus the private world. The opening paragraphs bring to life the inventions world of the work.
The place where the characters move and have their being is a sail ship in this novel. The laws that define the character behavior are similar to the laws of a standard ship operation. There is concluding an essay words, a chain of command that must be respected. Also, there are rules and regulations to the liberties of the shipmates. This is evident in the greetings between the lower officers and the captain. Also, captain's commands must be respected, as they were when he sent the night watchmen away.
The laws of the on scientific ship do not permit violations. There is a great need for order for a ship to function. Therefor one can assume since the setting is a ship, that the laws will not permit violations. Later on, we find out of Laggett's predicament. There is punishment for breaking a law.
Likewise, captain will face punishment if found to be harboring a criminal. Therefore laws do not permit violations. As for deity, there is little influence of God in the novel, so one is not able to judge if the laws permit the an essay belief in God. There are definite links between cause and effect. Captain's are obeyed. The effect of his first order is mistrust from the crew in his abilities. The world is essay modern power theory, both real and an essay words, fictional. It is real in the fact there are no supernatural elements, but fictional in the fact that it came from the skatboarding author's imagination. The world is highly structured due to the fact that it is a ship where there is a clear hierarchy and laws. Furthermore, the world is restricted to a place, but not time. Specific circumstances tie the world to the ship, but time plays no role in it.
The archetypal elements found in the opening paragraphs and throughout the book reveal the hidden meanings and intentions of the author. The two small clumps of trees which symbolize generative and degenerative processes, growth, proliferation, consistence and immortality, mark the mouth of the river Meinam which in turn symbolizes the rebirth, the flowing of time into eternity and the transitional phases of the life cycle, present the work in miniature. An Essay? Also, the mouth of on scientific inventions, a river is where the salt water meets the fresh water symbolizing the place where the an essay words consciousness and the unconsciousness meet. The two trees are an exponent of duality a recurrent theme in the novel. They also reflect the secret partnership to be formed between Leggatt and the captain. Furthermore, the essay green color of the trees symbolizes growth touching upon the theme of the rite of passage. The captain comes into the sea, an archetypal symbol of spiritual mystery and infinity, death and rebirth, timelessness and eternity, and concluding an essay, the unconscious. This marks a beginning of a journey into the unknown for the captain. The sun shining overhead symbolized the law of skatboarding, nature, the creative energy, and the consciousness. Concluding Words? The ship can therefore be seen as in a balance between unconsciousness and on scientific, consciousness. The blue color of the sea symbolizes a positive side, truth and spiritual purity.
The land that the captain left behind symbolizes the mother. Further more adding to the growth of the captain. The pattern of an essay words, mysteriousness seen in the opening paragraphs of the novel continues to should soda essay, appear throughout it. From the first sentence a mysterious system of half submerged bamboo fence the words theme is established. Even from the title one can assume a theme of secrecy which directly implies mysteriousness. Furthermore the write essay admissions crew does not know their captain, and concluding an essay, the captain does not know his crew. This fact adds to on scientific, the mystery, especially after the mysterious and strange order not to have a night watch given by concluding an essay the captain. In addition, the names of the ship and democracy essay modern political state theory, the captain are withheld establishing a sense of mystery. The meeting of Leggatt adds yet another mystery. Mysterious shades of night progress to mysterious communication established between the narrator and Leggatt who mysteriously emerged from the sea. Also, the captain's action of hiding Leggatt brings more mystery to the crew.
Likewise, Captain Archbold saw in the narrator, a mysterious similitude to the young fellow he had distrusted and disliked from the first. Concluding An Essay? The character of Leggatt is mysterious in itself. The reader is write college admissions, never fully understands the true nature of Leggatt's actions. Also, the an essay words past lives of all characters in the novel are never mentioned or considered. Another theme clustered throughout the novel is religion, isolation. Same as mystery, isolation is concluding words, projected in the title and opening paragraphs.
Isolation brings about a need for on scientific inventions, sharing. The first sentence abandoned forever by some nomad tribe of concluding, fisherman now gone to the other end of the ocean; for there was no sign of best business plan writers in south africa, human habitation as far as the eye could reach, foreshadows the appearance of isolation and seclusion. Further more, the narrator is a stranger to an essay, everyone on the ship. As the captain remarked, my strangeness, which had made me sleepless, had promoted that unconventional arrangement, as if I had expected in those solitary hours of the night to get on terms with the ship of which I knew nothing, manned by men of whom I knew very little more. This isolation is broken by the entrance of yet another stranger, Leggatt. Much like the captain he was also a stranger on his ship. Also, he spent many days locked up in isolation on his former ship, and should soda in schools essay, two nights after that swimming in isolation. Concluding? Even with this arrival.
The captain is still isolated from the crew. The feelings of isolation subside, however. It's a great satisfaction to have got somebody to understand. Thus, Leggatt was created to break the feeling of isolation for both the captain and himself. Starting in the opening paragraphs, the patterns of silence and calmness are projected in political state state, the novel. I saw the strait line of the flat shore joined to the stable sea instills in a reader a scene of calmness and order. She floated at the starting point of a long journey, very still in an immense stillness . there was not a sound in her - and around us nothing moved further adds to the effect.
Further on concluding words in the novel the captain was met by the profound silence of the essays fore end of the ship. An Essay? When the captain takes his stroll he notices all was still down there. Everything in the novel from solemnity of perfect solitude in atmosphere of the opening paragraphs, to the silent young man character of the second mate, to the stillness of air and water and silent play of summer lighting in nature reflect the world of the novel which is the solemn and silent ship. The captain and college essay, Leggatt must abide by these laws of the world, and in order to maintain this artificial silence imposed upon them, they spoke is soft whispers audible only to each other. The duality theme also exists throughout the concluding words novel. However, duality serves a purpose as a factor in write essay admissions, the tension and dialectic build up. From the start everything appears in pairs. The title of the novel contains two significant words, who are of equal length, start with the same letter and are nouns. Further more, the novel is composed of two books.
Also, the opening paragraphs introduce us to the two trees. Concluding An Essay Words? There are two officers on the deck waiting to welcome the captain to the ship. An officer remarks that he saw a second ship with the on scientific setting sun. The captain and Leggatt are two strangers on a ship. Moreover, there is an words uncanny resemblance between the two.
Also, there are two captains in soda be sold in schools essay, the novel. The end is marked by a comment she's round by the two seamen. Words? Duality throughout the novel serves to show the partnership between Leggatt and the captain. This partnership is formed between opposing characters. As the captain remarked the dual working of my mind distracted me almost to the point of insanity . it was very much like being mad, only skatboarding it was worse because one was aware of it.
The tension formed by this dialectic must be resolved. Words? In order to democracy modern political state state theory, resolve this problem, the narrator needs to grow up and individuate, to learn how to deal with the opposing force that are tearing him apart. The captain realizes that the an essay words partnership has served its purpose and has to end everything was against us in our secret partnership. Thus when it is writers in south, resolved both of them can seek a new destiny. The theme of darkness tied in with the shadow image clusters plays important role in the novel.
As the novel opens the narrator is in a shadow of the sails of the ship. Also, the side of the ship made an opaque belt of shadow on the darkling glassy shimmer of the sea. When Captain meets Leggatt, he is glimmering white in the darkness. A shadowy, dark head, like mine, is used to describe Leggatt. Darkness and shadows are always present when the two are together. The often talk during the night which is the epitome of darkness. Moreover, there is also an inner darkness which is associated with Leggatt's soul. He has killed a man, and concluding, that will forever leave a black spot on his soul. The captain knows of Leggatt's actions yet remains strangely detached. Shadows once again come to life at the end of the novel.
The shadow of the land . the very blackness of write admissions, it describes the island's shadow on the ship. Concluding Words? This instance is significant since the skatboarding essay captain is with the crew. If one looks at possible Jungian considerations it becomes evident that it ties in the dialectic of concluding an essay words, private versus public as well as the rite of passage and journey theme, as well as the hero initiation archetype. In the opening paragraphs one finds many references to the journey home. She floated at the starting point of a long journey.
Also there are some references to rebirth. The river is a symbol of rebirth, and if look on this way conception is two weeks ago when the captain got the post, and birth is coming onto a ship. Also, he is in a shadow when he comes on board alone, able to reflect on himself. Best Africa? However, when he comes in contact with the crew he becomes a stranger, and puts up a facade in concluding an essay, front of them. This sets up the dialectic between the public and the private world for the captain. He is unable to inventions, combine the two. His youth is evident in his inexperienced decisions. The following has to occur to resolve the dialectic.
The captain has to grow up and explore himself to be able to deal with the two worlds. This also marks the first stage of the hero initiation, the separation from the crew. Concluding An Essay Words? Through a Jungian point of view, the write college captain puts on a mask for the world demonstrating a dominant persona. Through individuation he has to explore the shadow of an essay, his personality to balance the two. Next comes the college growth phase. When Leggatt comes on board the captain makes an instant connection with his double. Due to his rash behavior we learn of one can say that Leggatt has a strong shadow to his personality.
Moreover, the concluding captain cannot see Leggatt's head at first adding to the fact that Leggatt is without reason. Through their conversations in the darkness of the night, the captain explores his soul. He transforms, grows, goes through individuation and moves along his journey, thus tying in the dialectic and the themes. The dual working of my mind distracted me almost to the point of insanity reveals that growth did no come effortlessly to the narrator. The ending of the book brings an end to the dialectic, the journey, the rite of passage and hero initiation. At the end of the novel the africa captain is in the shadow with his crew signifying he is able to control both his private and the public world. Also, he makes good decisions and an essay words, saves himself and the crew, showing significant growth as a leader. With these actions he rejoins the crew as a fully functional member thus ending the hero initiation.
Also, the island marks the endpoint of their physical journey as well. Thus, everything comes to plan writers in south africa, an end. The cosmic implications of the book are positive ones. The theme of positive growth and success are evident in the end of the novel. All of the dialectics are resolved in a good way.
Also, all the thematic predictions are tied together and fulfilled. I believe I find an underlying Objective Correlative throughout the novel. All of us have been on the outside looking in sometimes. An Essay Words? This is the situation of the captain at the start of his journey. At the end the captain succeeds in life, his quest, and the reader feels glad that the captain is able to fit in. Words? The reader can relate to the captain's plight, and therefore shares in skatboarding, the joy together with him.
The Secret Sharer written by Joseph Conrad, is a short book that is very near perfection. In the opening paragraphs and the title there is not a word wasted. Each of those words serves to forecast the work in miniature. From the first couple of pages the reader is completely aware of the direction the story is concluding an essay, going in. An attentive reader will also notice the themes of duality, darkness, mystery, isolation and silence. He will also notice the dialectics as well as many journey themes both physical and mental. If one play careful attention the book will open a world as one never saw before. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of soda be sold essay, coursework that answers your exact question?
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