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Boomer Entrepreneurs: Selling Their Businesses Without Selling Out. A major economic trend is unfolding with barely a ripple of essay attention: Boomer business owners are approaching retirement age and an army of these entrepreneurs are, or will be, putting their companies up for sale. Boomers own 2.34 million privately-held businesses with nearly 25 million employees, calculates the nonprofit Project Equity. And the U.S. Census Bureau figures roughly 16 percent of thesis business owners were 65 or older in motivation music, 2012 . BizBuySell, the Internet’s largest business-for-sale marketplace, reports a record number of businesses changed hands in the second quarter of 2017 and retiring entrepreneurs fueled the deals. Massing Change in Business Ownership Ahead. How this massive change in feminism thesis, ownership plays out over the next 15 years will not only dramatically impact the quality of their lives. It will have major ripple effects on the life and employment opportunities in their local communities — for good and ill.
One reason so many of the small business owners will be selling: they’ll need the proceeds to essay finance their retirement. A new survey by Manta, an online community for small businesses, just found that 34 percent of entrepreneurs don’t have a retirement savings plan. Audiology Thesis? Yet 58 percent of them hope to retire before 65. Another fascinating business trend may be the answer for essay motivation music some of these entrepreneurs: privately-held investment firms eager to buy local small- and medium-sized businesses that they will grow and profit from. Rick Bauerly of Granite Equity Partners.
Take Granite Equity Partners in studies, St. Cloud, Minn., a boutique firm whose stated goal is to invest in medium-sized firms and sustain the businesses for “100 years.” It began with funds from essay motivation music 12 leading entrepreneurial families in the St. Cloud area. “Our notion was to keep local ownership local,” says Rick Bauerly, founder, managing partner and what short narrative essay chief executive officer. “Minnesota-based ownership of Minnesota-based companies. Business can be an important engine for community impact and music progress.” Granite Equity’s philosophy attracted Tom Grones, now 65, in advertising copy professional s service, 2013 when he sold the firm his St. Essay Motivation? Cloud company, GeoComm, which provides county governments with turnkey emergency 911 services. The GeoComm CEO for 18 years, Grones had been planning for his retirement, eager to have more time to focus on csr case, civic and philanthropic endeavors and travel with his wife Janet, GeoComm’s vp of operations.
Grones told me he’d been deeply attached to St. Cloud “where we raised a family” and to music GeoComm’s employees “who are largely responsible for growing the company.” When Grones sold his business to Granite Equity, he retained a small stake and became board chair. “Granite’s approach is to support the company and invest for the long-haul,” he says. Reflecting on the deal, he adds that “Granite has almost a community development approach.” These days, in addition to keeping a hand in audiology, GeoComm, Grones has embraced other activities now that he’s retired. They include: chairing an essay advisory group overseeing a plan to develop St. Cloud’s downtown; making charitable contributions to feminism thesis support local at-risk children; managing a family scholarship for Minneapolis high school students and traveling with Janet — most recently to a Bedouin camp in southern Jordan. GeoComm, meantime, has continued growing and adding to its payroll since the acquisition. Motivation Music? In January 2016, the company bought Oregon-based GeoSolve, a geographical information system firm.
Jeff Rogers of OneAccord Capital. Finding a Buyer to Answer 3 Questions. A similar narrative is audiology thesis unfolding around Kirkland, Wash., a Seattle suburb, where OneAccord Capital specializes in acquiring companies owned by local retirement-age entrepreneurs — especially ones in manufacturing, distribution and services-related businesses with revenues of $5 million to $25 million. “We’re acquiring profitable companies. We buy good companies that are small” and help them grow, says Jeff Rogers, founder and chairman of essay music OneAccord Capital. Here, the money comes from 14 experienced entrepreneurs recycling some of their gains back into the regional economy.
Their investment time horizon: 10 to 15 years. Feminism Thesis? “We’re trying to preserve the local business and community employment,” says Rogers. “These companies are part of the Rotary Club, they hire locally, they support the Little League teams.” Charlie LaNasa, age 64, likes the strategy and profited from essay motivation music it personally. Feminism Thesis? He signed a deal in May to essay motivation sell his company, BestWorth Rommel, to OneAccord. LaNasa bought the business — which designs, builds and installs canopies and exteriors for gas stations, convenience stores and the like — in 2001, when the advertising, founders decided to retire. When LaNasa started thinking about retiring, he looked for the answer to three questions: Did the essay, acquirer have: values consistent with his Christian faith; the competency to grow the business and a willingness to take care of his roughly 100 employees? OneAccord checked all three boxes.
LaNasa still has a stake in BestWorth Rommel and is also an adviser and board member. OneAccord quickly installed a new president, a U.S. Army vet with manufacturing experience. Although LaNasa was risk-averse and kept the company debt-free, he thinks the new leadership will rightly add some debt financing to copy cv essay professional s service pick up the pace of growth. With the essay, sale so recent, LaNasas finds himself helping out with the transition by getting employees comfortable with their new circumstances. “It’s a process,” he says. The Grones and LaNasa examples are far different from the classic exit strategy of finding a “strategic buyer,” either a competitor or a financial firm planning to slash costs and quickly flip the company. Both of these options often involve lost jobs and stripped assets, an anathema to founders who spent decades building up their business. “Founders are interested in making sure employees are taken care of and feminism thesis that their legacy is carried on,” says Patrick Donohue, president and chief executive officer of essay music Hill Capital Corporation in St. Paul, Minn. Fortunately, there are signs that more capital may adopt the approach of Granite Equity and OneAccord. Specifically, wealthy entrepreneurs are increasingly establishing “family offices,” private investment firms that manage their fortunes. “There are a lot of local family offices that are getting involved in direct investing,” says Donohue. Advertising Copy Writing? Another approach to essay motivation local-centric ownership transitions: Employee Stock Ownership Plans or ESOPs.
An ESOP is an employee benefit plan that invests primarily in the employer’s stock. The idea is that worker-owned companies will have a powerful motivation to underline quotes maintain ties to essay motivation music the community. That’s certainly the case with Mann Lake, the world’s largest bee supply company, headquartered in the tiny vacation destination of Hackensack, Minn. Underline Quotes? Jack and Betty Thomas started Mann Lake out of their garage in 1983; it now has facilities in California, Pennsylvania and Texas. Childless, the couple decided to pass ownership onto their roughly 450 employees through an ESOP. Essay Motivation? “The big reason was that the employees are the ones who really built the company,” says Jack, 81, who still gets up at 4:35 in the morning to go to work. Essay? “What the ESOP does is give the music, company continuity if something happened to my wife and I.” I’d love to see more new owners come in when boomer owners retire, keeping the existing workforce and eventually adding to what is a short payroll. That would help let the entrepreneurs start their next chapters and be able to continue giving back to local organizations, from motivation Little League to Big Brothers Big Sisters. Essay Underline? But for this to happen, private capital needs to embrace the long haul. Next Avenue Editors Also Recommend: 3 Mistakes to Avoid When Selling Your Business.
Family Businesses Hand the Reins to the Next Generation. Motivation? Next Avenue is studies bringing you stories that are not only essay motivation, motivating and inspiring but are also changing lives. What Short Narrative Essay? We know that because we hear it from essay our readers every single day. One reader says, Every time I read a post, I feel like I'm able to take a single, clear lesson away from it, which is copy professional writing why I think it's so great. Your generous donation will help us continue to bring you the information you care about. Music? What story will you help make possible? Hide Show Comments. 12 Ways to Save Big Bucks on Movie Tickets.
A little planning upfront can keep your ticket prices down. 4 Ways to Bounce Back From a Financial Setback. These financial resilience strategies can help you rebound faster and stronger. Csr Case? U.S. News Picks the Best Places to essay motivation Retire in the U.S. Famous for college rankings, the media outlet has some surprising choices. Thesis? 4 People to motivation music Never Take Financial Advice From. Feminism Thesis? Words to the wise about people who just want to help. The Social Security Program for People With Dementia. Representative Payees keep tabs on Social Security retirement benefits. Why America#8217;s Inequality Is a Threat to Living Longer.
A warning from one of the nation's top researchers in aging. Essay? How Parents Can Help Their Financially Anxious Millennials. Four surveys show where kids of boomers and Gen Xers could use nudging. Thomas Wolfe Was Right: You Can#8217;t Go Home Again. A world traveler doesn't recognize his boyhood town in East Texas. Next Avenue List. Meet the Top 50 Influencers in Aging 2017. Grief, Hope and My Dead Ex-Boyfriend#8217;s Suits. My failed relationship’s greatest success: helping unemployed strangers. Is There a Robot #8216;Friend#8217; in Your Future?
The idea is not as crazy as it may seem, given the aging of the population.
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Restoring Rosewood: Movements from Pain to Power to Peace. January 1, 1923, marked the beginning of a massacre that abolished the small, predominantly Black town of Rosewood, Florida, following an motivation music, alleged rape of 3 page essay d-day, a young White woman. Rosewood is a story of physical, emotional, and spiritual pain, as many lost their lives and essay music all lost their possessions when the feminism thesis, town was burned to essay motivation the ground. It is also one of copy cv essay professional s service, power, as two elderly survivors broke an over sixty-year vow of silence to reclaim their agency and bring attention to their struggle while fighting to hold the State of Florida financially responsible. Drawing on Martha Minow, Donald Shriver, and Carolyn Yoder, I propose a six-phase peace and restoration model for Rosewood including: 1) facing fears, 2) truth-telling and fact-finding, 3) forgiving, 4) healing, 5) memory-making, and 6) holistic restoration, allowing the essay motivation, pain-filled story of Rosewood to end with restorative peace. God of our weary years, God of our silent tears, Thou Who hast brought us thus far on the way; Thou Who hast by Thy might, led us into thesis the light,
Keep us forever in the path, we pray. Lest our feet stray from the places, our God, where we met Thee. Lest our hearts, drunk with the wine of the world, we forget Thee. Shadowed beneath Thy hand, may we forever stand, True to our God, true to our native land. – James Weldon Johnson, “Lift Every Voice and Sing” Written in 1900 by James Weldon Johnson and composed by his brother J. Rosamond Johnson, the original purpose of “Lift Every Voice and Sing” was to honor the motivation music, birth of feminism thesis, Abraham Lincoln. This song quickly gained a significant place in motivation music, the cultural heritage of essay underline quotes, Blacks in America, ultimately being referred to as the Negro National Anthem.
The Johnson brothers were natives of Jacksonville, Florida, a city on the northeast coast of Florida, only essay music 120 miles from a small, primarily Black town near the north central, western coast of Florida known as Rosewood. “Lift Every Voice and Sing” is comprised of three powerful verses that tell a story of liberty, with the final verse offering a prayer to God. This final prayer, quoted above, will be used in this article as the essay, guide for the movements of the survivors and descendants of the 1923 massacre in Rosewood, Florida, from music pain to quotes power to peace, while identifying a restoration model that aims towards peace for other similar atrocities. The Johnsons’ visionary composition continues to unite and inspire millions of persons who share common experiences more than a century later, and today the story of Rosewood has the same potential. Areas I explore in relation to the Rosewood massacre include the motivation music, physical, emotional, and essay underline spiritual pain suffered by those living in Rosewood during the massacre and those descended from them; the power , which is undergirded by a belief in God and the rights of all humanity, that enabled survivors to motivation challenge the State of Florida; and the quest for lasting peace , which I argue can only come from holistic restoration. PAIN: God of studies, Our Weary Years, God of Our Silent Tears. In the early 1920s, Florida, like many southern states, was a place of tension and tenuous racial balance between Blacks and motivation Whites. Underline Quotes? This tension was particularly true in Levy County, an essay motivation music, area of north central Florida, where Rosewood is located. In small towns throughout Florida, a new sense of unease and fear was growing as Blacks and Whites sought to studies redefine progress in the post-Reconstruction era. In August of 1920, four Black men in Macclenny, Florida, were taken from the local jail and lynched for the alleged rape of a White woman.
November of essay, that year found the Black community in Ocoee, Florida, destroyed because of a dispute over voting rights—including the destruction of twenty-five homes, two churches, and a Masonic lodge; in addition two Whites and at least five Blacks were killed. In 1921, U.S. Representative L. C. Dyer of Missouri re-introduced a bill in the House of Representatives making lynching a federal crime. Essay? The bill passed in the House, but southern Senators organized a filibuster preventing it from being voted on in the Senate, so the bill died, allowing lynching to essay continue without any recourse for the Blacks who were most often those lynched. One year later in 3 page essay d-day, Perry, Florida, a Black man was burned at the stake after being accused of the murder of a White schoolteacher. His murder did not satisfy the Whites in Perry, so they also burned major social anchors in music, the Black community including a Black church, school, Masonic lodge, and meeting hall. This destruction of a portion of the Black section of csr case, Perry occurred on December 9, 1922, less than one month before what would become known as the massacre at Rosewood, located only an hour and a half away. As is evidenced by these examples, by the early 1920s, the post-Reconstruction era had become the Deconstruction Era for many Black communities that sought growth and progress. 2. Less than fifty miles from Rosewood, on December 31, 1922, Gainesville, Florida, became the site for a Ku Klux Klan parade which brought participants from throughout southern Georgia and other parts of Florida. The Gainesville Daily Sun reported that about one hundred Klansmen in full regalia paraded through downtown Gainesville where at least one placard declared “First and Always – Protect Womanhood.” In this area of Florida, it was not uncommon for the Klan to make appearances both as a way of generating support and instilling fear.
Blacks faced constant reminders of the potential deadly consequences for challenging the Southern status quo. Essay? The silence of many Blacks, who feared death if they spoke up or fought back, only feminism thesis strengthened the power that the Whites received because of their fear tactics. Silent tears of victims and their loved ones gave witness to the physical, emotional, and spiritual pain that Blacks endured at the hands of certain Whites during this time in the South. 3. Established in 1845, Rosewood, Florida, is located near the Gulf of Mexico, ten miles east of Cedar Key. From 1910 to 1920, the Black population in Rosewood increased from 128 to 344, thus outnumbering the population of Whites there, which increased from essay motivation music 158 to 294 in the same period. 4 The population of feminism thesis, Rosewood had not only increased in number, but the Black residents of Rosewood continuously improved their lives and their independence. As one survivor, Wilson Hall, describes, during the early 1920s, Rosewood had become a predominantly Black town, with residents owning acres of essay music, land, owning two-story homes with farm animals, and essay growing small crops and other self-sustaining provisions. In an interview conducted for the official report submitted to the Florida Board of Regents, in A Documented History of the Incident Which Occurred at Rosewood, Florida in January 1923 , Hall recalled, “My father was the principal at the school, plus he was a minister, and he also did a lot of sharecropping for people all around Levy County…We had a big smoke house…plus we had a store that we used to also supply the community…he had just about everything you needed on a farm, plus caskets for people who died.” 5 He went on to explain that his father, Charles Bakkus Hall, “had 80 acres in one place and had 60 in another.” 6 The Halls and others who called Rosewood home maintained close, interlocking, and supportive relationships with all Black families in the area. The Bradley, Carrier, Goins, and McCoy families were other prominent Black families with rich legacies in Rosewood, who helped build and maintain the town.
Their nice homes featured lace curtains covering pane glass windows, front and back porches, and essay three and four bedrooms. The Carrier’s home had a piano, and another home had an organ. As Elmer Johnson, a White man whose father was a foreman at advertising cv essay professional writing the Sumner Mill at the time of the massacre, attested, “…Bradley had a beautiful house. It wasn’t painted but it was a big substantial house. Bradley himself was apparently a very intelligent Black man and had acquired property. In those days that was not very popular.” Johnson recalled that Bradley “had cattle and motivation music a lot nicer home than most of the clowns that were there,” as he referred to White men who came to Rosewood during the massacre from near Starke in Bradford County. 7 It was believed by some, including some Whites, that jealousy played a role in the White men’s desire to completely burn and 3 page essay d-day destroy all aspects of this Black town’s relative prosperity compared to the neighboring, predominantly White town of Sumner, Florida.
8. The pain that was about to be felt in Rosewood began on January 1, 1923; however, this new year would be one that would never become old in the minds of the residents of motivation, Rosewood, but would live on in dreams, nightmares, memories, and fears. Common reports from the area state that Fannie Taylor, a young White woman who lived in Sumner, was attacked by a man on the morning of January 1 after her husband had gone to work at the Sawmill. (New Year’s Day fell on a Monday, so the people of Rosewood and Sumner went to csr case work). From there two basic accounts of the incident exist. The White residents of Sumner say that an unknown Black man, whom they assumed was an escapee from a nearby chain gang, assaulted Fannie Taylor in her home. The Black residents of Rosewood recall a different report of the incident that was given to motivation them by Sarah Carrier and her granddaughter Philomena Goins, who was a little over eleven years old at the time.
Carrier and Goins were domestic workers at the Taylor’s house at the time of the studies, alleged attack, making them the only witnesses other than Fannie Taylor and motivation music the man. Carrier and Goins said that Taylor’s boyfriend, whom they had seen there before, arrived at the house after her husband had gone to work, and this boyfriend physically assaulted Taylor on that day. The racial climate in the South at that time was such that the mere inference of disrespect toward a White woman was enough to s service result in the brutal hanging of a Black man. In very little time, the stage in this small southern town was set for a violent eruption of trouble. It is commonly suggested by both Blacks and essay motivation Whites who were living in the area at thesis the time that persons from outside (likely those who had been in attendance at the Klan rally in motivation music, Gainesville the advertising copy, day before) were the ones who executed mass destruction on motivation, Rosewood. Despite Fannie Taylor’s claim that an “unknown” Negro assaulted her, all of those murdered in Rosewood were well known to Whites living in Sumner. During the first week of January 1923, the New Year was rung in with the sounds of bullets and the smell of fire and fear instead of celebratory expressions. Csr Case? Wilson Hall, who was eight years old at the time of the essay, massacre, recalls the fear and resulting pain increasing in Rosewood: “…when they [White men] started coming you can see the lights of the automobiles, see for miles, but when my mother looked out the window upstairs she saw the narrative, cars coming then she went and got all the kids up and said ‘ya’ll lets go, cause they are coming.’ See cause that had been going for motivation, about a week, it was just working that way and they had started to killing more and more people.” 9 Reports of the number of audiology thesis, deaths in the Rosewood massacre vary from seven to over one hundred, and the actual number likely will never be known. Motivation Music? 10 After working hard all of their lives to what essay build homes and livelihoods, families were forced to flee and leave all they owned in the middle of the night. Arnett Turner Goins, who was a young boy at the time, could not understand why he could not go back to his house from the swamp where they were hiding to get the new suit he had received just a week before for music, Christmas.
11 While they hid, they could often see the flames and smell the smoke of their memories. Mothers, older sisters, and others kept young children quiet as they hid out in the woods and the swamps, praying and feminism thesis waiting on deliverance from their fear and essay music pain. The escaped prisoner who was suspected of csr case, being this “unknown” Negro was never found in Rosewood or any of the surrounding areas. All Black areas of essay motivation, Rosewood were burned to the ground as White vigilantes exacted their forms of 3 page essay d-day, “justice” as retaliation for the alleged rape and for Black progress in the town. This self-supporting town—with its two churches, Masonic hall, homes, and music small farm-based businesses, along with people’s pictures, family items, and personal belongings—was completely destroyed.
The only structures that remained standing in Rosewood after Whites raided the town over the course of essay, a week were the home and store of White business owner John Wright. God of Our Weary Years, God of Our Silent Tears. Despite their firm belief in motivation, God, many living in Rosewood felt like God and those throughout the United States had forgotten them during the first week of January in 1923. Men and women of Rosewood fought back to defend their families and homes as they were able. When they were forced to flee, men would not hide in essay, the same area as the essay motivation music, women and children because their male presence could put those hiding in greater danger if found. Many of the men walked through the turpentine swamps deep into the woods through which they made their escape. The plight of Rosewood citizens was known far beyond the advertising cv essay professional, state of Florida, as the essay music, story of Rosewood ran on feminism thesis, the cover of The Los Angeles Times , The Atlanta Constitution , The Washington Post , Boston Daily Globe , and The New York Times as the massacre was happening. 12 The newspapers reported the deaths and motivation music destruction, and they even vividly captured the horrific story of an elderly Black man forced to dig his own grave before being shot into it. Despite this feature story, neither the state nor the audiology, national government responded to the massacre, and motivation the silent tears of the Rosewood residents fell virtually unnoticed. The nation was aware of feminism thesis, this mass destruction in Rosewood, but its moral conscience was not pricked to act.
The pain continued as those who had been residents of Rosewood fled and became exiles in other areas of Florida. Essay? Days after they had been forced into the swamps, many of the 3 page, women and motivation music children were finally able to escape by a train that took them to Gainesville, Florida. When they reached Gainesville, they were cold, scared, and in need of help and support. As they sought other safe places to live, they found that even some of their family members were afraid to take them in for short narrative essay, fear of the essay, retaliation that might come their way. One descendant recalled being turned away by an older sister in a neighboring town because of fear that her life would be in jeopardy if Whites came looking for persons from thesis Rosewood. Although those who had escaped from Rosewood faced and would continue to face many challenges, they worked together in their new locations and essay tried to remain supportive as a communal family, just as they had in the past. The adjustments were challenging for those who were starting over.
Although Mary Hall’s mother, also named Mary, had been able to audiology maintain their spacious two-story home and manage the store they owned in Rosewood, she was forced to music live in studies, cramped quarters and beg for handouts after fleeing to Gainesville. 13 The mental and emotional pain felt during those initial days of the massacre continued as Rosewood residents mourned the essay motivation, loss of their cultural and 3 page essay spiritual foundations destroyed in the fire. Essay? Those who escaped experienced psychic pain as they sought to create new lives pseudo-ex-nihilo against the backdrop of traumatic memories hidden behind silent tears. Many of the survivors took a vow of silence that would last for sixty years as they sought to csr case hide the motivation, pain they experienced. The fear of what might happen if they were ever to return to studies the place where their physical, emotional, and spiritual lives were formed was passed down to their children, and as a result no one went back for over half a century.
One survivor, Lonnie Jefferson Carroll, explained, “I changed my name, I was afraid that the Whites might track me down and kill me.” 14 The nation’s memory was brief, as stories of the race riot in Florida disappeared from media coverage within a week. During the sixty years of their silence, the memory of Rosewood became limited to the virtually silent tears offered up to a God who had been with the survivors and now descendants during both the good times before the massacre and the weary and strong years after their lives were interrupted. This vow of essay, silence influenced the limited discussions of Rosewood outside of “the Family.” The Rosewood survivors did not come together and agree upon this vow explicitly. Advertising Copy Cv Essay S Service? Many descendants recalled hushed conversations concerning the massacre and the aftermath among relatives who escaped from Rosewood. Some expressed fear of being found and harmed by the perpetrators of the violence, thus reinforcing their silence. Others expressed embarrassment about the way they had to flee from their own homes in music, the middle of the essay quotes, night. After an article appeared in the St. Petersburg Times about the Rosewood story, descendant Annett Theresa Goins Shakir told her father that he was a celebrity now.
Her father, Arnette Goins, revealed an element of shame-driven silence when he responded, “You mean you want people to essay motivation know that your dad had to run into what narrative essay the woods like a scared rabbit.” 15 Similarly, when reporter Ed Bradley asked Minnie Lee Langley during a 1983 60 Minutes interview why she kept the secret for so long, she replied, “I didn’t want them to know just what horror I come along, you know, through all of this and what the White folks had did to us, because I thought it was really mean. What they did to us was mean and did it without cause.” 16 Other survivors silently revisited the motivation music, memory of the tragedy each year during the time of the massacre. Descendant Mae McCoy McDonald recalls her mother would become somewhat melancholy as the end of the year began to approach, a feeling that did not lift until after the New Year had passed. 17. Elmer Johnson was almost six years old and what is a living in Sumner during the essay, time of the massacre.
He recalls ways his father helped protect Black workers at the sawmill from the White mobs. Johnson also recalls aspects of the massacre that were revolting to him. There appears to essay underline quotes be a relative silence among Whites in the area, as well, but many of the details of essay motivation music, Johnson’s memories indicate that the short essay, events were likely recounted repeatedly as he grew up. 18. As significant time passed, the pain did not necessarily disappear, but a movement began to happen that would ultimately break the silence and lead to the acquisition of elements of power for the survivors and descendants of Rosewood. 19. POWER: Lest Our Feet Stray for the Places Our God Where We Met Thee.
Notions of remembering, acknowledging pain, and recovering memories are often powerful concepts for both the violated and the violators in the aftermath of atrocities. While the majority of Blacks from Rosewood took a vow of silence, it appears that many Whites in the Rosewood area took a similar vow, which resulted in the purging of official records and decreased knowledge of the painful events of that time. The result of the silence was a void in motivation music, the legacy of memory and history, which was passed on to subsequent generations. As Mary Hall reflected when asked about a photograph of family members, “we had no photograph, we didn’t have no clothes, no shoes, no nothing, but we just got right out of bed, you know, and out in csr case, the woods with what we had on.” 20 Vows of silence also meant that some of the memories were lost to future generations completely, as mothers, grandmothers, fathers, and motivation music others often refused to feminism thesis speak of the massacre to their children. Years later it would be some of those direct descendants, including Arnett Goins, Mae McCoy McDonald, and Arnett T. Doctor, along with others, who would work with the motivation music, remaining survivors to right the past wrongs and 3 page essay d-day seek recognition of the essay music, injustices the survivors endured. Lest Our Feet Stray from the Places Our God Where We Met Thee. The residents of Rosewood, as well as their descendants, found strength and essay underline power in religious experiences, which played a key role in their lives. God was integral to their overall belief systems. While living in Rosewood, many residents met God in essay music, the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, and others may have encountered God in nature while working in the nearby woods and swamps. 21 The residents had met God in Rosewood, yet despite the tragedy they suffered, including the burning of their churches, they did not leave God there.
Even in exile, they found power and strength in God, as most survivors and their families continued to be members of A.M.E. Churches, where they have remained active in the life of the church into essay underline the present. 22 The church became a place to encounter a different source of essay, power in the midst of a society that sought to disempower them. For many Blacks during this time, power through prayers and faith were often the only immediately accessible recourses against antagonistic White societal forces in the post-Reconstruction era. Despite the spiritual power gained on Sunday, Rosewood survivors faced assaults on their political and economic power on a daily basis. Blacks who had owned large plots of land in Rosewood encountered White men trying to coerce Rosewood landowners into thesis signing over their land to them. In some cases, the music, land was illegally taken from Black landowners, as court records in Levy County later indicated. 23 Often the power associated with the self-determination the residents experienced in Rosewood waned, as many had to feminism thesis scrape by simply to create a meager existence in motivation music, a new place. Power was acquiesced in the silence born out of fear, as perpetrators were not called on essay, to account for their actions. 24.
In spite of fear and a perceived lack of power, two older women, Minnie Lee Langley and essay Lee Ruth Bradley Davis, who were young girls as they lived through the Rosewood massacre, decided to step out on faith and break the crippling silence, as they finally sought legal recourse after sixty years. In breaking the audiology, silence, the pain previously hidden was uncovered and revealed, and the quest towards holistic healing and restoration began. The breaking of the silence found help in motivation, 1982 as Gary Moore, an investigative reporter with the St. Petersburg Times, became inquisitive about an area of underline quotes, Florida where there never seemed to be any Black persons. Essay Music? Moore’s article on the area became an expose of sorts that brought attention to the decades-old massacre. 25 Media continued to play a role in the exposure of the massacre, which led to increased power for some survivors. Csr Case Studies? After returning to Rosewood in 1983 for a segment with Ed Bradley featured on CBS’s 60 Minutes , Lee Ruth Bradley Davis and Minnie Lee Langley began the process of telling their story more broadly to lawyers at the Holland and Knight law firm. 26 Because the silence had been broken, the potential for positive power was enhanced and the movement towards peace became a possibility.
PEACE: May We Forever Stand True to Our God, True to Our Native Land. There are six areas I identify that form a model towards peace and motivation restoration for survivors and descendants of Rosewood. The model is developed from my reflection on peacekeeping theory and the actual praxis of survivors and descendants of copy professional, Rosewood. Essay Music? The legal and political process that was utilized by the survivors and descendants is viewed with an aim towards peacebuilding. In forming my peace and restoration model, I engage Martha Minow and Donald W. Shriver, Jr.’s work on truth-telling and forgiveness, and Carolyn Yoder’s work on trauma and studies memory.
27 The areas of my peace and restoration model are: 1) facing fears, 2) truth-telling and essay motivation fact-finding, 3) forgiving, 4) healing, 5) memory-making, and 6) holistic restoration. These areas will be explained based on the process experienced by advertising cv essay professional s service writing, the survivors and descendants of Rosewood, as well as by additional recommendations that I include for further holistic restoration. Motivation? Although the last survivor died in audiology, 2010, there remains a need for restoration of the communities impacted by the Rosewood massacre. Because of the complexities surrounding the healing of the pain and hurt experienced and of bridging the lacuna created between the Black and White communities by the massacre and essay motivation decades of essay, silence, my model of healing and restoration primarily focuses on those efforts for the Black community, while acknowledging a significant need for healing and essay motivation music restoration in the White community also. 28. I offer this as one model for Rosewood, acknowledging that the unique past of Rosewood provides an copy cv essay professional s service, opportunity to uncover additional methods of peace and restoration within groups and communities that have been violently broken, disrupted, and dispersed. Rosewood: A Model towards Peace and Restoration. When Minnie Lee Langley, Lee Ruth Bradley Davis, Leroy Carrier, and Sam Hall returned to Rosewood for the first time in 1983 for motivation music, the taping of the 60 Minutes segment with Ed Bradley, there was a lot of apprehension and fear. Their last view of Rosewood was sixty years earlier as terrified children driven from their homes in the middle of the night, forced to leave all that they knew and loved and not knowing if they would even live to see the morning. As the years passed, the stories of terror and trauma remained, without any new contemporary stories inserted into the litany that had been replayed in their minds for six decades.
Prior to their trip, Ed Bradley asked if they would go back to feminism thesis Rosewood, and Langley replied, “I would go, if y’all don’t let ‘em bother me or nothing like that. I don’t want to go there and get hurt or nothin’.” Edith Foster, a White woman who was sixteen years old at essay music the time of the massacre, confirmed the validity of Langley’s fear, as she recalled that the White men who had come in to destroy the town said, “They had destroyed all the buildings and said there’d never be no more to live here no more, you know, they couldn’t let them come back and quotes live.” 29 So as the essay motivation music, survivors walked through the land that had once sustained them, they were facing their fears in an effort to ultimately move forward. Advertising Cv Essay Professional Writing? Restorative power is found in essay motivation music, facing fears instead of continuing to push the painful, fear-generating memories into the recesses of the mind. Because these four survivors faced their fears and returned to the place of the origin of their pain, they were able to clear the way for underline, other survivors and descendants to make the painful trip back to Rosewood with less trepidation. White persons who remained in the area after the massacre also lived with fear, although this fear was generally unacknowledged. Some Whites who moved to Rosewood after the destruction of the music, town and took advantage of the abandoned property expressed fears of previous Black owners returning to claim their land. When Mae McCoy McDonald returned to Rosewood in 3 page essay, the 1990s, she went to essay see the graveyard where her maternal grandmother was buried before the massacre. 3 Page Essay? She encountered a White man whose property is now used to access the graveyard, who through tears kept asking, “y’all aren’t going to come and take my land are you?” 30 His tears reveal an essay, understanding of the circumstances that enabled him to come into ownership of the land that now blocked direct access to one of the sacred resting places for Black residents of Rosewood. In order to move towards restoration, this encounter and others like it will become necessary as both Black and White persons face their fears. The difficult questions that arise from such encounters will have to be addressed with contextual care that gives consideration to cv essay both the current landholders and the previous landowners, as well as to the socio-political factors that led to a reification of an essay motivation, imbalance of power. As fears are faced, truth is uncovered, revealing truths associated with beliefs, feelings, assumptions, and csr case experiences that have been known yet hidden for years.
Martha Minow expresses that there is a “restorative power of truth-telling” that seeks to expose the secrets of a sick society in an effort to heal that society. 31 As Minow states, “Testifying publicly before an official body can transform the seemingly private experience into a public one.” 32 What had initially been a public event, known throughout the nation, quickly began to live in the private shadows and whispers of the survivors and motivation music descendants of Rosewood for sixty years before becoming public again. Through the sharing of their story on 60 Minutes and in the legal depositions that began to be taken following the request of Langley and Davis, Rosewood residents and descendants publicized their once private experiences of silent suffering. Through numerous interviews conducted by attorneys, historians, and journalists, the vow of feminism thesis, silence of Rosewood survivors was broken, and essay the power that had been maintained by those who committed the atrocities began to short narrative erode, as the White residents’ controversial contributions to the history of the area were no longer overlooked. It is interesting to note the limited number of White persons who articulated their “truth” through depositions and interviews.
33 Media persons including Gary Moore and Ed Bradley functioned as the initial receiving party for the truth-telling sessions. The second receiving parties for the truth-telling were the essay, Holland and Knight attorneys obtained by Rosewood survivors and professional s service writing descendants and historians assigned by the State of music, Florida who collected depositions and interviews which were all publicized within the legislative arm of the State of 3 page, Florida, thus granting the very important aspect of official acknowledgment of their truth. Archbishop Desmond Tutu, when working with the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), stated, “The purpose of finding out the truth is not in order for essay motivation music, people to csr case be prosecuted. It is essay so that we can use the truth as part of the process of copy cv essay s service writing, healing our nation.” 34 Similarly, Minow explains that when a truth commission is separated from prosecutions, vengeance and retribution can be avoided. Since the Rosewood truth-telling was sought apart from prosecution, potential resistance by essay, those who could have been prosecuted was avoided. However, unlike the TRC that provided conditional amnesty for offenders, there was not a provision for amnesty for those who participated in the Rosewood massacre and essay the subsequent cover-ups by county officials as land was taken in the absence of the original owners. This lack of amnesty may be one reason so few White persons shared their stories, as they feared being prosecuted for their past direct involvement or complicity. 35 As time continues to pass, fewer and fewer people will actually know how White families came into possession of land in Rosewood. The missing court records of land ownership in Rosewood during the early 1920s combined with the silence among Whites regarding the massacre will lead to incorrect narratives for subsequent generations, who may grow up believing that they have always owned the land within their families. Including provisional amnesty as part of the truth-telling process, as was done with the TRC, may have benefitted those involved with Rosewood, as a fuller truth may have emerged.
If additional truth-telling takes place in the future, Rosewood descendants should decide what level of forgiveness they are collectively comfortable with offering and determine whether amnesty should be a part of motivation, that. Holistic healing and restoration also requires an objective method of fact-finding as multiple stories and multiple truths are shared. Fact-finding quests differ from truth-telling by including elements of cross examination and truth-testing. In 1993, a team of historians from Florida A M University, Florida State University, and the University of csr case studies, Florida was appointed by the State Legislature to begin the mission of finding the facts surrounding the massacre at Rosewood. 36 The team collected documents from motivation Levy County, the State of Florida, newspapers, and many other sources that added details not shared by the Black and White communities of Rosewood and Sumner through truth-telling. The documentation that supported the facts found by what short, the team of historians helps insure that this history will not be lost and possibly provides credence to stories shared by survivors and perpetrators of essay, violence. After pain is revisited through truth-telling and fact-finding, moving to forgiveness may require crossing a lacuna than cannot be easily bridged. Copy Cv Essay Professional Writing? Most of the essay, documents that exist within the official Rosewood depositions and copy professional writing interviews do not show an explicit desire of the survivors of the essay music, massacre to forgive their perpetrators. We do see, however, that despite longstanding negative effects from the massacre, the survivors and descendants did not seek violent vengeance on those who perpetrated the advertising copy cv essay, violence. In An Ethic for motivation, Enemies: Forgiveness in feminism thesis, Politics , Donald Shriver outlines four dimensions of forgiveness: 1) memory suffused with moral judgment, 2) the abandonment of vengeance, 3) empathy for essay, the enemy’s humanity, and 4) the renewal of human relationship. 37 For Shriver, forgiveness in a political context “is an act that joins moral truth, forbearance, empathy, and professional s service writing commitment to repair a fractured human relation.” 38 The first two of these four dimensions of forgiveness that Shriver outlines for political groups appear to have taken place within the Rosewood family.
However, the third and music fourth dimensions of advertising cv essay professional, empathy for the enemy’s humanity and a renewal of human relationship have been limited by the lack of sustained engagement across the color line. Although the Black and White families in Rosewood and Sumner knew each well other in 1923, the essay, empathy and renewal of human relationships will require some acknowledgment of and interaction with persons from csr case studies each side of the color line. These human relationships will be further considered in the final component of motivation, my model. The strength of the “Rosewood Family,” which encompasses all of the family lines of historic Black Rosewood families, has made possible the process of forgiveness. Audiology Thesis? For members of the Rosewood Family, the move from pain to music forgiveness cannot be separated from their enduring Christian faith, which empowered them and encouraged them to forgive. Audiology Thesis? In 1984, Annie Bell Lee started the Rosewood Family Reunion, where the motivation, families come together each year and studies share stories with the younger generations, thus promoting a renewal of motivation music, familial relationships for csr case, all that is reminiscent of Shriver’s fourth dimension of forgiveness.
Carolyn Yoder acknowledges that “trauma often creates a need to ‘restory’ our lives,” and this is what a peace and restoration model that includes truth-telling, healing, and memory-making allows individuals and societies to do. 39 Rosewood descendants are able to restory their lives for future generations as they keep the experiences of essay motivation, Rosewood alive at the annual Rosewood Family Reunions through stories focused not on victimhood but on thesis, survival, strength, and faith. At the motivation, 2007 Rosewood Family Reunion, themes of survival, strength, and faith became evident as the cv essay, family business meeting opened with singing the spiritual “Thank You Lord” with the inclusion of verses “Made a Way” and “Been So Good” and each verse ending with the refrain, “and I just want to thank you Lord.” As the families come together each year and continue to tell the story of motivation music, Rosewood, they experience strength, pride, and freedom without being shackled to the pain of their past, making a road to forgiveness and the path to holistic restoration possible. The violent and traumatic manner in which the Rosewood community experienced massive group trauma as it was destroyed by White vigilantes from throughout the region, and the significant amount of time that has transpired since the destruction without any type of focused healing suggest the wounds from the csr case studies, pain endured are deep and may require multiple forms of healing. Yoder posits, “Traumas occur in a context, a social setting, with dynamic interactions between the individual and music the surrounding society,” and audiology historical trauma is the “cumulative emotional and psychological wounding over the lifespan and across generations emanating from massive group trauma.” 40 The wounds of Rosewood have extended across generations requiring broad healing. One of the ways to heal from traumatic events is to motivation music bring things back to a place of balance.
Therefore, as historic traumatic events like Rosewood lead to disorder, disempowerment, and disconnection, healing involves a return of order, empowerment, and reconnection. The healing process begins with a) the acknowledgement of the pain and brokenness, b) the actual grieving of the losses that can range from physical to emotional to spiritual, and c) the desire to begin a journey that may uncover memories and pain that have been hidden and possibly even ignored as a survival mechanism in the face of trauma. As Yoder writes, “Mourning and grieving are essential for finding healing and breaking the cycles. Acknowledging and telling the story counteracts the isolation, silence, fear, shame, or ‘unspeakable’ horror.” 41 The Rosewood Family, led by Langley and Davis, began the first steps towards healing when they broke the silence that they maintained for over half a century. The breaking of the audiology, silence allowed the motivation music, actual grieving, mourning, and 3 page essay therefore healing process to begin.
The acknowledgment of the wrong, the grieving of the losses of innocence, possession, and music history were experienced through the exercise in truth-telling. In 1994, the d-day, Rosewood survivors sought restitution in the amount of essay motivation music, $7.2 million, which would provide between $15,000 to $270,000 to the survivors and descendants based on how much they could document their losses. The Rosewood survivors and descendants actually received restitution from the State of Florida totaling $2.1 million, with a maximum amount of advertising copy professional, $150,000 for remaining survivors and lesser amounts for descendants (some as low as $3,000). A scholarship was also established by the State for descendants of Rosewood to attend any of the state universities in Florida. The State of Florida intentionally did not call these monetary disbursements reparations because the legislators did not want to set a political precedent of financial reparation in the state and the nation. This decision further minimizes the power of the acknowledgement of the act of terrorism that took place in essay motivation, Rosewood, but also other similar acts that impacted Blacks in Ocoee, Florida; Tulsa, Oklahoma; and other cities throughout the nation.
42. Having land stolen was a significant component of the physical, emotional, and spiritual pain of the Rosewood residents and their descendants. Unlike the culminating lines of Johnson’s “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” in which being shadowed by the Hand of what is a narrative, God kept them true to God and true to their native land, many in motivation music, the Rosewood family still do not feel free to return to their native land. This loss of land also has had a significant economic impact, since former Black landowners in essay quotes, Rosewood are no longer able to pass land down through generations or use it as an asset or form of collateral. This collective loss of land and place, and the resulting loss of cultural and community memory, are significant breaches in the foundations of the Rosewood community that must be restored for enduring peace to motivation thrive in the future. The very act of thinking about essay, returning, and motivation music even possibly owning land in Rosewood again, is a part of the cv essay writing, healing process, as deep healing will become evident when descendants from Rosewood and Sumner live in peace within the same vicinity again. Music? Since the 1994 awarding of restitution by the State of Florida, there has been limited talk (but talk nonetheless) by some descendants of possibly returning to advertising copy s service Rosewood in the future. If this potential is to become reality, those returning to Rosewood will need to maintain their spiritual connection that has sustained them in the decades since the massacre, so that Rosewood can once again become for motivation music, them a site of peace and not pain. The role of social and cultural memory is an important aspect on the path to peace and restoration after tragedy. As the studies, story of Rosewood continues to be recovered in the collective memory of music, society, lasting memorials, museums, and copy cv essay s service writing markers should be established that help make memories of the past and provide direction for the future. Currently, Rosewood descendants Janie Bradley Black and Lizzie Robinson Jenkins both operate separate tours of Rosewood in an effort to enhance broader memory-making.
Black frequently participates in essay motivation music, organizations such as Southern Truth and Reconciliation (STAR) and speaks to groups including history departments at audiology universities, thus expanding the knowledge of the Rosewood story. Motivation? Jenkins has also written a book, The Real Rosewood , that reflects the journey of her family and a few of the other Rosewood families. 43 Further, there are a few websites that provide information about Rosewood, thus enabling global access to the story of the struggle and 3 page essay d-day the progress of the Rosewood families. Essay Music? 44 Alan Lipke of Race with History: Between Civil War and Civil Rights , has also produced a CD that includes interviews with survivors, descendants, and state officials. All of these efforts recognize the generational impact of the sharing of memories and essay reinforce the role of continuous education to help prevent atrocities like Rosewood from re-occurring in the future. Partially fictive stories based on the true experiences of the Rosewood massacre have also helped to ensure that it will be remembered by future generations. Music? These stories include those captured in the 1996 book Like Judgment Day: The Ruin and essay Redemption of a Town Called Rosewood , by Michael D’Orso, and the 1997 movie Rosewood , directed by essay motivation, John Singleton. While based on the history of Rosewood, creative elements have been added to both the book and film. 45 While these two efforts have had a broader reach, it is thesis important to ensure that the music, memory-making center primarily on elements consistent with the truth-telling and fact-finding components. After the underline, State of Florida’s decision to compensate survivors and essay motivation descendants, Displays for Schools created a traveling exhibit to educate communities about professional s service, Rosewood that traveled from 1999 through 2009. On May 4, 2004, led by the efforts of Lizzie Robinson Jenkins, a permanent Florida Heritage Landmark marker was dedicated in Rosewood by then Florida Governor Jeb Bush.
While the essay music, traveling displays and essay underline quotes Heritage Landmark are helpful, a more permanent memorial and museum should also be created in Rosewood as a combination of memory and reclamation of sacred space. Yoder links memorials to healing, indicating, “Memorials can provide a physical place to grieve, a symbolic expression of loss, and comfort that our loved ones will not be unacknowledged or forgotten.” 46 The sacred nature of place should be acknowledged in such a way that the survivors and descendants are able to return to their native land and visit the graves of their loved ones without having to ask for egress to the burial site of their family members. As Martha Minow suggests, “Restorative justice seeks to repair the injustice, to make up for it, and to effect corrective changes in the record, in the relationships, and in motivation, future behavior.” 47 Similarly, holistic restoration requires a strengthening of csr case studies, broken relationships and an empowering of those who have been disempowered. In 1993, at age eighty, when asked about what Rosewood had taken away, Wilson Hall replied, “Taken everything, taken my childhood, my manhood, they took my early education, and everything that I should have had, they took it….I had ‘bout as much taken from me since Rosewood by essay music, the Whites, as I had before, but I still can’t hold grudges against the future for the past. So I just try to keep pushing, keep pushing like I still am.” 48 When faced with the deep loss of audiology thesis, Wilson Hall and others, we know some effort should be made by music, direct or indirect perpetrators to right the wrongs, even as we also know there are limits to efforts of reparations and restitution. 49 The aim of the essay, restoration efforts should be empowerment of those who have been disempowered through the initial and subsequent acts. Monetary reparations will not restore Hall’s or others’ childhood or personhood, but a repentant society that acknowledges its wrongdoing and its complicity can help restore dignity to those who have been repeatedly violated, both in the initial act and the ongoing lack of recognition of and reparation for the wrongdoing. In most peacebuilding efforts, the goal is music reconciliation. Reconciliation is understood in many ways, including that which gives splintered groups the thesis, ability to walk together again. I see reconciliation similar to having a cast placed on a break, which acknowledges that something is broken and is in the process of being put back together.
However, I believe that the ultimate goal for Rosewood should not stop at music reconciliation but move toward holistic restoration. I see restoration as what one has after the audiology, cast has been removed and essay motivation music the broken areas now have the strength to hold together without being supported by outside forces, such as a Truth and Reconciliation Commission. This restoration happens because the feminism thesis, time and the support of the reconciliation process has allowed for essay music, deep healing, enabling what was broken to not only be mended but restored. Holistic restoration includes restoration of humanity, restoration to community by righting and repairing relationships, recognition and memory-making of the past, reconciliatory reparations to include restitution of loss where possible, and a commitment to change for future generations. One can be reconciled in studies, the sense that apologies have been made and people are able to be in the same location without the same intensity of essay music, pain. Csr Case? Yet, there can still be structural, social, and motivation music cultural inequities that lead to a lack of wholeness for is a essay, individuals, families, and communities in the areas that were broken. With restoration, those areas that were broken and destroyed are not only mended but also restored to their places of strength. As this analogy is applied to the Rosewood massacre, one must ask what happens during the motivation, restoration process to previous unhelpful societal elements, such as the race and class dynamics that kept Rosewood and Sumner residents divided. It would be doubly harmful if dynamics such as segregation were reinforced through the csr case studies, restoration process so that the communities could look as they did before the essay music, violent breech.
As such, a restoration process needs to operate from principles of justice and equality, acknowledging the challenges of race and class realities while intentionally working through a model that enables forward progress. The peace and restoration model of Rosewood may apply to other communities who desire to uncover and restore their past in essay quotes, an effort to have an internal and external future of peace. Despite some advancement, our American society still has deep wounds and pains that cannot be partially bandaged but must be dealt with directly for healing to take place. Media has historically played a role in exposing and righting wrongs done to persons mistreated in essay motivation music, prejudiced societies. As Minnie Langley and Lee Ruth Davis spoke out on the 60 Minutes program, and later the Maury Povich Show in 1993, their story re-exposed the tragedy that had taken place decades before. Yet the work is not finished; current generations should also use media outlets to continue to csr case teach about both the violent break that occurred in the Rosewood Massacre and the peaceful move towards restoration that continues. Creating space for essay music, learning and discussions about essay, this tragedy within our nation’s history helps to insure that a tragedy of this magnitude will not happen again. The acknowledgement, correction, or, in many instances, insertion of history is a part of peacebuilding through justice that enables holistic societal restoration. In my view, a return to their native land is critical for restoration for motivation music, the Rosewood Family.
How else can complete restoration happen in the midst of diasporic displacement that results in multi-layered generational losses? Families that have drawn strength from each other over the years must be able to copy cv essay writing return to the place where their ancestors are buried and teach younger generations about all aspects of their legacy—self-sufficiency, exile, and survival. As Japanese-Americans learned in their quest for reparation following internment during World War II, for reparation to be successful, “it had to motivation music be a national effort, not just an effort pursued by Americans of Japanese ancestry.” 50 Similarly, the feminism thesis, restoration of essay motivation music, Rosewood, and 3 page essay d-day other similar communities like Ocoee, Florida, and Wilmington, North Carolina, must receive national focus, promoting the need for peace and restoration as critical for the future of the entire nation, not just those individuals directly affected by motivation music, the event. Encounters between the essay, Black and essay music White survivors, perpetrators, and descendants will be important for the possibility of real restoration and peace. Essay Underline Quotes? While it may not be possible for the encounter to happen face to motivation face, it would be helpful for both groups to hear and understand the stories of each other and then to begin to work towards developing a new story that acknowledges the quotes, pains of the past and moves into essay motivation the possibilities of restoration in the future. Essay? This notion of real peace and restoration is similar to motivation John Paul Lederach’s description of reconciliation as the place where truth and mercy, justice and peace meet, the social space where people and things come together. 51 Restoring Rosewood requires that Blacks and Whites come together and begin to work through the facing of fears, truth-telling and fact-finding, forgiving, healing, memory-making, and holistic restoration. The story of Rosewood and its journey from pain to power to peace is a story that is still evolving towards true peace.
My model for feminism thesis, peace and restoration identifies changes that still need to be made in motivation, order for personal and societal restoration to take place. The efforts being made through the annual Rosewood Family Reunions lead me to believe that one day there will be holistic restoration that is not limited to the monetary restitution. We will know it when a return to advertising copy cv essay professional s service writing the native land is possible for Rosewood descendants and the tension between Blacks and Whites has been transformed from notions of collective pain to collective peace.
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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the music, job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. Why The Answer to “How Long Should a Resume Be?” Hasn’t Changed. The experts say that your resume should be one page long exactly. Is that good advice or outdated? The truth is that one-page resumes are generally preferred by hiring professionals for good reasons — the one-page format forces the candidate to focus on quotes the most relevant details and makes it easier for the recruiter or hiring manager to scan for the needed skills, certifications, abilities, and essay motivation music, experience. We reached out to several hiring managers and recruiters and got similar input from everyone: Resumes are meant to be concise. There are some exceptions to the rule (experienced candidates can get away with longer resumes and there are specialized types of resumes for what short essay, fields like government and academia) , but when in music doubt, keep your resume focused and down to a page. A concise resume will grab the reviewer’s attention by highlighting the most valuable information and leaving out distractions, fluff, and feminism thesis, bloated bullet points. Does that mean that a two-page resume will knock you out of contention?
Probably not, but most hiring decision makers won’t read the whole thing — and if you don’t get their attention by the middle of the first page, the rest doesn’t matter. An overly-long resume may also portray you as unfocused or uninformed. Surprisingly, many job candidates resist following the “one-page” rule. They want to squeeze every bit of experience and education onto motivation, their resumes (the misguided theory is to throw everything out there and hope something grabs their interest). Or maybe they just don’t know the formatting and writing tricks that can help them fit all of the good stuff on one easy-to-scan page. Now that you understand more about how long a resume should be, and WHY it’s important to keep the length of the resume short and the layout easy to read, how do you turn your overstuffed resume masterpiece into a one-page interview magnet? These 15 tips will help you trim your lengthy resume in what is a narrative essay short order. Too much information. That’s what it typically boils down to when you have multiple pages in your resume.
You’re simply providing more information than the hiring personnel need in essay motivation music order to get a good overall picture of your experience, skills, and career accomplishments. Resist the temptation to list every experience you’ve had in thesis life down to candy striper service at the hospital as a teenager. Now is the motivation music, time to focus on the skills, talents, and cv essay s service, experience that are absolutely relevant to the position you WANT . Be ruthless if you have to motivation music, be. Don’t waste space on anything that doesn’t help you make a compelling case for your fit for the job. Read on for some additional tips on the type of information that can (and often should) typically be cut. A broad resume makes you look like a Jack-of-all trades and a master of csr case studies none.
Keep your resume focused very tightly on the experience and essay music, accomplishments that have prepared you for THIS position . Yes, it takes more time. However, it increases your chances of landing that coveted big interview. You don’t have to start from scratch every time. A good general resume can serve as a useful template to be customized and tweaked for different opportunities. You can customize your summary section to csr case studies, position you perfectly for each position. You can also add, remove, or edit bullet points to ensure the reviewer will focus on the most relevant details. Eliminate Unnecessary Resume Elements. You may have been told in essay motivation the past that an “objectives” section was a necessity on any well-rounded resume. Quotes? Times have changed though. Employers want to know what you can do for them, rather than the other way around.
Keep your resume focused on the things you have to offer them – skills, accomplishments, and dollars and essay motivation, cents. Hobbies is another unnecessary element for a resume. Unless your hobby actually builds skills that are useful in advertising copy cv essay professional your career, it’s better to save that valuable resume real estate for something that will enhance your hirability for essay motivation music, the company instead. There’s no need to advertising, state that your references are available upon request. They know. If you’re short on space, you may also consider combining sections so that you have fewer subheadings on the resume. This eliminates unnecessary subheadings, which can take up a lot of resume space. Resume keywords are usually associated with applicant tracking systems that scan resumes, but HR personnel and motivation, hiring managers also look for keywords when they review new resumes. What are keywords? They are specific words and phrases that have been prioritized as key requirements for the position. Keywords can relate to short narrative essay, education, years of experience, programming languages, nursing specialties, accomplishments, certifications, degrees – virtually any specific things employers are looking for.
The good news is that many employers leave a roadmap for specific keywords they’re interested in essay motivation when creating job descriptions. Always keep a copy of the job description handy when writing and refining your resume so that you do not inadvertently miss or remove one of these critical words. The job description will also give you a good sense of which keywords are irrelevant for the position, allowing you to audiology, edit down the descriptions of music less-relevant positions or experiences. Simple and elegant is the audiology thesis, way to go when it comes to resume formatting. A simple format is easier for the hiring manager to read and also requires less space on music the page. Make headlines that are scannable and skimmable, and use traditional fonts. Use white space strategically to ensure key details stand out. Keep sentences short and to essay, the point. If you use bullet points, keep them brief.
Review your resume with a ruthless eye and eliminate unnecessary words. Essay Motivation? Be selective about adjectives and adverbs and essay underline quotes, look for motivation, repetitive and redundant phrases. Tiny edits can add up to short narrative, a much more focused and essay motivation music, compelling resume. In accepted resume speak, you also don’t need the first-person subject as it is assumed. Advertising Professional S Service Writing? This simple step eliminates many unnecessary “I”s and helps to focus the attention on the verbs — what you did and what you can do. Candidates with more years of experience are expected to have longer resumes. Essay Motivation? They have more to talk about, which can be an advantage, but can also lead to an overcrowded resume. You don’t have to include your entire work history dating back to is a narrative essay, your first job delivering newspapers as a school child.
Your most recent work experience is what most recruiters are interested in. Essay Motivation Music? They’re looking for the skills that are fine-tuned and ready for use today. Studies? More importantly, they’re looking for essay motivation, skills that will be beneficial to them. For positions you held more than 10-12 years ago, keep the descriptions very brief (or consider dropping them if they don’t add value) Try to view your resume from the perspective of the hiring manager. Focus on what’s relevant to feminism thesis, the hiring company, not your own goals and interests. You want your reader to essay motivation, IMMEDIATELY see your fit for the position.
Don’t make them guess or interpret or read for more than six seconds. Csr Case? This means that the top of essay motivation your resume is prime real estate — and this is advertising cv essay professional s service writing also why a summary statement can be so useful, especially if you are switching careers or your most recent position isn’t an obvious precursor to the job you want. The resume also isn’t the music, place to go into advertising cv essay s service writing detail about why you want this job or how this job or company can launch your career. Eventually, the company will be interested in your goals and motivations — once they have determined that you have the basic skills to do the job and they want to take the time to interview you. Motivation? Save it for csr case studies, the interview or mention it briefly in the cover letter. Shift Focus to essay music, Achievement instead of Responsibility. The words “ responsible for ” are only is a narrative essay two little words, but they can become behemoths on resumes – especially when repeated in essay motivation every bullet for every job you’ve held since college. Advertising Copy Cv Essay? Instead of focusing on the boring generic job description, shift the focus of your resume to motivation music, your accomplishments on the job. Did you save the company money, MAKE the company money, get promoted? What important accomplishments are you most proud of? Did you come up with new methods, ideas, approaches?
Did you master a particular skill or technology? What made you GREAT in the role? Results and achievements show how you stand out. Cut the feminism thesis, generic “duties” bullet points or find a way to essay, make them specific to you. These are the words that get attention from potential employers. They move you from the “ thinker ” column to the “ doer ” column and make you a very attractive employee. When referring to your skills and accomplishments, use present tense action verbs for audiology, current positions and past tense for previously-held positions. A great action verb makes your writing more concise and dynamic. Essay Motivation Music? Consider “lead” vs. “serve as coordinator…” or “responsible for managing…” Great action verbs for your resume according to the University of Michigan, include: Administer Analyze Assess Coordinate Counsel Design Direct Interpret Mediate Monitor Recruit Reduce Review Restructure A few more for good measure: allocate, approve, automate, decrease, launch, increase, overhaul, propel, propose, and restructure.
These words indicate that you were the force behind these actions and that you’re not one to sit idly by while others do the hard work. They make you a highly attractive commodity to thesis, employers. Beware of overused adjectives as well such as: seasoned, excellent, energetic, motivated, driven, and exceptional. Make Your Bullet Points More Efficient. Bullets can play an important role on your resume. Bullets make your text easier to scan and draw attention to essay motivation, your bragging points (i.e. “ I saved my company $XX dollars ” ). However, bullet points take up a lot of space on a resume and audiology thesis, many job candidates overuse them or waste space with their bullet formatting choices. If your resume needs trimming, look for bullet points that can be combined. Responsible for hiring servers Oversee training of new wait staff.
Responsible for essay motivation music, hiring and training all wait staff. You should also consider the formatting of essay your bullet points Don’t waste a lot of space before and after the bullet. Motivation Music? Some resume writers recommend moving the left edge of the bulleted text flush with the text of other lines so that the bullet extends beyond the margin in order to conserve space – this is especially helpful in terms of long, multi-lined bullet points. Redundancy is essay quotes a huge waste of resume space. Motivation Music? It’s a particular challenge when you have held multiple jobs in the same field and/or with similar duties. I have seen resumes with identical bulleted lists for each position. You can avoid this with creative writing and formatting. For instance, programmers who have experience with various programming languages throughout their careers can list their proficiencies across multiple language in a single paragraph, instead of listing the languages used in each position individually. With multiple positions within the same company: Use Formatting Tricks But Avoid Overcrowding.
In an cv essay professional writing effort to save space, many candidates end up squeezing all of their information together and creating a terrible reading experience. White space is important in a document that’s designed to be scanned quickly. Without white space, all of the content blends together and nothing stands out. Avoid tiny fonts, razor-thin margins, and essay motivation music, stingy line spacing. Yes, you can make more space by making small adjustments in these areas, but be careful. Remember to make the resume readable above all else.
We agree with those who recommend going no smaller than 10-point font. Combine bullets, but avoid long paragraphs and large blocks of 3 page essay d-day text. They’re not reader-friendly (especially for readers on mobile devices) and create visual clutter that makes it difficult for readers to skim the resume in search of the information they really want. Never underestimate the power of proofreading. Essay Music? First drafts are overly wordy by nature. It can also be very difficult to edit your own work — especially after staring at the same words for what essay, hours at a time.
Finish your first draft and then step away. Sleep on motivation it if you can. Then approach the resume with a fresh eye and carefully proofread for both errors and opportunities to edit for cv essay professional s service, length. Even better, ask a trusted friend to take an objective look for you. Often, a third party will spot things we miss. We see what we meant to essay motivation music, say and advertising professional, they see what’s really there.
The real secret to success when editing a lengthy resume is that the job is never really done. Once you think you’ve removed all the essay motivation, unnecessary words possible, it’s time to read through the resume again striking out 3 page every word that doesn’t do this one essential thing: make YOU look hirable. There may not be a perfect formula to essay, follow, but keeping your resume short and to csr case, the point is the key, especially when you remember the 6-Second Rule (recruiters spend 6 seconds on average looking at music, a resume). Following these tips faithfully can help you remove clutter and make your resume concise, focused, scannable, and reader-friendly. Remember that the goal is to grab the attention of recruiters, HR managers, and hiring personnel — and ultimately get you in the door for an interview so you can close the deal. Pamela Skillings is 3 page co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and essay motivation music, JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of audiology thesis New York. She is an adjunct professor at essay music, New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. 3 Comment to How Long Should a Resume Be?
Absolutely brilliant article. Copy Cv Essay? Any job-seeker will highly benefited from this. Read this carefully before you are going to present yourself in music front of the csr case studies, professional facile. Great article. .Earlier today, I was having the essay motivation, one page rule conversation with my neighbor as they asked to print out their resume using by printer… I wouldn’t let them leave my house until wet got it all on one page! A lot of other phenomenal tips in advertising professional s service writing here. I’m forwarding her this article now! The only problem is essay that your article from March 1st 2015, “How to Get the Applicant Tracking System to Pick Your Resume”, directly contradicts this advice – “Dare to go long on your resume.
Once upon a time it was poor form to create a resume that was longer than one or two pages. The new normal is to create longer resumes that allow you to 3 page d-day, include the keywords you need to get noticed.” So which is it? Keep it to one page and don’t make it past the essay motivation, ATS? Or go longer to include key words that get you through to the HR Manager and then lose out based on csr case studies the six second rule? They’re both great articles with solid advice – just completely contradictory and essay motivation music, confusing if one were to csr case studies, follow either one first and then read the other. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at motivation music, the American Management Association. Audiology? Continue reading.
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The impact of essay motivation HIV and AIDS research: a case study from Swaziland. Swaziland is experiencing the world#x02019;s worst HIV and AIDS epidemic. Prevalence rose from 3 page essay four percent of essay music antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to 42.6 percent in essay underline, 2004. The Report #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019; published in 2007 bought together social and economic indicators. It built a picture of the epidemic as a humanitarian emergency, requiring urgent action from international organisations, donors, and governments. Following a targeted communications effort, the report was believed to music have raised the audiology, profile of the issue and Swaziland - a success story for HIV and AIDS research. Keen to understand how, where and why the report had an impact, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division commissioned an assessment to track and evaluate the influence of the research. This tapped into music, literature on the significance of understanding the research-to-policy interface. This paper outlines the report and its impact.
It explores key findings from the assessment and suggests lessons for future research projects. The paper demonstrates that, although complex, and not without methodological issues, impact assessment of research can be of real value to researchers in understanding the research-to-policy interface. Only by gaining insight into this process can researchers move forward in delivering effective research. HIV and AIDS Research in Swaziland. The Kingdom of Swaziland is a small, landlocked Southern African country with a population of about one million. Audiology. In the 1980#x02019;s it experienced a significant upturn in investment and essay motivation music growth, benefiting from a regional advantage due to war in Mozambique and apartheid in South Africa.
This was combined with relative political stability, sound macroeconomic policies, and a cheap and productive workforce, and resulted in significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Between 1985 and 1999 the growth rate was 6% and the well-being of the Swazi#x02019;s was on a modest upward trajectory . Since 2000 these gains have been reversed, largely due to studies the impact of HIV and AIDS. Swaziland has the motivation music, distressing distinction of having the highest HIV prevalence rate in the world. Its epidemic spread with exceptional speed, from four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004 . The 2006 data seemed to essay underline offer some hope with a decline to motivation 39.2 percent, but the feminism thesis, 2008 survey recorded a rise to 42 percent . Mortality rose and life expectancy fell from 60 years in 1997 to 31.3 years in motivation music, 2004, the world#x02019;s lowest . Swaziland is additionally handicapped because the economic success of the 1980s and early 1990s mean it is essay underline quotes categorised as a middle-income country, and cannot access international support available to essay low-income countries. D-day. While it was believed that AIDS was having a drastic impact on essay, many facets of Swazi society and the economy there were few hard data to back this up.
The people of Swaziland knew that they were attending more funerals, agricultural production was declining, and the economy was in difficulty. However, no one had collected data across all sectors and looked at the effects on the country as a whole. In early 2007 the terms of reference for a study to assess the feminism thesis, impact of the AIDS epidemic across the nation were drawn up. The ideas were developed primarily by Dr Derek Von Wissell, Head of the National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS in Swaziland (NERCHA) and Professor Alan Whiteside, Director of the Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at essay motivation, the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The research was partly funded by HEARD and led by Amy Whalley, a former Overseas Development Institute Fellow who had worked with NERCHA and the Ministry of Health and guided by Whiteside and staff at NERCHA. Essay. Whalley#x02019;s task was to essay music gather and analyse information on what was going on across the nation using available data sets; to compare Swaziland#x02019;s situation with other countries and thus build advocacy material for use inside the country and with the international community. The write up was primarily by Whalley with major input by Whiteside. In October 2007 the report, #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for advertising copy writing, Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019;, (here after called #x02018;Reviewing Emergencies#x02019;) was published , distributed and disseminated.
In June 2008 the impact of the work was evaluated and is the subject of the article. Reviewing Emergencies used key socio-economic indicators from many sources to build a holistic and multidimensional picture of impact of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland. Motivation. Information was obtained on demographic changes, emergency thresholds, health, social indicators, orphans, coping mechanisms, economic growth and investment and agriculture. These were tracked over what is a short narrative essay, time. For advocacy purposes Swazi data was compared with that of essay motivation Zambia and Malawi, poorer countries with lower prevalence. The report painted a bleak picture showing that Swaziland is feminism thesis experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to countries besieged by conflict or struggling in the wake of a severe natural disaster. AIDS has been a slow-onset disaster, leading to a long-term catastrophe, but requiring an urgent response. The report spoke to two audiences. For Swazi#x02019;s it confirmed that AIDS was indeed having a devastating effect on their nation. The same message was aimed at the international community. However it also urged the latter to re-examine the HIV and AIDS epidemic.
It sought to broaden the traditional consensus on what constitutes an emergency to include #x02018;long-wave emergencies#x02019;. Effective interventions require both an immediate emergency response but also have to build capacity for long-term programmes . Essay Motivation Music. In the feminism thesis, course of the research the motivation, country#x02019;s classification emerged as an important issue. As a lower-middle income country Swaziland is not eligible for quotes, international development assistance (IDA) grants from the World Bank, and concessional-lending . The report challenged the use of GDP per capita as an indicator to set the status of a country and motivation music its access to advertising copy cv essay professional s service writing support in the face of a generalised AIDS epidemic. It noted the global perception of #x02018;middle-income countries#x02019; is that they need less support and are somehow #x02018;less deserving#x02019;. (Figure #x200B; (Figure1 1 ) Assessing the impact: The research to policy interface.
Much of SRH and HIV and AIDS research, particularly in the development arena, aims to influence policy, it is #x0201c;research committed to improvement#x0201d; . Policy makers are increasingly concerned to make policy choices underpinned by rigorous research. The research-to-policy interface is a fast growing area of study, particularly in the SRH and essay motivation music HIV and AIDS research communities. The purposes are two fold: accountability of a research organisation, demonstrating achievement and value for money for funders; and as a learning exercise, developing a better understanding of the thesis, research impact process in order to enhance future impact . HEARD is an applied research organisation aiming to mobilise evidence for interventions in health and HIV in the region . Only by identifying where change has transpired as a result of its research, where it has not, and essay motivation the reasons for this, can it deliver effective research. Impact assessment is an underdeveloped field of study, in part due to the complex and dynamic nature of audiology thesis research impacts and motivation the consequent difficulty in quotes, measuring them. Sumner, Perkins and Lindstrom (2008, unpublished) identify a number of significant problems when attempting to track the essay motivation, impact of research: difficulty in determining conceptual influence (on opinion, attitudes and thinking); identifying research users, timing of assessment; attributing impact in the context of other drivers; and using qualitative and 3 page subjective data .
Notwithstanding such issues, if real understanding of research-to-policy interface is to be achieved, an assessment must also explain why impacts took place, going beyond just identifying them. Difficult as it may be, there are good reasons for attempting to evaluate the essay motivation, impact of thesis policy research . The assessment considered here offers an example of this work, in the context of a complex and multi-player environment. It seemed that the Reviewing Emergencies report had been effective in influencing policymakers. We believed the report had had an impact for Swaziland both conceptually, on the way people think about HIV, AIDS and emergency responses and instrumentally, influencing behaviour and policy. In mid 2008, the decision was taken to carry out an assessment of the impact of the report to determine the validity of essay this claim and understand what #x02018;worked#x02019; and what #x02018;didn#x02019;t#x02019;. Studies. Fiona Henry, who was awarded a fellowship by the University of Edinburgh to work with HEARD, was tasked with leading the assessment.
The specific objectives were to: #x02022; Document the creation and dissemination of the report; #x02022; Identify and explain its impact; #x02022; Identify any barriers and/or limitations to its impact; #x02022; Draw lessons for maximising the impact of future research. This article was developed from the assessment assisted by a presentation given at the meeting of DFID funded Research Programme Consortia on #x02018;Strengthening the research to policy and practice interface: Exploring strategies used by research organisations working on Sexual and music Reproductive Health and HIV and AIDS#x02019; held in Liverpool in May 2009; and 3 page essay through peer review. In an ideal world an impact assessment should be designed from the outset; this ultimately makes the process of collecting information to track impact easier. This was not done due to lack of essay motivation staff and time and is acknowledged as a limitation. The lesson learnt is to plan dissemination and the evaluation of activities at the beginning of advertising cv essay a project, and motivation music budget for this. Two broad categories exist for impact assessments; forward-tracking, from research to outcome, and backwards-tracking, from decisions taken to potential research influence. Our impact assessment wanted to track from publication to studies outcome.
However, forward-tracking approaches can have serious limitations . They are often linear in approach, neglecting the complexity of the processes at work and the significance of context. The policy environment is influenced by socio-cultural, political and economic factors and motivation music these must be acknowledged in order to understand why an impact took place. Advertising S Service Writing. Taking this into motivation music, account, the assessment attempts to put identified #x02018;impacts#x02019; into a relevant context. The assessment cannot claim to fully understand the influence of other #x02018;drivers#x02019; on is a short narrative essay, outcomes. Policy research is only one of many sources of information used in decision making or to essay form opinion. To conceptualise the counterfactual, and isolate the impacts of Reviewing Emergencies alone, would be both resource intensive and difficult to audiology determine. As a consequence, the impact assessment could not claim outright attribution of policy impacts. It instead recognises impacts as contributions to change, where the evidence supported such claims. This difficult methodological issue of essay motivation music attributing outcomes can result in a #x02018;shying away#x02019; from impact assessments .
However, with a pragmatic approach to understanding impact, based on evidence and informed opinion, and understanding that impacts will rarely be attributed solely to an individual publication or programme, an impact assessment can still be of value. Conceptualising #x02018;impact#x02019;: A temporal approach. #x02018;Impact#x02019; is used interchangeably with terms such as #x02018;influence#x02019;, #x02018;outcomes#x02019;, #x02018;use#x02019; and #x02018;uptake#x02019;, and a number of definitions exist in the literature . In the assessment of the thesis, Reviewing Emergencies impact is defined temporally, referring to #x02018;initial impact#x02019;, #x02018;long-term impact#x02019; and #x02018;potential impact#x02019;. This is important. Firstly, initial impact refers to the #x02018;sticky messages#x02019; of the report: what strikes the reader instantly about the report and essay motivation music its findings and the key messages that they come away with. Identifying those findings, statements or graphs that resonated with the reader would provide powerful tools for communicating messages of future research.
Secondly, impact was assumed to have a longer-term element, influencing thinking and decision making. This constituted the main body of the assessment. #x02018;Long-term impacts#x02019; are those conceptual and instrumental impacts that change understanding and attitudes or contribute to a change in policy or behaviour. As the assessment took place about a year after the csr case studies, launch of Reviewing Emergencies, #x02018;potential impact#x02019; considered the possibility of impact in the future. With continued advocacy, and changes to the policy environment, potential impact outlines the #x02018;capability#x02019; of the report#x02019;s findings. It highlights areas in which to focus advocacy efforts in the future. Policy research can be used for multiple, often unforeseen, purposes . Tracking a research contribution, especially one that seeks conceptual change, is difficult.
Taking a pragmatic approach, a good place to begin is identifying likely users of research. The impact assessment chose five sectors for essay motivation, analysis to try to encompass key actors. They were: donors; government; civil society and non-governmental organisations; academia and short the media. Identifying them helped to structure the analysis and understand the different #x02018;uptake#x02019; of the motivation music, research. The categories were purposefully broad in recognition of the broad array of policy players, and to enable flexibility in analysis; crossing national boundaries and disciplines. Lessons from Swaziland, we believed, would be applicable elsewhere in the region, especially in Lesotho, Namibia and Botswana as these are all defined as lower-middle-income countries; have similar prevalence levels; and are members (with South Africa) of the Southern African Customs Union. It was also important as Ministries of Health are often weak and in many African countries donor policies have a disproportionate influence on health. #x02018;Measuring#x02019; impact posed some difficulty. Changes to feminism thesis thinking and decisions are particularly hard to quantify. For this reason a qualitative approach was used, asking how and why people believed the report had altered their approach to the Swazi epidemic, and what impact they believed the report had.
Anecdotal evidence and substantive examples were key to supporting such beliefs in the absence of quantitative evidence. Impact was ultimately considered against music the aims of the report: determining what was achieved as intended, what was not achieved, and any unintended impacts. The methods consisted first of a literature review, to develop understanding of the background and terms of thesis reference for the study. Relevant policy documents, articles, op-eds and minutes of key meetings were reviewed. A questionnaire with questions relating to influence to date, potential influence and barriers to influence across sectors was distributed to 50 individuals, in music, the five sectors. Questions asked the respondents to rank how influential they thought the report had been in different areas, from #x02018;no influence#x02019; to a #x02018;very large influence#x02019; (including a #x02018;don#x02019;t know#x02019; option). They were then asked to give examples or describe why they believed this level of influence had been achieved. Detailed interviews were conducted with five key people who had significant involvement in the creation and dissemination of the report.
Twenty questionnaires were returned; unfortunately, given time restraints, a follow-up of the original questionnaire to increase response rates was not possible. In analysing feedback from questionnaires, the percentage of answers for each ranking were calculated. Similar details or examples from both respondents and interviewees were grouped together to find trends in opinion. We recognised a positive bias could exist. 3 Page Essay D-day. Firstly, the motivation, writing of the assessment assumed an audiology, impact had occurred. To mitigate this problem, a #x02018;no influence#x02019; option was included in the questionnaire. Motivation. Secondly, the respondents that worked on creating the studies, report, or those in close partnership with the writers, may give optimistic estimates of the report#x02019;s impact to validate their own work. For this reason, weight was given to opinion that was reinforced with explicit examples, and to those highlighting barriers, limitations or negative impacts of the report. In the assessment the three elements (initial, long-term, and potential) of impact were discussed for essay motivation, each of the five sectors, providing a specific and detailed account of #x02018;impact#x02019; . 3 Page Essay. See Figure #x200B; Figure2 2 for an overview of these findings. The focus is not on the impacts, but on the findings which helped to explain them.
It is these lessons that are key to creating effective HIV and AIDS research in future. The significance of communication. Motivation. The questionnaire asked, #x0201c;What is the single most striking aspect of the report (e.g. a graph, a statistic, a statement)?#x0201d; The graphs were singled out by respondents. Studies. Where they were not specifically cited, the concepts they conveyed were seen as important. One respondent answered, #x0201c;A combination of statistics, graphical illustrations and words are used effectively to convey the message#x0201d;, illustrating the clear use of these tools in the original report. The demographic implications of the HIV and AIDS epidemic on the Swazi population had a significant impact on the readers. In particular respondents cited #x02018;Figure 8: Swaziland Population Pyramids#x02019;, in Whiteside and Whalley 2007 (shown below) and the concept that a permanent alteration of the structure of essay Swazi society has occurred. (Figure #x200B; (Figure3) 3 ) 
The application of Swaziland#x02019;s HIV prevalence rate to western countries, in Table 2 (page 8) of the report #x02018;stuck#x02019; with some. D-day. This table shows if the motivation music, UK had the equivalent burden there would be nearly 11.5 million British citizens infected. When presenting these data, it would be tailored to the audience #x02013; for example talking in Sweden the presenter said #x02018;Swaziland#x02019;s prevalence would be equivalent to 1.75 million Swedes being infected#x02019;. It is unsurprising that such dramatic predictions of the effects of the epidemic on the structure of the studies, population would strike the reader. It demonstrates the necessity of clearly reiterating and educating about the long-term consequences of the epidemic. Shortly after the publication of Reviewing Emergencies the government released preliminary data from the national 2007 census showing a decline in the population - 17, 489 fewer Swazis than in 1997 . The serendipitous release of this data helped give Reviewing Emergencies momentum. Successful dissemination was crucial, but wide dissemination is not the same as wide impact, and it cannot be assumed that the former naturally or inevitably leads to the latter . The communication and motivation music advocacy efforts surrounding a message help facilitate impact and are important to understanding where, how and advertising s service why impact was achieved. The report was presented and essay motivation music formally discussed at a consultation in July 2007.
It was available in print from October 2007, and a core set of power point slides was developed and presented to a range of organisations inside and beyond Swaziland. The audiences included civil servants, politicians, the feminism thesis, donor community, NGOs, academics and businesses. Informally, according to Von Wissell, many others have discussed the report, including numerous missions, delegations and envoys. The report was made accessible online by HEARD  and NERCHA as well as UNAIDS , Relief Web , Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network  and Aidsportal. Essay. (Table #x200B; (Table1 1 ) HEARD and NERCHA co-ordinated their efforts in communicating the findings. The delivery of the message itself was particularly significant. It had a coherence achieved by studies using the same slide set #x02013; presenters were #x02018;singing from the same song sheet.#x02019; However, presentations were tailored to the audiences; Von Wissell presented to Swazi audiences in SiSwati; in Scandinavia the importance of donors was stressed.
An example of the impact achieved by this dissemination process was exemplified by the visit of music representatives of the World Bank. In November 2007, the Human Development Vice President and Country Director from the World Bank visited Swaziland to assess first-hand the country#x02019;s situation in 3 page essay, human development and HIV and essay music AIDS. They met with key government officials including the Minister of Finance, and what is a Von Wissell. Essay. It was here that Von Wissell presented Reviewing Emergencies. One World Bank official described the effect of this by saying, #x0201c;It was NERCHA#x02019;s presentation that brought home the gravity of the HIV/AIDS situation in cv essay writing, Swaziland#x0201d;, and subsequently the World Bank sent a mission to Swaziland to explore next steps for the Bank.
The presentation of the report#x02019;s findings was critical to this decision. Essay Motivation. Engagement, timing and credibility. The work built on a long-term engagement of Whiteside and HEARD with Swaziland. This historical background is particularly important to both locate the research and audiology thesis the response to motivation music it. The timeline below shows the essay, progression of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland through significant events and statistics, simultaneous to key examples of research conducted on the epidemic by HEARD and associates. As the timeline shows, Reviewing Emergencies built on three major reports in 1994, 2003 and motivation music 2006, which illustrated there was something going seriously wrong.
Its message was credible - based on a history of research and evidence. It used good and informative scientific indicators to build a body of evidence difficult to refute. Furthermore, it was it was written at a critical time in Swaziland: with unusual levels of death; increasing numbers of orphans; and tuberculosis emerging as a major killer, the grim predictions of previous publications were no longer speculative, but reality . (Figure #x200B; (Figure4 4 ) The timeline illustrates the progression of HIV/AIDS from essay underline quotes Stage 1 to Stage 5 in less than 20 years using the concept idea of #x02018;Stages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic#x02019; developed by Barnett and essay music Whiteside (2002) . As one interviewee reflected, #x0201c;While, in many ways, Swaziland#x02019;s response has been admirable and unique, it is clear that the HIV prevention programmes have not worked thus far, and more importantly, that the studies, social and economic implications of the epidemic have not been adequately thought through.#x0201d; Reviewing Emergencies tried to explain the significance of the latter, hence filling a crucial gap in music, the research arena. Significantly, the report was disseminated into a receptive network of researchers, policymakers and associates with whom HEARD and NERCHA had established links. As one respondent commented, #x0201c;The wide network of individuals, organisations and donors with whom HEARD and NERCHA are affiliated were key to short its wide reception#x0201d;.
The effectiveness of historic relationships such as these, built on both individual and institutional credibility cannot be underestimated. For example Whiteside had served on a UN Commission with the Deputy President of the World Bank, and is a Governor of a school in Swaziland; Von Wissell held the position of Minister of Trade and Industry and Minister of Health in previous governments. The message was delivered by people driven to see change and essay motivation who could speak with authority. Both NERCHA and copy s service writing HEARD are known as being responsive to need and based on principled operations. In addition, the motivation, involvement of NERCHA - a Swazi based and Swazi run body - created an what narrative essay, #x02018;ownership#x02019; of the research and a further credibility to its message. The specific terminology used in research can both help and hinder the essay, impact of a message. In Reviewing Emergencies the term and concept of underline a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019; was particularly significant. A media respondent explained the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; acted as a #x0201c;hook#x0201d;, giving journalists an music, attention-grabbing story, substantiated by genuine and shocking statistics.
Titles such as #x02018;#x02018;Swaziland: Declare HIV/AIDS a #x0201c;humanitarian emergency#x0201d;#x02019;  and #x0201c;When is 3 page essay HIV/AIDS a disaster?#x0201d;  exemplify how the term renewed interest in the epidemic in Swaziland. Motivation. Conversely however, concerns over the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; were discussed at length at the Low-Middle-Income Countries meeting hosted by HEARD in February 2008. One respondent explained, #x0201c;There is advertising cv essay professional writing some reluctance on the part of donors/NGOs/civil society/government to call HIV/AIDS an #x02018;emergency#x02019; because there seems to be fear that terming it so will result in short-term funding for a long-term problem. The sustainability of the essay music, HIV/AIDS effort is seen as under threat with short-term language.#x0201d; This meeting concluded there was a need to marry the urgency of the audiology thesis, crisis with a long-wave understanding of the future impact of HIV/AIDS on the country, and that #x02018;emergencies#x02019; may not be the best term to represent this . A key message of the report is the long-wave nature of HIV and essay music its impacts should be included in essay, a new kind of thinking on emergencies. This debate will continue. Our assessment identified five key limitations: the role of government was not addressed; using Malawi and Zambia as comparator countries had mixed results; issues around timing; the status of AIDS (and Swaziland) on the international agenda; and essay music finally the calls for radical change may not be achievable. The report did not deal with the role of the Swazi Government in the epidemic. This is advertising copy cv essay s service significant since it is ultimately government who guides and executed HIV strategy in essay, the country. The Government, along with the King, have faced criticism for their response to the epidemic . One respondent reminded us, the crisis #x0201c;cannot be fixed with more funding alone.#x0201d; Another discussed the audiology thesis, structural difficulties in essay music, addressing the crisis, including the #x02018;vertical#x02019; response, exemplified by a separate AIDS response council (NERCHA) which, it was claimed, failed to join up a national response.
The historic and legal relationship between HEARD, NERCHA and the Swazi Government restrained the report#x02019;s ability to criticise. Prescribing how Swaziland should respond to the crisis was never the intention of the paper. Whiteside argued that attempting to change the behaviour of the Swazi Government was beyond the scope of what a researcher from audiology outside of the country should attempt: #x0201c;That is for essay, the people of what is a short narrative essay Swaziland to do.#x0201d; Working with the government in motivation, a #x02018;strategic alliance#x02019;, rather than against is more productive. Strategically limiting the scope of what, and whom, research tries to influence can be a wise decision when trying to achieve impact within a complex policy arena. The report made comparisons between Swaziland and what is a Zambia and Malawi, in order to demonstrate the scale of the emergency facing Swaziland. Despite the comparison having the desired effect of emphasising the scale of the Swazi#x02019;s crisis - some respondents referenced these comparative graphs as a striking and influential tool - it also had unintended consequences. Zambia and motivation music Malawi are both countries that, like Swaziland, compete for the attention of donors and development aid. What Is A Short Essay. By focusing all attention on motivation, Swaziland, the report appeared to belittle the issues faced by both Malawians and Zambians. #x02018;Time#x02019; is no doubt a barrier to the impact of the essay underline, report, since research is usually most influential when first published. The challenge to HEARD and NERCHA was to continue the momentum behind the report. One respondent warned that the essay motivation, report #x0201c;may lack academic credibility if it is not followed up by further research that is able to collect primary data.#x0201d; The report aimed for both an immediate awareness of Swaziland#x02019;s epidemic, and a longer-term discussion on emergencies and low-middle income classifications.
It is the latter of audiology thesis these in particular that needs to be worked at or risk a #x02018;fizzling out#x02019; as time marches on. A number of significant international barriers threatened the impact of the report and indeed the issue of HIV/AIDS throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Firstly, the economic and political weight of Swaziland in the international sphere is small. One frustrated interviewee described that #x0201c;Swaziland is just not on motivation music, the list#x0201d;, as it is considered as insignificant by larger countries. Secondly, HIV as a humanitarian emergency must compete for funding with other important humanitarian issues, such as famine and natural disasters. One respondent described a #x02018;shift#x02019; in global priorities to issues such as climate change, terrorism and the rising price of food. Donors have finite resources and HIV and AIDS must compete with other issues. HIV and AIDS was the global health issue receiving the most attention and what is a narrative funding but this will change, already a gap exists between pledges and funding . Finally, the report called for a change within the framework that international organisations use to identify countries#x02019; level of development - that of essay motivation music income classification.
It further calls for a shift in the paradigm of thinking on emergencies. #x0201c;Effectively what this report says is that it can#x02019;t be business as usual#x0201d;. Changing entrenched ways of thinking is a major task . #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for 3 page essay, Swaziland#x02019; argued that socio-economic indicators show that the Swazi population is experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to countries besieged by conflict or struggling in motivation music, the wake of a severe natural disaster. In the short-term, the what short essay, report aimed to focus attention on essay motivation music, Swaziland and what AIDS was doing to the country. It contributed to raising the audiology, profile of the essay motivation, plight of the Swazi people amongst donors and policy makers, described by one interviewee as a #x0201c;catalyst for re-engagement#x0201d;. In the medium-term, the audiology thesis, report aimed to influence debate on the classification of low-middle income countries.
This has proved more difficult. In the motivation music, long-term, the copy professional s service, report has seen some success in opening the debate on HIV/AIDS as a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019;. Likening HIV/AIDS to essay a large scale humanitarian disaster helped fuel a debate on audiology thesis, the need for urgency combined with long-term responses to the epidemic. Donors, academics and NGOs have all engaged with the debate, but further advocacy and research is necessary to essay music continue this, and see a shift in the current paradigm of 3 page thinking on what constitutes an #x02018;emergency.#x02019; Developing a better understanding of the relationship between research and policy impact is vital to advancing the influence of SRH and HIV and AIDS research. Tracking the impact of research, using one or many case studies, can help facilitate this learning. Crucial to this process is to not simply identify impacts, but to seek understanding of how and why they came about. Of particular use for developing effective research in the future is identifying where intended impact has not been achieved and essay motivation music why.
The assessment of the impact of Reviewing Emergencies attempted to do exactly this. Drawing from the assessment, the feminism thesis, following lessons may help inform future SRH and HIV/AIDS research. Essay Music. Communication is critical. The original work - collecting existing data to tell one clear story - is a striking way to demonstrate the reach and scale of disease impact; the demographic implications of AIDS powerfully communicated the csr case, severity of the epidemic; a targeted, tailored and cohesive dissemination effort helped facilitate the impact of research; sustained advocacy which is vital in keeping momentum for a message, should be reflected in planning and resources; further publications validating and extending a message are a good way to do this; and essay music terminology can help or hinder the impact of a message. Context and timing may be beyond the control of researchers but can significantly influence the uptake of csr case studies research. These include world events, developments within the policy arena, and specifically within the topic area. If these conditions align in the favour of the research the impact may be much greater, therefore awareness of this, and careful timing of publications and advocacy efforts could maximise impact. The credibility of both evidence and essay music researcher play an important role in the use of copy cv essay professional writing research. Historical integrity of the evidence and an established researcher (or institution) can foster confidence in the use of research and music increase the likelihood of it being used to inform policy. D-day. Established relationships and networks between individuals and institutions can guarantee an audience and encourage a dialogue on the findings. #x02018;Ownership#x02019; of research, by the people it affects, is a powerful way to ensure both credibility and drive behind the message. Essay Motivation. The impact assessment taught further lessons on how to conduct such a study.
An assessment should ideally be planned in advance, facilitating the process of #x02018;tracking#x02019; and information gathering; careful attention should be paid to the measurement and analysis process #x02013; if basing the study on qualitative data, how will this be analysed and how will the effects of bias be mitigated; the #x02018;net should be cast wide#x02019; when considering areas of potential impact, recognising both the multiplicity of policy players and the potential for unintended impacts; understand that impacts may also change over time; and ultimately, to understand why an advertising copy, impact took place, the socio-cultural, political and economic context must be considered. With hindsight the commissioning of, publication, and dissemination of the Emergencies Report seems to follow a logical path. The sense of frustration and the need to provide evidence led to essay motivation music this innovative work. It is is a short narrative essay our belief that it achieved many of its goals and spurred an international dialogue around the issues. The evaluation taught us additional lessons, which can be applied to help maximise the impact of motivation music research in the future. This article critically reflects on a research project in which the authors have been involved. AW conceptualised the paper, and was co-author to the original study entitled #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland#x02019; (2007). AW also edited the manuscript. FH drafted the manuscript, with input from AW.
FH was the author of the study #x02018;Assessing the Impact of #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in advertising cv essay professional s service, a New Era#x02019; (2008). Both authors read and essay approved the final manuscript. AW is Director of the health economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. He has an MA from the School of Development Studies at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and a D Econ from the University of Natal. FH has an MSc Development Management at the Department of International Development from the London School of Economics and MA Economics and Politics from Edinburgh University. She was a visiting fellow to copy cv essay professional writing HEARD in 2008. This work was supported by the DFID Research Partner#x02019;s Consortium (ABBA) and the donors of the Joint Funding Arrangement.
The generous support of the staff of NERCHA is acknowledged. The responsibility for the contents and interpretation of the data remains with the authors.
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