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Life History | People Leader Karmaveerar Kamarajar early…
Mightier than the sword – the on karmaveerar, impact of the same, ideas of Thomas Paine on essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, the American Revolution. Without the count for english extended, pen of Paine, the sword of Washington would have been wielded in vain. (Joel Barlow, American diplomat and poet) There was but one topic of conversation throughout the American colonies in essay on karmaveerar kamarajar the summer of 1776. Although the settlers were locked in a bloody armed struggle with Britain the talk was not, as one would expect, of battles won or lost. Wherever people gathered, in every farmyard and factory, in hsc essays every tavern and town, from the lowest paid farmhands to on karmaveerar kamarajar, the richest merchants and landholders, the count for english, talk was the same: Common Sense. Essay? This was the title of a 47-page political pamphlet which was gripping everyone's imagination with its powerful, persuasive arguments against count extended, the monarchy and in kamarajar favour of American independence. But who was the author of this unsigned work which was so dramatically changing the attitude of so many Americans towards the nature of their conflict with the ‘Mother Country'? The political and intellectual elite were certain it was one of their own: . Hindi Phd Thesis? I think our friend Franklin has been principally concerned in the composition, wrote General Horatio Gates to a fellow officer.
Others credited were Thomas Jefferson and John Adams (two future presidents of the USA); others thought it was Samuel Adams, who was to become governor of Massachusetts. But it was none of these political luminaries. The author was a recent arrival on America's shores. On Karmaveerar? His name was Thomas Paine. Born on January 29, 1737, the general, son of a Quaker father and Anglican mother, Paine lead an essay kamarajar interesting and eventful, but ultimately unhappy life in general job resume England. Twice married (his first wife died when he was twenty-four-years-old.), his career in on karmaveerar his homeland was varied: privateer, teacher, preacher, customs officer and shopkeeper, he campaigned for better wages for his colleagues, the poorly paid excisemen. This latter activity cost him his job as a customs officer, cost him his tobacco shop, and cost him his second wife, who divorced him. The unhappy, disillusioned Paine returned from Lewes, where he had been stationed as an exciseman, to virginia essays, London, where a friend introduced him to an elderly but energetic American, the sixty-eight-year-old scientist, writer and statesman Benjamin Franklin.
Franklin took an on karmaveerar immediate liking to him and job resume, was later to boast that Thomas Paine was his . adopted political son. Sensing that Paine was the sort of essay on karmaveerar kamarajar man who belonged to the America he hoped to build, he urged him to emigrate there. On November 30 th , 1774, Paine arrived in Philadelphia with a letter of introduction to Franklin's son and son-in-law in his pocket. Paine looked around Philadelphia, the unofficial capital of the American colonies, and hindi, liked what he saw: a society of mixed religions and ethnicity, its immigrant workers were spirited and kamarajar, dynamic; they were eager to seek a better life than that which they had endured in the oppressive regimes of England and and religion essay, the rest of Europe. America breathed new life into him, it inspired him - here was an opportunity to . begin the world anew. It was far from perfect, this new society that Paine had joined: there were inequalities and there were social injustices; many of the richer settlers and landowners behaved just like the English gentry, and worst of on karmaveerar kamarajar all - there was slavery! But these wrongs could be put right. This was a young country peopled by general job resume, many who had themselves fled from various forms of essay kamarajar injustice and oppression in their own homelands; the ordinary men and women in this new world could, given direction and leadership, make this land the best place in the world to live in, and set a shining example for the rest of hindi phd thesis humanity.
And Thomas Paine was determined to point them in the right direction. Essay On Karmaveerar? He was excited to general, learn that even the lowest paid workers were already demanding the essay on karmaveerar, right to vote in city elections, and there was even talk that the Philadelphia Militia were demanding the right to elect their own officers. Yes - these were people with fire in their bellies, these were people capable of shaping their own destiny. He was in his element when he was offered a job as editor in a new periodical, The Pennsylvania magazine. Along with editing, he was also writing articles for The Pennsylvania and other magazines. He railed against slavery: That some desperate wretches should be willing to steal and enslave men by violence and virginia essays, murder for gain, is kamarajar, rather lamentable than strange. But that many civilized, nay, Christianized people should approve, and be concerned in the savage practice, is surprising. (March 1775). Under his editorship The Pennsylvania became the biggest selling periodical in America.
He was on the crest of a wave: his own writing was attracting critical acclaim, and hindi phd thesis, Franklin's son-in-law, Richard Bache, was introducing him to some of Philadelphia's leading citizens. Essay On Karmaveerar? Then once again things took a turn for the worse: he angered John Witherspoon (the magazine's co-publisher) by editing some of his work. He was obliged to resign and phd thesis, the vindictive Witherspoon slandered him with false allegations that he was a drunkard. Paine did not drink to excess but for the rest of his life his many detractors maliciously circulated this false rumour. But in 1775 there were more pressing matters occupying Paine's thoughts: the quarrel between America and Britain had escalated into open warfare with the essay, battles of and religion Lexington and Concord in April, followed by a much bloodier confrontation at Bunker Hill in essay on karmaveerar kamarajar June. He concluded that the aims of this dispute must now be changed. It was no longer sufficient to fight for rights and justice within the framework of the virginia essays, British Empire; it was time for Americans to sever links with Britain and assert their independence. To this end he set himself the task of writing what was to become the biggest-selling, most widely read and successful political pamphlet in history: Common Sense.
We were blind, but on reading these enlightening words the scales have fallen from our eyes. Thus wrote a Connecticut reader to the Pennsylvania Post in 1776. On Karmaveerar? To appreciate the impact of hsc essays Paine's writing it is essential to be aware of the prevailing psychology at the time. It is true that there always were some who had advocated fighting for independence, but they were very much in the minority. Most people throughout all levels of society still wanted to maintain allegiance with Britain. Essay On Karmaveerar Kamarajar? They believed it was parliament, and not ‘good' King George, that was to blame for the unfair taxation that was being imposed upon job resume them. Get rid of these vile ministers and Americans would dwell with respect and dignity under the essay, British constitution as part of the Empire.
George Washington and his fellow officers were still drinking to the King's health; Thomas Jefferson wrote: There is not a man in the British Empire who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. Washington, one of the richest men in America, and others of same essay his ilk, had every reason to remain locked into on karmaveerar kamarajar the British Empire; they were alarmed by the growing confidence of the job resume, working-class whom they despised and wished to keep in their place. Essay On Karmaveerar? Statesman Gouverneur Morris referred to the common people as ‘reptiles'. Essay School? And of course the essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, ordinary people themselves, preconditioned by generations of having loyalty to king and country drilled into their psyches, were still proud to general job resume, be British. Then Common Sense struck the continent like an earthquake, its shockwaves shattering the political status quo in every state along the entire East coast of on karmaveerar America. No longer would his royal majesty be held in such reverence and awe, no longer would the workers and peasants regard the aristocracy and the landed gentry of Britain (and America) as their betters. Overnight the people of America had become wide awake to reality, and they were demanding the right to phd thesis, rule themselves - total independence! Such was the essay on karmaveerar, power of Tom Paine's pen. Common Sense was published on January 10, 1776, and the world had seen nothing like it before. It was the most powerful and 2010 contests middle school, persuasive piece of political writing that had ever been produced; its irrefutable logic utterly destroyed the case for the monarchy, the aristocracy and the corrupt system of British government. The demand for on karmaveerar the forty-seven-page pamphlet could hardly be met: it sold half a million copies.
Considering the size of the population, of which a large proportion could neither read nor write, this made it the biggest seller of all time; relative to today's population the equivalent sales would be 50 million. This was achieved by one man, without any organised political party behind him. One can sense the excitement and growing confidence the American settlers must have felt as Paine demolished the myth of the monarchy, beginning with William the Conqueror - A French bastard landing with an armed banditti, and minimum for english, establishing himself King of England against the consent of the natives. On Karmaveerar Kamarajar? He then went on to belittle . the folly of hereditary right in kings. He argued for job resume the separation of church and state, went on to discuss America's economic, military and naval potential and essay, suggested a framework for American self government. After reading the pamphlet the vast majority of working-class Americans, and even many of the essay, social elite, were convinced that complete independence was the only way forward for on karmaveerar kamarajar their country.
Paine's achievement was swift, incredible and irreversible. It gained him immense popularity with ordinary Americans, but made him many bitter enemies among the loyalists and among those who feared the increasing power of the working people. There followed a concerted effort by many of the social elite to hindi phd thesis, attack Common Sense , leading to kamarajar, an intense war of words in the Pennsylvania press between Paine and his many detractors, especially John Adams (not to be confused with John Quincy Adams), who developed a lifelong hatred for him. But now the people's demand for independence could not be stopped. Washington wrote to his secretary, Joseph Reed: . by private letters I have lately received from Virginia, I find ‘Common Sense' is working a powerful change in 2010 essay middle the minds of men. On July 4 th , 1776, Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.
These are the times that try men's souls. That year Paine enlisted in the militia and became aide to General Nathaniel Greene? arguably the best general on either side. Washington was now Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. He was an imposing personality and kamarajar, was personally brave, but as a field commander he left much to be desired. To his credit he was aware of his shortcomings, and the shortcomings of his militia. He enlisted the Prussian officer Friedrich von Steuben to drill his troops into military efficiency and co-opted the aid of minimum count extended essay La Fayette's French army and De Grasse's French fleet to kamarajar, help America's cause. Astonishingly, considering the availability of an abundance of expert horsemen, he never developed a cavalry wing to his army. His idea of ‘inspiring' his men was to threaten them with hanging if they showed cowardice in hsc essays battle, hardly the hallmark of on karmaveerar a great leader. It was his good fortune that he had an able subordinate in Greene and that his British counterpart, Howe, allowed himself to hsc essays, be distracted from the job in hand by his American mistress. By the end of the year the outlook was bleak for America's cause: Washington's army was in retreat and soldiers were deserting their units every day; Congress had fled from Philadelphia, fearing its occupation by British troops and everyone was anticipating defeat. Everyone except Thomas Paine.
In his American Crisis (the first of many with that title) he penned the stirring words that were to fan the flames of essay kamarajar American patriotism: These are the 2010 essay contests middle school, times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it NOW, deserves the essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, love and thanks of man and woman. The American Crisis sold in hsc essays tens of thousands, boosted morale, revived recruitment and turned the tide of essay on karmaveerar battle. Washington ordered his officers to read Crisis to his troops. The troops listened to essay school students, Paine's words, crossed the essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, Delaware, routed the Hessian troops and captured Trenton. The situation had been completely turned around. As with Common Sense, Paine never took a penny from the profits of his writing, he gave it all to hindi, provide clothing for the troops. Throughout the Revolutionary War he devoted himself tirelessly to the cause, serving in various posts and issuing pamphlets, continuously rousing the flagging morale of the Americans: Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom, must like men, undergo the fatigues of supporting it. When Washington's depleted army was taking refuge in kamarajar Valley Forge and Congress was questioning his ability to essay, command, it was Paine who came to kamarajar, his defence - a loyalty that was not reciprocated by Washington when Paine later needed his help. He also endeavoured to patch up teething problems in the young and growing nation, advising on territorial disputes, taxation and other matters of government.
Totally devoted to America's cause, he even sailed at hindi phd thesis his own expense on a diplomatic mission to essay, France. On October 19, 1781, the British forces under General Cornwallis were decisively beaten by combined French and American troops. Britain's cloak of invincibility was torn to for english extended essay, shreds and it was the beginning of the end for the mighty British Empire. America was the first revolutionary state to essay kamarajar, defeat a great European power - the same sex marriage and religion essay, war ended with the Treaty of essay on karmaveerar Paris in April, 1783. The far seeing Paine was still anxious about the future of the union, realising that many Americans took it too lightly. He feared that some states might, for reasons such as slavery and commerce, decide to job resume, break away and go it alone: I ever feel myself hurt when I hear the union, that great palladium of our liberty and safety, the least irreverently spoken of. Essay Kamarajar? It is the most sacred thing in the constitution of count for english extended essay America. And the declared purpose of the ‘Union of the States': To see it in our power to make a world happy, to teach mankind the art of being so, to exhibit, on the theatre of the Universe a character hitherto unknown. I wonder you did not hang that scoundrel Paine for essay on karmaveerar kamarajar his blackguard libel on virginia essays, king, lords, and commons.
I suppose the essay, extreme scurrility of the pamphlet, or the villainy of those who wish to disperse it among the common people, has carried through so many editions. General? For it appears to me to have no merit whatever; but it may do mischief in ale-houses in essay on karmaveerar kamarajar England, and hsc essays, even more in whiskey-houses in essay on karmaveerar Ireland. I think it by far the most treasonable book that ever went unpunished within my knowledge; so, pray, hang the fellow if you can catch him. Hindi? (Lord Mornington.) The war was over. Thomas Paine had given his all to the revolution: the proceeds from on karmaveerar kamarajar, his writings had gone to school students, help the war effort and now he was jobless and without an income. He petitioned Congress for a modest pension in acknowledgement of his contribution to essay kamarajar, the war's success. He had the support of Franklin, Jefferson and Washington. But he had also made some powerful enemies and they were not going to make life easy for phd thesis him. His fight for democracy, his egalitarianism, his zealous opposition to corruption had earned him the implacable enmity and undying hatred of many in the rich, landowning ‘aristocracy' of America. So Congress rejected his petition but agreed to a grant of $3,000 - he would have been much, much richer if he'd kept the on karmaveerar kamarajar, proceeds from his writings. Pennsylvania gave him a gift of $500 and word, New York gave him a farm which had been confiscated from a Tory landowner.
He now had breathing space to contemplate his future. As a young man Paine had learned a lot about science and engineering by reading and attending lectures; he decided to on karmaveerar kamarajar, put his knowledge to practical use. He designed an general job resume iron bridge which he believed was safer and more durable than the traditional wooden bridges of his day. But no one in America was willing to invest in his project so, on essay kamarajar, Franklin's advice, he sailed for London and hindi, Paris to seek backing. He expected to be away for a few months; it was to be sixteen years before he saw his beloved America again. It was 1787, just two years before the storming of the Bastille. Essay Kamarajar? Things were changing in hindi phd thesis France - and in England.
In France the poor and the middle-classes were seething with anger at the heavy taxation they suffered while the nobility shared little or none of the burden of running the country. Soldiers returning from America spoke of the more just and essay kamarajar, democratic society that was growing in the new republic and this made the French masses determined to build a more just society for themselves. Their anger would soon turn into a terrible, unstoppable rage which would eventually give rise to the ‘reign of terror'. England at that time was the most industrially advanced and commercially successful nation in the world, but its people paid a terrible price: the momentum of the industrial revolution led to sex marriage, merciless exploitation, inhuman working conditions and a wretched, poverty-stricken existence for the working-class. There was talk on the streets of equality and democratic rights; the ruling class were getting nervous. Paine spent two years trying to find investors for his bridge, while inevitably involving himself in the turbulent politics of the times. Then on July 14, 1789, the crowds stormed the Bastille and soon afterwards began invading the great estates of the landowning aristocracy. The next twenty-five years of European history would be written in blood as the ancien regime struggled to maintain the status quo.
It was Thomas Paine's dream that the revolutionary zeal which had crossed the Atlantic to France would quickly spread throughout Europe, creating republics in on karmaveerar kamarajar place of sex marriage essay monarchies, each republic working in harmony with its neighbours to create a humane and civilized Europe - To begin the world anew. The turncoat Edmund Burke, who had originally championed the American Revolution, was now paid by the British Government to write Reflections on the Revolution in France , which was to give him the reputation as the father of on karmaveerar modern conservatism. Virginia Essays? Marx was to say of Burke: The sycophant - who in pay of the English oligarchy played the romantic laudatory temporis acti against the French Revolution just as, in the pay of North American colonies at the beginning of the American troubles, he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy, was an out and out vulgar bourgeois. Burke's condemnation of the French Revolution was considered to be a great success but it really was a wasted exercise: it was aimed at the upper classes and the well educated, preaching loyalty for kamarajar the monarchy and the aristocracy. It was preaching to the converted.
And that was the difference between his writing and Paine's. Paine had the ability to communicate with all levels of society, from the poorest to virginia essays, the richest: Burke's Reflections sold 20,000 copies in a year, whereas Common Sense sold several times that in a month. There were many radicals in England who took issue with Burke but, not surprisingly, the most effective reply came from Paine's Rights of Man. Burke's ridiculous argument, that monarchy and essay on karmaveerar, the aristocracy had served past generations well (who did he think he was fooling?), and that the present and future generations should perpetuate this tradition, was rubbished by Paine. Burke not only denied that the people of England had the right to same sex marriage, choose or reject their own government, but also claimed:
That the people of England utterly disclaim such a right, and that they will resist the practical assertion of it with their lives and fortunes. That men should take up arms, and spend their lives and fortunes not to essay on karmaveerar, maintain their rights, but to maintain they have no rights, is an entire new species of discovery, and suited to the paradoxical genius of Mr Burke. The establishment's ‘intellectual champion' was no match for general Paine. He tore apart Burke's arguments with the same irrefutable logic and scathing sarcasm that had defeated so many of his political adversaries in the past. He also encouraged the spirit of revolution in Britain by advocating a system of kamarajar graduated taxation on the wealthy that would provide child education; pensions for the aged; maternity benefits and other proposals for helping the poor and unemployed. He was a man ahead of his time. But most audacious of all - he defiantly called for the establishment of a British Republic! This was too much - freedom of speech was guaranteed in England of course, but only if you said the right things - it was time to hang Tom Paine! On September 14 th , 1792, Paine, who had been elected to the new National Convention in France for the purpose of writing a new constitution, left England on a boat bound for Calais. It was a fortuitous departure: Pitt and his government were poised to vent their wrath upon their tormentor, but now he was out of their grasp.
In vindictive fury they conducted a witch-hunt, persecuting and imprisoning everyone involved in publishing, selling and in any way promoting Paine's writings. Paine was tried in his absence and found guilty of seditious libel for general writing The Rights of Man. He arrived in Calais to essay, a hero's welcome and its citizens elected him their representative to the new National Convention. These were perilous times for the people of France: surrounded by hostile nations, they were at war with Austria and essay middle school students, Prussia, and Louis XVI was in prison for colluding with the enemy. The republicans were split into on karmaveerar kamarajar two factions: Girondins (moderates) and Jacobins (radicals). It was only a matter of time before the revolution began to devour its own children. At the Convention he and the other delegates voted to abolish the monarchy and France was declared a Republic. He was then appointed to the committee responsible for drafting a new constitution.
He had friends in both republican factions, but his popularity was not to last. Although Paine loathed the hindi phd thesis, monarchy he opposed the execution of Louis XVI. He proposed instead that Louis be exiled to America, where he would be unable to meddle in France's affairs. He had been sickened by the concept of capital punishment when, as a child growing up in Thetford, he witnessed the horrifying spectacle of poor working-class people who had been hanged for kamarajar stealing a mere pittance: there was a clear view of Thetford's Gallows Hill from the house he grew up in. But in voting against virginia essays, the death penalty for Louis he angered many Jacobins, especially Robespierre. And Robespierre was about to come to power. In the ensuing power struggle the Jacobins emerged victorious and showed no mercy to on karmaveerar kamarajar, their political opponents; the Reign of Terror commenced.
On December 28 th , 1793, Paine was arrested. There is no doubt that it would have taken just one word from George Washington to obtain his release, but Washington remained silent: he was keen to resume trade with England and he knew the British establishment wanted to see Paine dead. Business and commerce came before loyalty and friendship to the politically pragmatic Washington. This perfidy must have astonished as well as embittered Paine: Washington had previously been a loyal supporter of Paine and had given him great credit for hsc essays his part in America's victory over Britain. Equally treacherous was the American Minister to essay on karmaveerar, France, Gouverneur Morris. He could have effected Paine's release with little effort, but had no intention of doing so.
Morris, who believed that no decent civilization could exist without an aristocracy, would have been delighted to see Tom Paine's head roll - and it almost did. In July 1794 Paine was suffering from an almost fatal bout of fever which, ironically, saved his life. The day before he was due to be executed his cell mates asked that the cell door be left open to allow the air to minimum word count extended essay, circulate and on karmaveerar, cool the fever. When the prison officers came to mark the cell doors of the essay contests middle school, condemned prisoners, Paine's door was opened wide, with the inside of the essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, door now facing outwards and the outside face of the door tight against the wall. Because of this the inside of the door was marked by the prison officers. When the door was closed later that night the ‘condemned' mark was on the inside of the same essay, cell and was not seen by the executioners who came to collect their victims next morning.
Thus, by sheer chance, Tom Paine missed his appointment with death. Before his execution could be rescheduled his persecutor was overthrown and on karmaveerar, it was Robespierre's head that tumbled into the executioner's basket. Some historians claim that Washington did nothing to save Paine because he was unaware of his plight; this is essay contests school, naive, Paine himself had no doubts about Washington's treachery. He remained imprisoned until Morris was replaced by James Monroe, who obtained his release on November 5 th . Essay? Still severely ill, he was looked after by Monroe and hindi phd thesis, his wife at their official residence. Meanwhile, his Age of Reason , published earlier that year, won him no friends. Paine was by this time a Deist, believing in God but not in essay on karmaveerar kamarajar organized religion.
He enraged church leaders by criticizing the bible, saying of the minimum word count for english, Old Testament: . a history of essay grossest vices and a collection of the most paltry and contemptible tales. Referring to the New Testament he described Christ as a virtuous man, a reformer and a revolutionist, but dismissed the job resume, Immaculate Conception and essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, Christ's resurrection as fraudulent stories. Age of Reason gave his enemies all the hsc essays, ammunition they needed to destroy his popularity in on karmaveerar that God-fearing age. Relations between Monroe and Paine became strained as a result of Paine's hostility to Washington and in 1796 he moved out of same and religion Monroe's house. He wanted to essay, return to and religion essay, America but French ports were being blockaded by essay, the British navy so he moved in with the family of Nicolas de Bonneville, writing articles for de Bonneville's paper, Bien Informe. Despite his non-stop political activity he also continued with his passion for hsc essays engineering, designing canal systems, bridges and cranes. Essay? Then in 1801 Thomas Jefferson, now president, offered to sex marriage essay, bring him back to America, a decision that brought down a torrent of essay kamarajar criticism on the president's head from the political opposition. In October 1802, the general, sixty-five year old Paine arrived in Baltimore to essay, be met by a storm of abuse from the Federalist press. Although he still had loyal friends he was faced with widespread hostility wherever he went, but he remained politically active, writing letters criticizing the Federalist opposition and essay contests school students, proposing to Jefferson that the United States purchase the Louisiana Territory. In 1803 Margaret de Bonneville and kamarajar, her three sons arrived in hsc essays America: her husband was under surveillance by the French police and could not leave France, so Paine assumed responsibility for the children's education.
Despite his fading health and essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, wealth (he had to sell part of his farm to pay his debts) his pen was in constant use, writing to and for the press on varied subjects. When Jefferson did buy Louisiana from France in April 1803 for $15,000,000 it was the biggest land deal ever struck between two nations: the Louisiana Purchase stretched east to west from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains, north to south from Canada to the Mexican Gulf. But Jefferson appalled Paine by allowing the establishment of slavery in phd thesis the new territory. Bitterly disappointed, he pleaded with the president to permit black families to leave the ‘slave states' and settle there. But Jefferson rejected his pleas and the curse of slavery was perpetuated until, sixty years later, it tore the country apart. In his final years his condition became pitiful: his health reduced him to a shadow of his once indefatigable self, and he was kept alive by the charity of friends; he was even refused the right to on karmaveerar kamarajar, vote on the grounds that he was not a true American. This last insult, coming after the treacherous treatment meted out to him by virginia essays, Washington and Morris, must have been devastating: the man who was known as ‘the voice of the revolution', the man who had done more than any man alive to inspire and motivate the people of America to free their young country from the shackles of British imperialism, was turned away at the polling station. Essay On Karmaveerar? He spent his last days in the rented house of the same, de Bonneville family, where he died on kamarajar, the morning of June 8 th , 1809. On his deathbed he was approached by Presbyterian ministers who asked him to accept the Christian Church; defiant to the end, he gave them short shrift.
He was buried the next day, with few to mourn him, at his New Rochelle farm, having been refused burial at count extended the Quaker cemetery. Russell is correct in saying that Paine is less prominent in history's hall of fame than most of his less worthy contemporaries: both as a human being and as a contributor to the momentous political events of his time he stood head and essay on karmaveerar, shoulders above all of them. A tireless seeker of justice and truth, a dedicated champion of ordinary working people, he was generations ahead of his time in his political thinking. Even his ideas on welfare for the poor, the unemployed and the underprivileged were 150 years before their time. England, Paine's birthplace. But it is not merely his lack of self interest which accounts for his lack of historical acclaim: since his death there has been a conscious attempt by hsc essays, the political establishments of Britain and the USA to essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, underplay his contribution to 18 th and 19 th century history and to slur his reputation (Theodore Roosevelt called him a ‘dirty little atheist'). His lucid and general job resume, logical ideas on kamarajar, the governance of nations would still embarrass the corrupt excuses for so-called democratic governments which prevail in the USA, Britain and the rest of Europe today. His anti-clericalism and his criticism of organised religion with all its hypocritical ‘pomp and hsc essays, circumstance' has incurred the indignant wrath of all branches of the religious establishment in Europe and America, and his anti-monarchist views did nothing to endear him to the British establishment. Thus the man who was a household name in America, Britain, Ireland and France in his lifetime, and whose fame was more widespread than even Jefferson, Franklin or Washington, has been deliberately shunted into the sidelines of history. True, American presidents occasionally quote him, usually out of context, when it suits them. On Karmaveerar? But his name will not be found on the list of Founding Fathers of the USA despite his enormous contribution to the cause of American independence.
As for virginia essays England, there are relatively few today in essay on karmaveerar the land of his birth who have even heard of him. But things are changing: Richard Attenborough recently expressed an ambition to word for english essay, film his life story. In the USA, whenever the people question what their political leaders really stand for, his reputation is experiencing a revival. In Morristown, New Jersey, a monument has been erected to him; his Common Sense has been listed as number one in historian E.F. Goldman's Books That Changed America ; civil liberties champion professor H.S. Commager invoked Paine's name in his fight against McCarthyism; Columbia University professor C.W. Mills (who died tragically young) put Paine on a par with Max Weber and Karl Marx. Thomas Paine was a truly great man who used his genius as a writer to fight for essay on karmaveerar kamarajar a better life for ordinary working people, a cause to which he dedicated his own life.
No other writer had such a dramatic and immediate impact on general job resume, the political events of his time. No other man before or since has proved so effectively that words are weapons, and that the pen is indeed mightier than the sword.
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3 Extreme Resume Makeovers (And How to essay on karmaveerar, Create Your Own Visual Resume) Being able to general, sell yourself through a captivating resume in today’s hyper-competitive job market is more now important than ever. Just take a look at how these college graduates landed big jobs by resorting to essay, an infographic or visual resume. To show you just how effective a visual resume can be in general job resume, making a lasting first impression, in this post we show you how three celebrity resumes look before and on karmaveerar kamarajar after their makeovers and walk you through the hindi, process of essay on karmaveerar transforming your own in under an hour. Same And Religion Essay. (Read the step-by-step explanation below or if you prefer to watch how we did it, take a look at the video tutorial below.) Tech billionaire Elon Musk may be known around the world as the man who dreams of sending humans to Mars in essay, 2024 , but by this text-based resume, you certainly wouldn’t know it. Job Resume. If even the founder of PayPal and SpaceX has trouble selling himself with this black-and-white Word document, then the rest of us certainly can’t expect any better. Essay. Since Visme just launched 60 new resume templates (in both full-color and minimalist versions) across 30 job categories, we decided to put these to minimum for english essay, the test in our celebrity resume makeovers. Our first task was to give Musk’s text-based resume a facelift, so we decided to choose this full-color resume template in the Engineering Design and Management category. Click on kamarajar resume to view full-screen version. Here, the use of a horizontal timeline, bar graphs and charts makes it easier to quickly grasp the information presented while also making it more appealing to the eye. For those who prefer a little less color, we also created this light-background version. Click on resume to view full-screen version. Ricky Gervais may be a renowned comedian, writer, actor and general job resume producer with three Golden Globes and two Emmy Awards under his belt, but this resume certainly doesn’t do him justice.
So we browsed through Visme#8217;s selection of resume templates in search for a sleek, modern-looking design. We found one under the Media Entertainment category and came up with this: Create beautiful infographics just like this using Visme. Now this is essay kamarajar, more like it. The use of vibrant colors over a dark background help to create a strong and lasting first impression. How about businesswomen and former fashion model Ivanka Trump? Surely we don’t expect her to promote the Trump brand with this plain resume? We browsed through Visme’s selection in search for a design that would emphasize the same and religion, global presence of the Trump brand and her hotel management experience. We found one in the Tourism Manager category and transformed it into this: Click on resume to view full-screen version.
Here, the use of appropriate icons, logos and on karmaveerar kamarajar a map help make the hindi, information much more memorable and digestible, which is an advantage if you consider that hiring managers typically sift through hundreds of resumes. If these extreme makeovers inspire you to transform your own resume, here’s a quick step-by-step guide to revamping your own with Visme, a simple drag-and-drop tool for non-designers. First things first: Create a Visme account at www.visme.co with your name and email. Then, give a title to your new project and choose the Infographic option from the content menu. On Karmaveerar. In the search bar, type in the term “resume” to browse through the dozens of resume templates. Once you’ve decided on a design, simply click on the theme to customize it. To view any template at a larger size before choosing it, simply hover over it and 2010 essay contests click on the magnifying glass. Next, click on any of the essay kamarajar, text boxes to insert your own text. You can then choose from hsc essays hundreds of fonts, change the color and size or apply formatting (bold, italic or underline). If you want to add a new text box with the same style and color as the ones already in the template, simply click on the text box and choose Copy from the pop-up menu.
To help you neatly align your text and essay on karmaveerar objects, simply navigate to the hamburger menu at the top left of your screen and activate the Show Grid option under View Options. Hsc Essays. If you want to include an on karmaveerar, attractive headshot in your resume, you can also crop your picture as a circle or other geometric shape within Visme. To upload your picture, simply click on the Images tool on 2010 essay contests middle the toolbar on kamarajar the left side of your screen and click on 2010 essay contests middle students the Upload Image button at the top left of the docked panel that appears. Once you’ve inserted your image, click on the Frames tab from thepop-menu that appears beside the picture. Choose the desired shape and adjust the crop area by essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, clicking and dragging the corners of the sex marriage essay, frame. Depending on the position and company you’re applying to, including a photo of yourself may be inadvisable.
In some cases, such as modeling or acting positions, not including one is a poor form. Another important step to essay, customizing the look of your resume is applying just the right color scheme to your project. To do this, simply select a text box, shape or icon and click on the color swatch at the top of the pop-up menu that appears. Then either apply your own color or click on the Presets tab to choose any of the phd thesis, predefined color combinations available within Visme. You can apply your own color scheme by clicking on the plus sign under the My Colors tab in the pop-up menu and inserting the hex code of the specific hue. To find relevant icons for your resume, click on the Icons tool and type in a search term. In many cases, you’ll also be able to on karmaveerar kamarajar, change the color scheme of the virginia essays, icon, including outline and essay on karmaveerar fill colors. Virginia Essays. To create a cohesive and professional look, choose one type of icon style (outline, flat or glyph) and kamarajar stick to it throughout your visual resume. There are many ways to visualize your achievements. In your visual resume, make sure to emphasize accomplishments with specific figures and statistics. For example, you can state that you “decreased product delivery times by 25%” or that you “increased ad revenue by 50%.” You can do this quickly and easily using Visme’s infograph widgets.
Click on the Charts and Data Widgets tool and then choose from any of the data visualizations available. You can then customize them with your own values and text. Same Sex Marriage. You can also visualize your skills and strengths with a horizontal bar chart, as seen in the video above. You can also create an interactive version of your visual resume which can be shared and viewed online with a link. In this version, you can go all out by essay on karmaveerar, inserting a video of yourself or even an audio narration. To do this, simply click on the Video tool and paste the URL of your video resume. To record your own audio within Visme (which will play automatically when a visitor views your resume online), simply click on the Audio tool and choose the Record Audio option at the top right of the docked panel. Contests School Students. You can also include LinkedIn or Twitter icons that you can then link to essay on karmaveerar, your online profiles. To do this, select the virginia essays, icon and then click on essay the Link option and paste the job resume, URL.
You can also include an icon that links to your online portfolio. So that your viewers can see your resume in full-screen mode, make sure to click on Publish and activate the Responsive option under the Publish Settings tab. Finally, you can share your resume by clicking on the Publish button at the top of your screen and choosing one of the file formats under the Download tab (JPG, PNG or PDF). Or you can generate a URL to share it online by clicking on the View button under the Share tab. You can easily password protect your project by choosing the Private option under the Share tab and inserting your password. Now’s the perfect time to supercharge your resume! Visme is launching the Visualize Me contest to inspire participants all over the world to visualize their careers and achievements using this simple drag-and-drop software.
Sign up today at www.visme.co/contest to get immediate access to all Premium resume templates for the duration of the contest and essay on karmaveerar kamarajar the chance to win $2,000 and other great prizes. Hsc Essays. *Contest starts September 20 and ends October 5, 2016. Kamarajar. Warning : Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in /home/vismeco/public_html/blog/wp-content/themes/blog/single.php on line 644. Nayomi Chibana is hindi phd thesis, a journalist and writer for Visme’s Visual Learning Center. Besides researching trends in visual communication and next-generation storytelling, she’s passionate about essay data-driven content. 5 responses to #8220;3 Extreme Resume Makeovers (And How to Create Your Own Visual Resume)#8221; [#8230;] And if you#8217;d like to know more about how to create your own interactive visual resume, take a look at this tutorial. [#8230;] I am wondering if there is virginia essays, spell-checking in your Visme products! [#8230;] Since Visme wrote a #8220;how to#8221; article, let me reference that here “How to Create a Visual Resume” [#8230;] How does this work with ATS systems? Does it get spit out or ignored?
Thanks for posting your question. It#8217;s strongly recommended NOT to use infographic resumes to apply through Applicant Tracking Systems. On the other hand, if you can send one via email or social media, then most hiring entities would look at it. Essay On Karmaveerar. You can read here for more info: http://careersherpa.net/go-ahead-use-infographic-resume/ Stand out from a pile of resumes by making yours visual. Essay Contests Middle School. Choose from essay 60 new resume templates across 30 different job categories , from Marketing and hindi Sales to Engineering and kamarajar Management. Start Creating Now For Free. Virginia Essays. (C) 2016 All Rights Reserved. Visme is on karmaveerar kamarajar, a product of Easy WebContent, Inc. Proudly made in Maryland.
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Custom Maryland the Haven essay paper. According to Kennedy, Chen and Cohen, Maryland was a colony founded in America for Catholics. It was the second colony in America, but rather the fourth English colony founded in 1634 by a prominent member of the English family, Lord Baltimore (36; par. 4). The title “Maryland” was constituted by Lord Baltimore on June 30, 1632 in honor of Henrietta Maria, the Queen of Charles I. As these scholars point out, Lord Baltimore was the title given to a Roman Catholic nobleman, Sir George Calvert. Kennedy, Chen and essay kamarajar, Cohen note that Lord Baltimore was not comfortable with the laws against hsc essays the Roman Catholics in England (36; par. 4). He even opted to immigrate to Virginia. They have asserted that Lord Biltmore’s intention to go to Virginia was to enjoy the liberty of conscious, which had been limited in England at the time of King James’ I rein. But to his disappointment, they pointed out that Lord Baltimore had founded Virginians to have the same intolerance attitude as those he had left in kamarajar England.
This prompted him again to hindi, seek another asylum in essay the territory, the Chesapeake Bay, which was inhabited by only natives. At the Chesapeake Bay, Kennedy, Chen, and Cohen note that Lord Baltimore embarked on venturing on the site both for financial profits and the creation of refuge for his fellow Catholics (36; par. 5). At this period of time, Roman Catholics were heavily persecuted and discriminated by Protestants in England. Even though, George Calvert was granted Maryland in 1632 and died before the charter had been prepared. His major aims were not only to make more money out of the land but also to establish it as a haven for Catholics and a site for freedom of worship even for other Christians (Kion 1). Maryland, thus, played an general job resume, important role in the New World as being the perfect haven for kamarajar New Settlers and Oppressed Catholic Christians. This was based on the fact that the setting of Maryland made it be the safest place in Europe and in the New World. Colony of Maryland. According to Mis, before the discovery of Maryland’s Chesapeake Bay, by Baltimore, the job resume land had been already inhabited by Yaocomaco Native Americans (5; par.
1). She has pointed out that Maryland was firstly explored by an Italian, Giovanni da Verrazano, in 1524 during his journey to the Chincoteague Bay. But the first European to kamarajar, set foot on 2010 essay school the land was an Englishman John Smith that in 1608 explored the Chesapeake Bay. It is from this point that English traders began making trips to Maryland in order to trade with the Native Americans. Essay Kamarajar? In 1631, the author noted that the first English settlement was established in Maryland by hindi, an Englishman William Clayborne. On November 1633, Mis pointed out two small ships, The Ark and The Dove carrying 150 people sailed from England to a strange land for a great adventure (4; par. 1). On the essay on karmaveerar kamarajar board, there was the Father Andrew White that was a Jesuit priest. Sailing through the Caribbean Sea, they passed Barbados Island and landed in the large body water of the Chesapeake Bay. However, as the author have noted they never anchored at the bay but rather sailed to St.
Cement’s island. Virginia Essays? Despite the island’s fertile soil, she has pointed out essay on karmaveerar, that the island was too small for the settlement. This prompted them to sail back and settle at St. Mary’s city located at the mouth of the Potomac River where Baltimore founded Maryland. According to Mis, even long before both The Ark and The Dove landed at the Chesapeake Bay, George Calvert imagined the colony along the Bay (7; par. Sex Marriage Essay? 1). She has pointed out Calvert as being the most trusted adviser of the English King, James I, that due to his loyalty gave him more than 2,300 acres of Ireland. It is from Calvert’s home that called the Manor of Baltimore, and he first got the title of essay Lord Baltimore. This title was passed to the heirs of his fortunes. However, four years after this mansion, Calvert converted to Catholicism.
This was a choice which the author asserted that ended his job career in the government. This is due to the fact that during the reign of James I, England was an official Protestant nation with the phd thesis Church of essay on karmaveerar England also known as the Anglican Church being the national religion. For English Extended Essay? When the Catholic Church refused King Henry VIII in divorce, he established the Church of England (Mis 7; par. 2). After withdrawing from the governmental position, Calvert began to kamarajar, venture on the new land especially to the north of Virginia in order not to encounter Catholic and Protestant factions struggling for the power supremacy in England. Mis notes that Calvert’s attempt to settle in the island of Newfoundland, presently known as Canada, was not successful as the area was too cold for investing in the profitable colony (8; par. Virginia Essays? 2).
This prompted him to seek a grant from James’s successor, Charles I, to venture to the north of the Chesapeake Bay, in Maryland, which was at that time the part of the Virginian royal colony. Essay On Karmaveerar? However, his agitation for the settlement in Virginia was not taken happily by some of island’s settlers that saw Calvert as he wanted to use Catholicism for stripping them off their land. But regardless of this, Calvert continued to hsc essays, lobby for his land grant, which the author has ascertained to on karmaveerar, be paid off in June 1632, two months after his departure. Setting of Maryland as the Haven for New Traders and Settlers. According to Mis, Charles I signed the charter in 1632 granting the holder of Baltimore the title of the minimum extended colony of Chesapeake (9; par.
1). This was known as Maryland; the title was established in honor of the Queen Henrietta Maria of Charles I. However, the attempts by Lord Baltimore’s eldest son Cecilius to establish the colony as a haven for new traders were marked with ups and essay on karmaveerar, downs. Firstly, being a Catholic made it difficult for him to secure a financial support. Secondly, the investors of Virginia Company painted his image negatively by spreading rumors about him. Nevertheless, the author has pointed out that Cecilius founded seventeen catholic men funding the voyage and general, enabling him to essay, establish Maryland as a privately owned colony. There is a number of contests factors that led to essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, the rapid growth and prosperity of Maryland as a safe place for new traders and settlers. Firstly, settlers of Maryland colony were exempted from the hostility from the job resume Indian population. According to Kennedy, Chen and Cohen, Lord Baltimore even in his absentee wished that the two hundred settlers coming by The Ark and The Dove ships founded Maryland at St.
Mary’s City in essay on karmaveerar kamarajar the Chesapeake Bay (36; par. 4). It could be graciously awarded with manor houses within the fertile land. When these planters arrived to Maryland in 1634, they found out that Cecil Calvert had appointed his brother Leonard Calvert as a governor of the province. 2010 Contests Middle School Students? This province had been purchased from Indians Yoamaco, for their settlement. Here they formed a settlement in essay St. Mary’s City where they lived peacefully with other American Indians. Secondly, Maryland emerged as a haven for new traders and settlers because of its fertile soil. Kennedy, Chen and Cohen note that Maryland had the rich fertile soil, which produced the virginia essays marketable tobacco leaves easily within a year (36; par. 7).
But unlike Virginia, Maryland settlers did not depend on black slaves as the workers for on karmaveerar their farms. The three authors have pointed out that in Virginia, during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, slaves were denied from their fundamental rights, thereby giving their masters a virtual and complete control over hsc essays, them. This was evident during the essay on karmaveerar late seventeenth century where black slaves had been imported in Maryland, thereby leading to the notorious Barbados slave code (37). But as Kennedy, Chen, and Cohen point out, the charter which was signed by King Charles I conferred on Maryland settlers more privileges as compared to other American colonies (36; par. 7). A part from the charter was securing equal religious rights to immigrants and minimum word extended essay, allowed Maryland the privileges to make laws without the royal revocation especially for their civil freedom. As these scholars have noted even taxes were not allowed to essay kamarajar, be imposed upon hsc essays inhabitants without their approval. For instance, in 1639, a group of essay freemen assembled in person and enacted the sex marriage necessary laws, thereby leading to the establishment of Maryland’s representative government. Within these laws, rights and dignities of people were outlined. With this, Maryland was regarded as a harbor for settlers and immigrants in kamarajar the New World.
Kion has acknowledged Calvert as it has been granted by virginia essays, the charter to have the lawful power of essay on karmaveerar not only making laws but also of enforcing them as long as they do not contradict with the English laws (1). However, she has noted that they were cautious especially in extending their governance role towards the colony’s commerce such as rents and taxes’ collection. This ensured that their leadership style was not seen as the exploitation to ordinary people. Setting of Maryland as a Haven for British Catholics. Ross has described the colony of Maryland as it was founded by Lord Baltimore under the proprietorship of phd thesis his eldest son, Cecil Calvert (1). She has noted that originally Maryland had the colonies of wealthy planters, tradesmen, slaves and American Indians. But being a Catholic, Lord Baltimore believed that the religious tolerance had to be realm at which the colony had been established. This, therefore, did not miss out.
As Ross has pointed out, the colony of Maryland eventually became a place of safety for the Catholic settling especially in the New World. She has argued that unlike the essay kamarajar colonists in virginia essays Jamestown located in Virginia, Maryland’s original settlers lived peacefully with the Native American Indian tribes. Contrary to on karmaveerar kamarajar, Ross there is Kion that argues that the major aims for which Calvert had been agitating to establish Maryland in the New World to be not only for making the financial profits out of phd thesis it, but rather for building it as a place of harbor for British Catholics. She has pointed out essay kamarajar, that having their father’s ideas in their mind; Calvert wanted to make Maryland a refuge for the British Catholics even though they did not expect the virginia essays area to be settled by Catholics alone. Doubtfully, it was never possible for people to believe that one day Maryland would be dominated by Catholics.
This was because only few but not many Catholics wished to migrate to the region. Essay? But while realizing that, this could be achieved, though with a struggle. Calvert engaged into the continuous activities with ensuring that they had succeeded in getting the Act of Tolerance. Kennedy, Chen, and contests students, Cohen note that Lord Baltimore outset the unusual freedom of worship in this area (36; par. 5). To him, it was more than necessary to purchase the tolerance if possible in order to kamarajar, ensure that his fellow Catholics from England were free from restrictions.
The scholars have noted that during the period Catholics were severely restricted in count for english England and, therefore, they only left with options of supporting the framed Act of Tolerance for their freedoms of worship. As Holmes points out, the rebellion caused by an Englishman William Clayborne that had been licensed by King Charles I to essay, explore the general job resume region and essay on karmaveerar, traffic with the natives broke out in 1635 (21; par. Minimum Word Count Essay? 1). Clayborne threatened of exempting the Kent Island from Maryland proprietor, since his grant was much older than that of Lord Baltimore. But by Lord Baltimore insisting that Clayborne should either depart from the island or take the oath of allegiance to Governor Calvert, he refused both thereby using the forces of arms in maintaining his possession. This, in on karmaveerar kamarajar turn, led to his deprival of civil rights and property by general job resume, Maryland legislature in 1638. Even though, Clayborne disappeared after his defeat, his active hostility had seriously impacted on the Indians’ minds regarding the settlement designed by English settlers towards them. Holmes notes that this dark suspiciousness alarmed the American Indians on a rapid settlement of Englishmen in their country (21).
Indians were falsified by Clayborne’s testimonies. The author has pointed out that they had taken a hostile position towards settlers which eventually led to kamarajar, the first Civil War in the region in same essay 1642. This saw Clayborne being assisted by Captain Richard Ingle; thereby overthrowing Maryland’s government and making the governor Calvert take his refuge in Virginia (3). However, by on karmaveerar, 1646, the rebellion had been crushed by the return of Governor Calvert. Holmes points out that the displacement of Green, a Roman Catholic and later an acting-governor of Maryland after the death of Leonard Calvert by Lord Baltimore, was the first step for minimum count for english extended essay the religious tolerance (22; par. 1). He has added that the commissioning of William Stone of Virginia, a Protestant, influenced on Virginian puritans to move to kamarajar, the bay of Chesapeake for phd thesis exercising their liberty of consciousness.
According to him, an assembly of colony comprising of mostly Puritans, the Church of English men and some Roman Catholics, met in 1649 and essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, adopted the Tolerance Act. This act, he has asserted, was pressured by the need to exercise a free religious opinion. According to Kennedy, Chen, and Cohen, the Tolerant Act published by the British and adopted by Maryland allowed every believer of Jesus Christ and Trinity to have the 2010 contests freedom to exercise his or her religious opinions (38; par. 1). Additionally, the Act did not allow any man to reproach another one on the basis of his peculiar religious standings. In so doing, the persecuted Christians from England, the Roman Empire and essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, Virginia flocked into Maryland in order to enjoy this broadened freedom. The three scholars have noted that a fundamental principle of Lord Baltimore was to support the legislation involving the act of religious tolerance not to suppress people basing on virginia essays their pressing faith and beliefs in Jesus Christ. They have asserted that Maryland presented an on karmaveerar kamarajar, asylum for the oppressed Puritans from the South and the church men from hindi, England that not only essay on karmaveerar, had experienced the same and religion essay good reception but also enjoyed their full liberty.
Kennedy, Chen, and essay on karmaveerar, Cohen point out that new Maryland religious statute offered the equal opportunity to all Christians in exercising their religious opinions (36; par. Minimum Word For English Essay? 9). However, it was harsh to other people that denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. According to these authors, the Act was less liberal as it had decreed death penalty to Jews and atheists that denied the existence of Jesus Christ. This law was, therefore, seen less restricting the religious tolerance than serving the purpose for which it had been previously enacted for such as protecting other religious groups. Kennedy, Chen, and Cohen have noted that the Tolerance Act only offered a temporary cloak of protection to on karmaveerar, other Catholic minorities but more significantly sheltered the British Catholics than any other English speaking colony in the New World. But in 1651, after the triumph of King Charles I by the English parliament, Holmes points out that commissioners including Clayborne were appointed to essay, reduce and govern Maryland (23). These commissioners took the possession over Governor Stone’s records, thereby abolishing the authority of the proprietor over the province. But barred with the Civil War between the on karmaveerar kamarajar Catholic followers of proprietor and and religion essay, Protestants supporting the on karmaveerar kamarajar Parliament, Stone was removed from office but reinstated through the approval of the Parliament.
However, when the Parliament was dissolved in 1653, Crowmell bestowed Baltimore with the full power as a proprietor over Maryland (Holmes 24). But Baltimore acted without wisdom when it displaced all the officers that had been appointed by commissioners. This, in turn, made these incensed commissioners return to Maryland compelling the governor to surrender his authority. Additionally, the Protestants that formed the majority in the General Assembly wanted to pass laws that would see that Papists and Churchmen being not entitled to protection by hindi, the Toleration Act of 1649. He has noted that under the essay influence of victorious Protestants, the assembly agreed that no person professing as belonging to the Catholic religion would be protected by Maryland laws. This led to the commencement of the Civil War in 1655, which, in virginia essays turn, resulted into the imprisonment of Stone for using force to resist the Protestant party. But in 1660, Holmes points out that Lord Baltimore was once more restored to essay kamarajar, his full authority with Philip Calvert being appointed as a governor (23).
His appointment led to the restoration of former liberal principles of the proprietor that wished a tolerant colony. However, on the accession of William and Mary to be the English King and virginia essays, Queen respectively in 1689, there was another interruption of Maryland tranquility. According to Ross, while responding to the Puritans’ takeover in England, a group of Protestants opted to triumph over Calvert government, thereby making Maryland a royal colony (1). Essay Kamarajar? This was widely contributed by the false rumors that pointed out hindi phd thesis, Catholics to be combining efforts with American Indians to overcome the Protestant colony. Ross has noted that the on karmaveerar kamarajar religious freedom being experienced in Maryland disappeared after the royal take off especially when King William appointed Sir Lionel Copley to be the governor of the region. Maryland then had remained the royal colony for 26 years. As Ross points out, during 26 years of the royal colony, the religious tolerance was not allowed. Sir Lionel Copley ensured that the English Church of worship was established and same sex marriage and religion, supported only by laws (1). However, in 1716, this great law on the religious expression was rectified. At this time, Benedict Leonard Calvert, became the fourth heir of Lord Baltimore.
Before then, Benedict Calvert had renounced the essay on karmaveerar Catholic Church, thereby joining the Church of and religion essay England in order to win the proprietorship over Maryland from essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, King George I. Just like his father, he fostered in toleration and humanity and aimed at making Maryland a haven for the British Catholics. Due to this, Maryland was restored as a privately owned colony. This lasted for 60 years until the hsc essays emergence of the Revolutionary War. Ross notes that the Revolutionary War swept away every vestige of the proprietary and royal government within the English-American colonies (1). Maryland, on its part, formed the Provincial Convention government in 1775 which saw the Governor Robert Eden coming back to England in 1776. He gave out the emancipating freedom to the nation (1).
According to this, Maryland people formed a Constitution for themselves. The Constitution did not bind their religious expression either jurisdictionally or being property wise. In conclusion, Maryland is, thus, a haven not only for settlers and traders, but also for oppressed religious groups. It has been considered as a region of protection for the British Catholics being discriminated against Protestants in England. Maryland’s existence as a haven for essay kamarajar the religious toleration was contributed by a visionary approach and agitation procreated by Calvert and phd thesis, his successive heirs.
The case of Maryland is a clear indication that it is essay kamarajar, important for same sex marriage essay leaders not to enact laws infringing the people’s freedom and rights to participate in worship, politics, or even government duties.
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Laura Kipnis’s Endless Trial by Title IX. September 20, 2017. Students and essay on karmaveerar, educators now live in a world where expressing an opinion about sexual harassment can be sincerely perceived as sexual harassment. In 2015, Laura Kipnis, a film-studies professor at Northwestern University, published a polemic in The Chronicle of Higher Education titled “ Sexual Paranoia Strikes Academe .” Kipnis argued that students’ sense of vulnerability on campus was expanding to 2010 middle, an unwarranted degree, partly owing to new enforcement policies around Title IX, which prohibits sex discrimination at educational institutions that receive federal funds. The new Title IX policies on sexual misconduct which were then sweeping campuses perpetuated “myths and fantasies about power,” Kipnis wrote, which enlarged the invasive power of institutions while undermining the goal of educating students in critical thinking and resilience. Essay Kamarajar! “If you wanted to produce a pacified, cowering citizenry, this would be the method,” she concluded. Kipnis wrote of a philosophy professor, Peter Ludlow, whom Northwestern disciplined for sexual harassment; Kipnis questioned the logic of the 2010 contests accusations against essay on karmaveerar him. One of Ludlow’s accusers, a graduate student (unnamed in virginia essays, Kipnis’s essay), then joined a fellow graduate student in the philosophy department in filing Title IX complaints against Kipnis, under Northwestern’s sexual-misconduct policy. On Karmaveerar! Through her essay and same sex marriage, a subsequent tweet about the essay, Kipnis was alleged to have violated the part of the sexual-misconduct policy prohibiting “retaliation”; additionally, she was alleged to have created a “hostile environment” and a “chilling effect” on complaints. Northwestern launched a formal Title IX investigation of essay, Kipnis. Most people under Title IX investigation don’t speak publicly about it, even to defend themselves.
But Kipnis responded by publishing a follow-up essay in virginia essays, the Chronicle , called “ My Title IX Inquisition ,” decrying the investigation as a misuse of Title IX that allowed “intellectual disagreement to on karmaveerar kamarajar, be redefined as retaliation.” On the 2010 contests school students same day, Northwestern cleared Kipnis of wrongdoing, finding that “viewpoint expression” is not retaliation, and that a “reasonable person” in the complainant’s position “would not suffer a hostile environment on account of” the essay and the tweet. Earlier this month, Betsy DeVos, the Secretary of Education, delivered a policy speech on Title IX that focussed on on karmaveerar kamarajar the need for virginia essays, fair process for both accusers and the accused. She also stated that “schools have been compelled by Washington to enforce ambiguous and incredibly broad definitions of assault and harassment,” stemming from over-compliance with the on karmaveerar Department’s 2011 “Dear Colleague” letter, which DeVos has made clear will be replaced by hsc essays, new regulations after a formal rulemaking process. Individuals “have faced investigation and punishment simply for speaking their minds or teaching their classes,” she said. The investigation of Kipnis helped to fuel the debate on Title IX and academic freedom. In the meantime, Kipnis told me something that had only just been made public in essay kamarajar, a court filing. Her 2015 Title IX investigation, she said, was not her last; she was investigated again, just this past summer. Back in hsc essays, 2015, the first investigation of Kipnis immediately triggered several other complaints.
A professor whom Kipnis brought to her interview as her “support person” also had a Title IX retaliation complaint filed against him, after he spoke to essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, the faculty senate about his concerns that the Kipnis investigation threatened academic freedom. An additional Title IX complaint at the same time also accused Kipnis of “involvement in and/or approval of” the faculty support person’s statement to the faculty senate. (Both of those complaints were eventually dropped.) Drawing on her experience, Kipnis wrote the book “Unwanted Advances,” which was published in hsc essays, April. After Northwestern terminated Ludlow’s employment, he gave Kipnis access to confidential records in the graduate student’s successful Title IX complaint against him, along with thousands of texts and e-mails between them. Kipnis writes that “the more I learned about his situation, the essay on karmaveerar kamarajar more I saw his case as a lens through which the excesses and hsc essays, hypocrisies of the essay kamarajar current campus hysteria came into focus.” Kipnis devotes a chapter of “Unwanted Advances” to her theory that Ludlow was falsely accused. In a letter to the editor in the Daily Northwestern , the Northwestern Philosophy Graduate Student Association objected that Kipnis “unfairly portrayed our colleague,” the graduate student. In May, the graduate student sued Kipnis and her publisher, HarperCollins, for defamation. (A HarperCollins representative told me that the company does not comment on pending litigation.) The suit alleges that the book falsely suggests that the word count essay graduate student and Ludlow had a consensual dating relationship, falsely insinuates that her allegation of rape was untrue, and falsely claims that she is a “serial Title IX filer.” It also makes an invasion-of-privacy claim, alleging that Kipnis’s book publicly disclosed private facts, including the plaintiff’s prior relationship with a married professor at another school, and details intimate conversations from her relationship with Ludlow.
It’s puzzling that the plaintiff is staking part of her lawsuit on the alleged falsehood of the statement that she is a “serial Title IX filer.” Kipnis mentions in the book that the graduate student was a complainant in six Title IX complaints; in the suit, the plaintiff acknowledges two, one against essay on karmaveerar Ludlow and one against Kipnis. But days before filing the sex marriage and religion defamation suit, in May, the graduate student joined four Northwestern faculty members and five other graduate students as a complainant in essay on karmaveerar, yet another Title IX complaint against Kipnis, this time based on the publication of “Unwanted Advances.” Kipnis told me that she was surprised when Northwestern once again launched a formal Title IX investigation of her writing. (A spokesperson from Northwestern did not respond to a request for comment by hindi, press time.) Kipnis said that investigators presented her with a spreadsheet laying out dozens of quotations from her book, along with at least eighty written questions, such as “What do you mean by essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, this statement?,” “What is the general source/are the sources for kamarajar, this information?,” and “How do you respond to the allegation that this detail is not necessary to your argument and that its inclusion is evidence of retaliatory intent on your part?” Kipnis chose not to essay contests school students, answer any questions, following the standard advice of counsel defending the court case. She did submit a statement saying that “these complaints seem like an attempt to bend the campus judicial system to punish someone whose work involves questioning the essay on karmaveerar campus judicial system, just as bringing Title IX complaints over my first Chronicle essay attempted to do two years ago.” In other words, the process was the punishment. Possible evidence of retaliatory purpose, she learned, included statements in the book that aggressively staked out word count extended essay her refusal to keep quiet, expressed in her trademark hyperbole. Her prior Title IX investigation, she writes, “has made me a little mad and possibly a little dangerous. . . . I mean, having been hauled up on complaints once, what do I have to lose? ‘Confidentiality’? ‘Conduct befitting a professor’? Kiss my ass. Essay Kamarajar! In other words, thank you to my accusers: unwitting collaborators, accidental muses.” Also presented as possible evidence was her Facebook post quoting a book review—“Kipnis doesn’t seem like the 2010 sort of enemy you’d want to attract, let alone help create”—on which Kipnis had commented, “I love that.” If Kipnis did engage in on karmaveerar kamarajar, retaliation or violate confidentiality, those infractions would be impossible to general, untangle from her book’s performance of on karmaveerar, her protest. “Unwanted Advances” sharply criticizes both the use of phd thesis, Title IX to silence political opponents and the secrecy that can enable abuse and overreach in campus Title IX processes. On Karmaveerar Kamarajar! The latest iteration of Northwestern’s investigation of Kipnis took a month to complete, and again ruled in her favor.
The university concluded that she did not retaliate or engage in sexual harassment by 2010, discussing mostly public information about pseudonymous students in on karmaveerar kamarajar, a book meant to critique the Title IX landscape, including false accusations and the use of Title IX to punish those critical of Title IX. Though she didn’t honor the confidentiality of university investigations, Northwestern recognized that confidentiality is a request rather than a requirement in its sexual-misconduct policy. Northwestern’s decision letter did suggest, however, that the dean of Kipnis’s school might still choose to sanction her for possible violations of the university’s policy on job resume “civility and on karmaveerar kamarajar, mutual respect.” The evidence: her statements after the book’s publication, in e-mails, on social media, and in talks, in which she questioned the veracity and 2010 essay, reliability of the graduate student’s account and hoped that “the book will cause a bit of a shit storm.” The university said that these “behaviors could be interpreted as demeaning and/or intimidating.” Kipnis objected that her statements rebutting charges of on karmaveerar, inaccuracy in her book could not legitimately be construed as “incivility.” The dean ultimately found that Kipnis did not violate the civility policy, and that was the end of the virginia essays matter. The U.S. Supreme Court has remarked, in Oncale v. Sundowner Offshores Services, in 1998, that sexual-harassment law is not intended to become a “general civility code.” But lack of “civility” can easily serve as a fallback accusation when a Title IX complaint doesn’t pan out. Essay On Karmaveerar! And Title IX can be deployed to make life difficult for a person one despises, for whatever reasons—good or bad. Two professors I spoke to said that they have experienced this phenomenon firsthand. Nicholas Wolfinger, a professor of family and job resume, consumer studies, said that he was on on karmaveerar kamarajar the receiving end of this dynamic at the University of Utah, where he has been at odds with his colleagues for years. He told me it is sex marriage and religion, because he has been openly contemptuous of colleagues who are “dead wood” and do not produce scholarship. Wolfinger was accused last year, under the school’s Title IX policy, of “being aggressive, rude, or dismissive of female faculty members” and “making unwelcome/unwanted sexual jokes or comments to other faculty members in the department” over the previous twelve-year period.
Examples included his reference to menstruation as “riding the cotton pony,” exclaiming “Fuck!” at a faculty meeting, and essay on karmaveerar, recounting stories of proposing to his wife at a strip club. The university’s investigation found him not responsible for Title IX sexual harassment and gender discrimination, but his dean still decided to hindi phd thesis, impose an administrative reprimand and suspension for essay on karmaveerar, “unprofessional behavior,” specifically with reference to his use of profanity and the “constant stream of insults that you direct at others, particularly those berating and belittling your colleagues.” (Wolfinger has written about hsc essays his Title IX process, but his piece did not mention the reprimand and suspension for unprofessional behavior.) It seems that the wish to knock off unlikable and ill-behaving colleagues can lead to illegitimate use of the essay kamarajar Title IX process to punish them, even if there is general job resume, no finding of responsibility. Ultimately, Wolfinger made a deal to work part-time without giving up tenure, a result that he says both he and on karmaveerar kamarajar, his colleagues were happy with. A professor who previously taught at general job resume a small college in California told me a related story. He was an outspoken critic of the school’s president, administration, and board, asking “too many questions” and calling for essay on karmaveerar, transparency regarding the minimum word extended school’s management, curricular, and financial problems. The administration demanded that he resign or face termination for violation of Title IX. When he didn’t resign, the school launched a Title IX investigation, with no complainant, that accused him of sexually harassing a former student five years earlier—but the essay on karmaveerar kamarajar former student sent the school a signed affidavit saying that the charges were baseless. The college decided to drop the minimum count for english Title IX charges, but it terminated the professor anyway for not living up to essay on karmaveerar, its standard of conduct, citing an alleged instance of public drunkenness (which he denies), his use of profanity (an e-mail in phd thesis, which he used the term “bullshit”), and what the college deemed to be immoral correspondence with a woman who had no connection to on karmaveerar, the school. Hsc Essays! (The professor has managed to find a new position at a foreign university.) For many, Title IX has become synonymous with the imperative to address sexual assault among students.
But Title IX can also be used to discourage disagreement, deter dissent, deflect scrutiny, or register disapproval of essay kamarajar, people whom colleagues find loathsome. The problem is virginia essays, not with Title IX itself, much less the generic capacity of any rule to be used as a pretext for unrelated ends. Rather, it is the growing tendency to try, in the words of Kipnis’s book, “to bend Title IX into an all-purpose bludgeon.” This warping is made possible by kamarajar, ambiguous and undisciplined understandings—misunderstandings—of sexual harassment and its harms. Kipnis’s rebuke of common slippages and conflations, whereby “gropers become rapists and accusers become Survivors,” anticipated a situation in which expression of general, her opinions about a sexual-harassment allegation could be sincerely perceived as an act of essay on karmaveerar, sexual harassment. Perhaps, in job resume, this environment, the complaint that followed the publication of “Unwanted Advances” was inevitable. Kipnis implied as much in essay on karmaveerar, “My Title IX Inquisition”: “by writing these sentences,” she was “risking more” complaints. That risk is now built into the professional life of those of us in universities who engage on subjects related to job resume, gender and sexuality.
Like Kipnis, I routinely hear from teachers who say they are refraining from teaching and writing on such topics for fear of essay on karmaveerar, attracting Title IX complaints, which bring possibilities of termination, demotion, pay cuts, and hsc essays, tens of thousands of dollars in legal fees, especially for kamarajar, the swelling ranks of hsc essays, teachers who, unlike Kipnis and me, do not have tenure. Yet debate on these topics is crucial to essay on karmaveerar, the pursuit of general, sex equality, as much as participants may disagree on what that means. As the Education Department under Secretary DeVos undertakes new rulemaking under Title IX, it will be important to be more explicit about how it may better protect the core educational activity of a campus: the production of essay on karmaveerar kamarajar, knowledge and the expression of virginia essays, ideas. At this moment, Title IX is too often conscripted to serve purposes antithetical to essay kamarajar, the education of citizens in virginia essays, a democracy, in which disagreement, dissent, or disapproval should lead to argument, not to an infinite loop of institutional investigation. Jeannie Suk Gersen is a contributing writer for newyorker.com, and a professor at Harvard Law School. In the Wake of the essay on karmaveerar Las Vegas Shooting, There Can Be No Truce with the Second Amendment. The Simple Truth About Gun Control. Let’s Stand Together with Jason Aldean Fans After the Las Vegas Shooting. How Badly Is Neil Gorsuch Annoying the Other Supreme Court Justices?
The Underground University That Won’t Be Stopped. In Georgia, undocumented immigrants, who are banned from the top public universities, have a school of 2010 essay contests school, their own.