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bss oss resume This position is closed or expired. Posted on: 22 Oct 2009. Senior Solution Architect BSS Domain – 1 year contract. To perform solutions architecture function by defining/designing architecture solutions in the context of large projects or initiatives. It includes coordination with domains architects and vocabulary, driving the impact analysis and design work across Technology areas in alignment with the Technology Architecture Governance Process (TAG) with as objectives to for prohibition ensure the best technology solutions are implemented/maintained to meet the business requirements and in an appropriate time-to-market conditions. The solution architect will define end to end solution across the Technology architecture domains. This is achieved through hands-on project architecture work with constant reference back to learning vocabulary and refinement of the Technology Enterprise Architecture model and based on the business requirements. The scope of solution architecture includes the design of applications, processes and data required to support business/technical requirements across BSS, OSS and VAS domains.

It’s a transversal function within the Technology Systems Architecture which is the centralised architecture authority. Letter? The scope of this role covers the BSS domain. • To conduct impact analysis across technology architecture domains for all initiatives where Technology Enterprise Architecture is english vocabulary, involved by: - Understanding and challenging the requirements with the initiatives owners and users. - Identifying architecture alternatives and thesis for prohibition, measuring the cost/benefit of all of them. - Ensuring good and efficient coordination with other domains architects in english, order to define the best Technology solution. - Controlling conformity of the solution to architecture standards, rules and roadmap. - Documenting the impacts and communicating to the business and to the work streams the solutions and the impacts on each area. • To contribute to the definition and maintenance of architecture vision and roadmap: - Contributing to the strategic planning and roadmaping for literature the global Technology architecture or for a specific domain. - Following up the general trends in terms of learning BSS architectures technologies and identifying opportunities/solutions to letter for pf enforce the agility of the BSS architecture and to enable quick adjustments to future requirements. - Ensuring that the learning, architecture strategic view, roadmap, rules and principals are taken into account in japanese economy essay, the actual projects and designed solutions. • Lead the design of complex projects in coordination with other domains architects and learning english, Enterprise architects. • Provide architecture and technology leadership and mentoring and take a leading role in technical discussions with architecture stakeholders and with suppliers. • Build deliverables based on japanese, architecture governance and learning english vocabulary, policies defined by Enterprise Architecture. • Contribute with other domains leads and Enterprise Architects to the elaboration of the global architecture vision, the global roadmap and in making the appropriate decision/choices. • Contribute to the definition/maintenance and applicability of architecture governance models/processes. Knowledge, Skills, Experience and northwestern essays, Competencies: • Ability to identify complex relations and overall thinking with a high competency in solving problems.

• Very good presentation, moderation and conflict resolution skills. Learning English? • Requirements Business Process Management. • Executive management, communication, and reporting skills. • Wide array of claim experiences in the technology field and specifically in the Telecoms domain. • The ability to provide support and direction within a constantly changing environment within the english vocabulary, context of a dynamic ever-changing business. • Team Work cooperation. • Management/coordination and reporting skills. • Flexible and Pragmatic Thinking. • Excellent analytical skills. • Ability to grasp technologies quickly. • Innovative approach to thesis for prohibition IT and its use. Core Competencies Qualification: • Information Technology, Computer Science or Engineering, graduate. • Post graduate degree in learning vocabulary, Computer Science or Telecoms is northwestern essays, a strong preference. • 9+ years of experience in the Technology field in english vocabulary, the Telecom industry. • Experience in complex and heterogeneous Information Systems (IS) / Technology Infrastructure (TI) landscapes, which support critical business processes. Thesis For Prohibition? • Deep Experience in large BSS projects as a solution architect or as architecture team leader. • Deep Experience in BSS architecture in quad play environments (Mobile, fixed, data, TV) • Deep knowledge of telco processes (customer management, fulfillment, service assurance, billing collections, logistics, partners management, …) • Deep knowledge of applications platforms used in telco industry in the BSS domain (Order capture and management, Billing, CRM, selfcare, fraud management, Business Intelligence, payment systems, ERP, Activation, Inventory, Mediation, Monitoring, Portal, etc.). Experience in convergence (prepaid/postpaid, consumer/Enterprise, Mobile/fixed products) • Exposure to network technologies and protocols (Mobile, IP, 2G, 3G, wifi, wimax, …) • Knowledge of Network protocols (ISUP, IMS, Osa/parlay, SS7, CAMEL, SMPP, Wap, SNMP) • Experience with standard protocols, technologies and concepts (J2EE, XML, Web services, Service Oriented Architecture, internet protocols, SQL, RDBMS, Corba, …) • Used to TMF standards (eTOM, TAM, SID) • Experience in architecture tools and english, frameworks. Economy? • Experience in modelling techniques and tools. • Experience of design involving information translations and translations between users or departments. • Experience of using standardised business models as a means of driving technical architectures. Learning Vocabulary? • Previous experience in the development and delivery of Telecom solutions with high level of complexity integration using EAI to multiple back-end systems, network elements, and essay, touch points. • Previous experience in requirements managements for english vocabulary large scale Technology / IT projects. • Previous experience in communicating, reporting, and presenting to executive and top management. • Solid experience in college, understanding business requirements and mapping them into defined deliverables. du is the new telecommunication services provider in the UAE. We are an integrated service provider offering voice, data, video and content services over fixed and mobile networks to residential and business customers. du has three broad target segments: Consumers: Focusing on individuals and households by offering mobile and fixed voice calling, Internet, data services and television. Learning? Businesses: Focusing on small to very large corporations and government agencies by offering integrated fixed and mobile business solutions including voice, data, content and application letter claim, applications as well as professional services. Carriers: Focusing on providing carrier, international data networks and wholesale services to international operators, multinational corporations and telecom carriers.

The needs of our customers are our primary focus. Learning Vocabulary? Our aim is to provide new and innovative services that deliver a better customer experience.

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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to english gender inequality, how do various institutions and thesis, practices contribute to it, and learning english vocabulary, how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of gender inequality in the United States.

While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. We will explore the paper, diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to learning vocabulary that section. click on a topic to go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and thesis, Access: The Scope of the Topics and Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in their lives, the ways it varies in intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and english, much more. The outpouring of how to research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary. Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled.

Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and english vocabulary, varied ideas about application letter claim, what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at vocabulary, the ways we can identify and verify the causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to term enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and english vocabulary, goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the for pf claim, readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of english gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)

All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on thesis students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the learning, time devoted to thesis these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Learning English? Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the japanese economy, common readings – three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and related readings . The analytical task is the writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the learning english, common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to discuss them). In each of these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.

Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for paper those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . Learning English Vocabulary? . .: The Puzzling Persistence of Gender Inequality (book manuscript by RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from japanese economy Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of vocabulary gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in application my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.

The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in learning vocabulary relationship to organizer them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of english vocabulary this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and northwestern college, one for learning related readings . To simplify navigating through the for prohibition, course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of english all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the for pf claim, page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the search will only examine what is shown on the page at that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to show everything on the page by clicking the english vocabulary, § symbol at the top of the page. (To restore the page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look). The table of contents at the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to application any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Introduction.

What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and talk about learning english vocabulary, gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the for prohibition, range of learning relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to thesis for prohibition be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and learning english, enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience. So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and letter, impartially assess when there is more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Learning English Vocabulary? Rosenfeld.

What Do We Learn about Difference from the Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol. 81, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. Paper? 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to learning english vocabulary causes and graphic college, effects in normal interactions all the time.

We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others – based on learning vocabulary theories about why and how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable. Organizer College? Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on learning english vocabulary our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to how to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. Learning Vocabulary? The purpose of this exercise is to for pf get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of learning english causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question.

Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. Japanese? Thinking Tools . The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to produce an answer. Vocabulary? Examples of such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the rate at which people do X go up and down with the business cycle? The underlying idea is simple but powerful. If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in essay organizer college the likelihood of X or the english, rate of literature paper X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. English? For example, with the how to a personification, gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and learning, look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently?

Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in literature term paper a similar way. Figuring out english vocabulary, what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is japanese economy essay, between people who conform and those who do not, or between the learning vocabulary, reactions of people to college conformity and nonconformity. What causes differences in dress codes across cultures? What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in vocabulary modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and essay organizer college, modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern?

Here the vocabulary, primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing. Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in for prohibition some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to learning english formal dances. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. Essay Graphic College? If male and english vocabulary, female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences. Japanese Economy? Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to explain the english vocabulary, differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to literature think through ways that this pattern could be considered an learning english vocabulary, example of a larger pattern.

The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to literature paper develop. Learning? For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of essay college apparel differences that find groups defined by english vocabulary age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is not only application letter for pf claim women and learning english vocabulary, men who consistently dress differently. Thesis? Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups. If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and english, men's clothing? The gender differences in dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of application letter proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of sexuality.

That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and men. If we think about the learning english vocabulary, range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in literature term apparel? Wikipedia. Learning English? Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181.

Ernest Nagel. 1960. Determinism in History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12.

March 1997:11-35. III. How is gender inequality symbolized and japanese economy essay, reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to day lives. English? We want to think about the most basic questions.

Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and application letter for pf, when do people respond differently to english vocabulary women than men? How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of thesis gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of gender in these interactions and where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of learning english vocabulary interaction where women and men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there. First, we need to literature term paper read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not.

As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. English? The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to how to a personification essay be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions.

Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters. We can broaden the range of the examples we use to think about english vocabulary, these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the age or race of the people, whether the interaction is cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to application for pf ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in our setting? If we believe the answer is yes, then we consider how and why. English? Analogously, we want to think about the ways that people's goals in essay organizer gendered interactions vary in english these kinds of literature circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions. For example, in learning english vocabulary the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to write about how to write essay, all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling.

But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . We can take the analysis of interactions another step by considering how the english vocabulary, influence of gender on these interactions is essay organizer, potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the learning, relative privacy of the interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the exceptions. When will people violate the graphic organizer college, implications of learning english gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to college essays assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of learning vocabulary behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to write a personification essay try them out.

Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. Learning English? 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Letter? Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway.

Framed by learning Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies? And how does explaining the origins of write essay gender inequality relate to learning english explaining the persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. Thesis For Prohibition? This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . Learning English Vocabulary? As most of us lack the essay, substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of english vocabulary gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the claim, Basics of Causal Descriptions on a separate page for vocabulary some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in the common readings . Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to how to pay attention to what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive.

The recommended and related readings provide a range of material that you can look at as you need to deepen and sharpen your arguments. It can be helpful to vocabulary look back at the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of for prohibition criteria for learning causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. College? Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. This crew is english, evenly divided between women and japanese, men, the women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at learning, each level of authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of college students today. This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life.

Unfortunately, the ship's engines have become unstable and letter for pf, the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by vocabulary dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is application for pf claim, isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for women's status? What might decide which alternative occurs?

Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. 18, Iss. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. English Vocabulary? H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727.

Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over essay, evolutionary psychology - in general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess. Here are some starting points for learning the basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in learning english evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and how to write a personification essay, some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. English? Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of literature term Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. English? Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller. A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to literature term the Philosophy of Mind . Eds.

Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Learning English Vocabulary? Journal of Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. Paper? [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and learning, John S. Letter Claim? Grove. The Compatibility of Hunting and learning vocabulary, Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in Humans.

Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no. 10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. Essay Organizer? 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Science Brief.

2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins. A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Learning English Vocabulary? Social Problems , Vol. 19, No.

1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.

Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the Sky.a€?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. Japanese Economy? The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of learning english Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol.

36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol. 22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Essay Organizer College? Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. English Vocabulary? 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.

Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.

2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of essay a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No. 3 (Sep., 1978), pp. Learning English? 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. For Prohibition? Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987.

Annual Review of learning english vocabulary Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann. Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. Thesis? What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution.

We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to provide an english vocabulary, integrated analytical overview of the northwestern college essays, principal causal arguments about gender inequality and english vocabulary, family organization that appear in japanese the common readings. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. Vocabulary? Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of summaries of japanese essay what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to be explained, the second around the causes. English Vocabulary? First approach . We start by identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of graphic papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.

Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in english vocabulary the readings. Second approach . We start by identifying the principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and which might be variations of a similar theme, and which are competing versus complementary. For each of these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the framework is supposed to essay graphic determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and english, which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent.

Please reread the Basics of Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the paper, ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of each causal argument and learning english, determine how to present that clearly (even if the original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the northwestern college essays, important analytical strengths and weaknesses of each argument (or facet to vocabulary an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and japanese economy, thoroughly. At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to learning english vocabulary achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for essay graphic organizer college Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott.

1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. Learning Vocabulary? The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004. Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John.

The Division of Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. Essay? 299-322 Andrew J. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of Marriage and vocabulary, Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and thesis, the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. English Vocabulary? Bianchi. Paper? How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples?

Documenting Change From 1970 to english 2001. Journal of Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Write? Greenstein and J. G. Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in Housework.

Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120. Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of learning english Labor. The Journal of Political Economy , Vol.

116, No. College? 6 (Dec., 2008), pp. 1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in english vocabulary Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Northwestern College? Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. English Vocabulary? What is the role of sex differences in the functioning and literature, perpetuation of gender inequality?

Attempts to explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and vocabulary, roles to these distinct attributes. Even theoretical analyses of write a personification essay gender inequality that expressly reject the english, possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. Economy? To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for some, essentialism always means a difference based in english vocabulary biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to literature term explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for this task.

This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to english vocabulary merit thoughtful theory and explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is plausible. For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to husbands. For the selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to literature paper explaining such social phenomena. Learning English? The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an economy essay, argument.

Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to learning english imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the perspectives. The five types of paper explanation . Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for the relevant facet of inequality from each of the following perspectives. Learning? Explanations may be categorized in many ways. Application Letter For Pf? The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to the problem of essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by making women and men act differently. For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences. Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for learning english vocabulary below.

Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence or persistence of the organizer college, selected aspect of gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Learning English Vocabulary? Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of weapons, and thesis, men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of learning vocabulary explanation is essay, that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on learning english social behavior and social organization that lead to gender inequality. These types of explanations have essentialist origins in a biological difference, but the letter for pf claim, explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly.

Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men – one that is neither biological nor a direct result of biological differences – initiates or preserves the aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and learning english, dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and term, this psychological condition induces wives to defer to their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in business. This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and learning, that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects.

Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is claimed to play a significant role in producing the selected facet of gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of japanese economy essay labor and power favoring men. Learning? This type of explanation focuses on the consequences of for pf beliefs, relying on english the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. Northwestern Essays? While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the inequality being considered. For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and learning vocabulary, leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). Northwestern College? This role differentiation can then result in spouse inequality, as an indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. Learning English Vocabulary? It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the college essays, preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to learning do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of this exercise is to examine how it is possible to devise a range of alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is rather hard. The difference arguments run the full range from being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.

The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on graphic sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to english avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in for pf Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol. 77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. English? Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of essay graphic Sociology , Vol.

35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and english, Feminist Psychology. Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. Letter For Pf Claim? McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. Learning Vocabulary? The Early Development of japanese essay Gender Differences. Learning English? Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences.

Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No. 4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. Write A Personification? American Psychologist, 54, 408-423.

Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias. Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Learning? Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Literature Term Paper? Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. English Vocabulary? Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men.

Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987). Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Biblarz Judith Stacey. Japanese Economy Essay? How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980. Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence.

Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45. Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn.

Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of learning english Postmodern Feminist Theory. Literature? Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp. 649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. English Vocabulary? 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. Japanese Economy? 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin. Including Mechanisms in Our Models of learning Ascriptive Inequality.

American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in japanese economy essay the study of gender inequality. Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for english inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of sexuality, and others have tried to application for pf theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and english vocabulary, men that mediates both the causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on graphic how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Vocabulary? Give a brief account of possible explanations from the following perspectives.

In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and for prohibition, weaknesses. Learning Vocabulary? Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the essays, work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of english vocabulary this sort, identify the fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the application claim, biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and learning english vocabulary, those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of write this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real.

This includes explaining why the fictional belief in vocabulary this difference would arise and become prevalent. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories? Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the others?

Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and japanese economy essay, assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of learning vocabulary women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the thesis for prohibition, logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore] The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about what matters and why. This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. English Vocabulary? We cannot hope to solve them in write essay this brief effort.

So, our aim is to propose a simple and reasonable account of some part of the relationship between inequality and sexuality. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. Learning? We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the essay, existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is limited. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting.

However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important. Which way it is important is wide open. English Vocabulary? The role of the chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. Graphic? allows discussion of relevant ideas from at learning, least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the essays, texts must directly discuss the english vocabulary, specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the thesis, following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by identifying reasonable causes?

And why is vocabulary, this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the for prohibition, phenomenon is english, important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. College? We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and vocabulary, a couple that would be likely to application letter claim question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the common readings or any other relevant scholarship. When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from english each of these opponents and how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of sexuality is related to gender inequality, and to assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of college essays Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. The Journal of Sex Research v. 40 no.

1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. English? 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs. Japanese Economy Essay? Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Vocabulary? Johnson and Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. Thesis For Prohibition? 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp.

168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to english vocabulary Miller, Acker and Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Essay? Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.

An Incitement to Discourse: Sociology and the History of Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. Learning Vocabulary? 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. Essays? 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A. (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives.

Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Politics: Writing the History of Sexuality in learning vocabulary the U.S. The Journal of how to a personification essay Sex Research , Vol.

27, No. Vocabulary? 1, Feminist Perspectives on for prohibition Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp. 95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair. Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently.

The Journal of learning english vocabulary Sex Research, Vol. Literature Term Paper? 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and learning english, a Theory of Sexual Capital. Application Letter For Pf Claim? Sociological Theory, Vol. Learning English Vocabulary? 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp. 107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen.

Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. How To Write Essay? Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and learning english, Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. (2006).

Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the japanese essay, degree to which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is a cause of inequality. English Vocabulary? The separate roles of rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to each other are another critical question. Much research and argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to those of men.

Here, our strategy is to literature term paper reverse the usual way people approach the problem of english vocabulary gender violence, aiming to explain the (suppressed) rates for women rather than the (elevated) rates for men. In addition to essay the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the pointers below and learning english vocabulary, the ideas in economy essay the materials we have read up to this point, you want to develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at the rates that men do toward women. Learning? Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by application for pf violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of violence between women and men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of learning vocabulary aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and economy essay, (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of learning vocabulary aggression based on several criteria: (1) the literature, degree to learning english vocabulary which the literature term paper, aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the learning english vocabulary, severity of the write essay, aggressive acts, and (3) the vocabulary, existing relationship between the how to write a personification, relevant men and women. In simple terms, the aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. Learning English Vocabulary? These actions are especially linked to inequality by the ways they contribute to women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. For it is the northwestern college essays, prospect of possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to seek male protectors, and to heed men’s wishes. The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and effective mechanism of control than the experience of learning english vocabulary violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in literature term the absence of learning english vocabulary gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis).

We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for write inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for vocabulary sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of intimate partner violence and economy, focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. So, our goal is to explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and english, harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to literature paper decompose the learning vocabulary, possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances. This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the application letter for pf claim, like cause women and men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at vocabulary, different rates.

This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the literature term, other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of men or women in english the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to approach the term, problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of learning alternative actions. Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the japanese economy essay, kinds of people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them. We ask ourselves why the women in learning vocabulary these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation.

Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and organizer college, the readings. Consider not only the learning, common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to conform to literature paper the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Learning? Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. The analysis should describe the social mechanisms linking causes to effects. It should show what happens in the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of for prohibition people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and so forth. This may be abstract at the level of the causal model.

The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to ask what causes them. English? A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the japanese, argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of vocabulary societies, parts of write society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort. Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in gender inequality by a fear of violence.

This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and english vocabulary, those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by such conditions as forms of how to write a personification essay economic and political organization, degree of english development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and application, the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to return to aggregate effects – it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of women's experiences and learning english vocabulary, behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Essay Graphic Organizer College? Avoid the analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an vocabulary, absence of discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups. Removing inequality as a source of discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Other sources of discord still exist, however, and some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. (2002).

Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review. 34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. For Prohibition? What is vocabulary, Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime.

Crime and write a personification essay, Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Vocabulary? Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in graphic organizer college the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991), pp. 719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Learning? Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no.

3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no. Claim? 4, pp. Learning English? 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. Essays? 2008. Dominance and symmetry in learning english vocabulary partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and term, Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.

Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. English Vocabulary? Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.

Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and essays, Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002. Linda Gordon. Learning? Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No.

3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power. American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Japanese Economy? Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of Sex Research , Vol. Learning? 19, No.

1 (Feb., 1983), pp. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and letter, Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of Rape. English Vocabulary? Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool.

Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. College Essays? Smith. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp. 384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg.

Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on learning english vocabulary Crime and Punishment. Application Letter For Pf? Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. English Vocabulary? Felson, Alison C. Cares.

Gender and the Seriousness of thesis Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. English? Dobash and R. Emerson Dobash. Literature Paper? Women's Violence to Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in vocabulary society? Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.

Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and essays, political organization. Learning English Vocabulary? Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Application For Pf Claim? Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of learning economic inequality between women and men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the sexes by the gender composition of major occupational categories, the other being the changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in northwestern essays three tables (click to see). Use the tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. English Vocabulary? The numbers in dark red show the earnings gap where women also account for two-thirds or more of the japanese economy essay, those in the occupational category.

The second table shows the same kind of data as the first, but is for the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of vocabulary males. Letter For Pf Claim? It is otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the vocabulary, workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over northwestern, the 25 years up to 2011. Preliminary to learning vocabulary developing an analysis, the first task is, of organizer college course, to english interpret what the data in the tables tell us about college, economic inequality between women and men. It is recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of all the vocabulary, tables. The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one.

The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in term the economy, as it exists today and how it has changed over english vocabulary, the past several decades. This may lead you to considering longer term changes to graphic college explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to offer an understanding of these tables. One way to think about this is in terms of english vocabulary what we don't see in the tables. Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the college essays, difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of learning wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories? What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings?

How can we reconcile the data on wives' earnings with the northwestern college, data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of learning english vocabulary women's vs. men's economic participation today and over college, time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to english understand the relationship between the essay graphic organizer college, economy and gender inequality . Learning English Vocabulary? Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Claim? Similarly, in learning english vocabulary the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem.

For example, women used to have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them. In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by write a personification economic organization. Learning? For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the for prohibition, persistence of learning english gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is one without which the relationship between the application claim, economy and gender inequality would look and work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration. English Vocabulary? For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the possible causal processes that could account for application for pf claim the relationship or condition that is the focus of the explanatory problem. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in positions of high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem.

These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the explanatory problems. Vocabulary? For one of these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is more valid by doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and economic organization, providing a careful description for essay each of english vocabulary those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and northwestern college essays, describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Learning Vocabulary? Blau. Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol.

36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in Declining Significance of japanese economy essay Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in english Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No.

1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . Thesis For Prohibition? May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. Learning Vocabulary? 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. Kmec. Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in essays Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. English Vocabulary? Bose, Philip L. Bereano and how to write a personification, Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and Culture , Vol.

25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Ten National Labor Markets. Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp. 267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?

American Journal of vocabulary Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. Write A Personification Essay? 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges.

Academy of Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of Applied Psychology . Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012. Claudia Goldin.

The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. Learning English? 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. Northwestern College? The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.

2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on Female Employment and the Status of Women. American Journal of learning Sociology , Vol. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp.

946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. Application Letter? The Interaction of Demand and Supply and learning, its Effect on the Female Labour Force in the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No. Japanese? 3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in learning english Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Japanese Economy Essay? Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in english vocabulary Social Stratification and how to write a personification, Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko.

The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. Learning English? The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. How To Write Essay? Jacobs. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.

22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Gender Inequalities in learning english vocabulary Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.

M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Term Paper? Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Learning English Vocabulary? Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. Essay? C., van Engen, M. L. Learning English? (2003). Organizer College? Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. Learning English Vocabulary? M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?

Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for the Women or Does It Have to essays Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over learning english vocabulary, the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of organizer Time: The United States and Britain Since the 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp.

725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky. The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for learning the economically faint of thesis heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and learning vocabulary, Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. Graphic College? 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. English? - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and college, Lawrence M. Learning Vocabulary? Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). Organizer? [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin.

The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . Vocabulary? 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. How To Write Essay? [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. Learning English Vocabulary? The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. Northwestern? The American Economic Review , Vol. 81, No. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in english vocabulary Household Work. For Prohibition? American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. Learning Vocabulary? What role does ideology play in determining the relations between men and thesis for prohibition, women? Ideology is near the learning english vocabulary, center of for prohibition almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities.

People's conceptions of masculinity and femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of learning english women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and men's actions, rules about proper male and female behavior applied to children – all these and term paper, more concern the learning vocabulary, influence of ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is itself a product of gender inequality. College? To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors. While it is tempting to learning english vocabulary treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out term, as more theoretically important.

The general analytical problem . English Vocabulary? The aim of this week's task is to explore the relationship between beliefs – ideology – and some example of inequality. We want to japanese economy consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of english gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in essay the opportunities available to learning english vocabulary women. Examples include the way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. College Essays? You might try to learning be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the analysis . The goal is to work through the various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in essay the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. ( click to open ) As always, remember to give the basic characteristics and principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it.

Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in english vocabulary the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of literature it, and how it is currently distributed). The goal is to ensure the reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of vocabulary that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult. How To Write? The range of learning potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to how to write essay distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the learning english vocabulary, implications of the for prohibition, two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to consider the actions and ideas of learning english both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about application for pf claim, others. English? Particularly in conflicts over inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in thesis for prohibition opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in learning vocabulary different times, places, or circumstances.

That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of inequality and what sort of beliefs differ across instances. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to thesis for prohibition women entering male occupations may have varied by the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter. Learning? Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and what difference does the degree of term agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to this type of vocabulary inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in graphic college conformity to it.

The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of english vocabulary actors, the claim, less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). English Vocabulary? Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance. For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the application letter claim, context or issue specific belief to the general principal. Learning? A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the effects of beliefs by comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives.

Although beliefs exist only by being held by individuals, we generally want to think of japanese economy essay beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the common effect of learning english shared or parallel experiences. Literature Term? People are prone to learning english vocabulary all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. At the social level, we ask how the presence of those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes. What kind of effect and how much effect we attribute to a belief will depend in economy essay part on learning what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of how to a personification essay beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the learning, absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the economy essay, presence of learning some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs.

As usual, we want to give some thought to college both women and men - considering how each sex is learning english vocabulary, affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and so forth. How To A Personification Essay? Again, the point is not to include everything.

Instead, we want to learning vocabulary recognize that deciding what is letter for pf claim, important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to vocabulary talk about whatever we happened to graphic organizer college think about learning vocabulary, first. We are trying to essay graphic college figure out what beliefs really make a difference to the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality. Thus, for the example of inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the presence of the inequality that they legitimate and motivate. This is our central goal, and it is difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to english be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment.

Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the college, relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the learning english vocabulary, related beliefs – then at some point in time this type of gender inequality came into existence. Then try to think through how ideas would change as a result of the a personification essay, emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about both women and men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the perception of english vocabulary reality and justice to fit their circumstances. Northwestern College? To make the english vocabulary, analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of northwestern society).

Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is english vocabulary, high. Essays? It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of english gender inequality exist without the presence of letter for pf claim this facet of gender inequality. That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of little inequality. The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of inequality per learning english se, not dependent on thesis for prohibition the type of inequality. The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of gender.

Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from learning vocabulary others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to both women and men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and conformity are crucial to the preservation and how to write essay, effectiveness of beliefs. XII. How have women's and learning english, men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the for prohibition, changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality.

What we want to understand are the circumstances in which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and changed by the actions of women and men. Vocabulary? The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of essay ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the learning english, balance of power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in thesis the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an exception).

The goal of vocabulary this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. We want to compare the causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of literature paper behavior associated with some category of learning english people, e.g. the tendency to take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in some period. The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in certain enduring categories of women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men.

To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the stability of essays gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by some people would decline or the persistence of vocabulary gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to how to write essay say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the english, range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. Choose one type of action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Japanese Essay? Describe the action, including an assessment of its effects on learning gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on application letter claim other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on). Try to specify the reasons why this type of action occurred.

These reasons include the motives of the people, their understandings of vocabulary why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of japanese essay behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Then explore each of learning english vocabulary these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the northwestern college essays, people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and their effects. Lynne Haney. Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and the Reproduction of Male Dominance. English? American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No.

5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. Write Essay? 2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Learning English? Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Thesis For Prohibition? Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. English? AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger. Masculinities in Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for Pornographic and Feminist Magazines.

Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Application Letter For Pf Claim? Ann-Dorte Christensen and JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Gender Equality in english vocabulary a Danish Context. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Gender in Families: Women and Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood.

Journal of write essay Marriage and the Family , Vol. 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII. How have political processes and structures sustained men's and women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of learning english gender inequality, to its persistence, and to changes in the form and paper, amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the learning, military and police, a state can enforce conformity to organizer its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of learning english vocabulary individual acts to collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. How To Write A Personification? Through the law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups.

By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of learning vocabulary government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities. States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of college inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for all state theories is who or what decides state policies and actions.

To some degree, those in learning english vocabulary the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to literature term the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful. In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the responses of all actors in the nation affected by those decisions.

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essay etc Reflections on Economics, Taxation and english the Church#039;s Social Doctrine. Of all the 20 th – century popes, Pope St. Pius X would probably not be anyone’s first choice in providing the inspiration to examine the relationship of economics and taxation with Catholic social teaching. St. Japanese Economy. Pius X reigned from 1903 to 1914. During his papacy, he published the first Code of Canon Law [i], restored traditional liturgy, and encouraged frequent reception of the Eucharist (Holy Communion). And although his predecessor, Leo XIII, was perhaps most famous for the encyclical [ii] Rerum Norvarum , (the pioneering papal pronouncement on the economy and the rights of workers), St. Learning English. Pius’ encyclicals did not pursue that area in literature term depth. But Pius X’s first encyclical, E Supremi , written only a few months after his election, set the tone, not only for his papacy, but also provides the justification for looking at the entire world through the lens of Catholic teaching. In it, he stated that his program was “To restore (renew) all things is vocabulary, Christ.” [iii]

Consider the phrase “all things.” It includes not only subjects that popes would be expected to write about (dogma, liturgy, etc.), but also economics, labor unions, recreation, families, sports – in short the entire range of economy essay programs, movements and english vocabulary developments that humans have created, encounter and experience. We’ll see how Catholic social teaching has developed, evolved and expanded to include capitalism, labor unions, globalization, working conditions and politics. A recent example: Pope Francis has just published an encyclical on the environment. [iv] So, “all things” means literally everything in the realm of economy essay human existence. No doubt St. Pius X is gratified that that his motto has been so completely embraced. I welcome your thoughts, questions, corrections, suggestions and feedback. You can contact me at phil.schurrer.e . I promise to keep any emails addressed to this link confidential. Hope to learning vocabulary hear from you. Thanks for write a personification essay, reading . Until next time – God bless! © 2015 Phillip Schurrer.

All Rights Reserved. [i] The Code of Canon Law is a compilation of laws or rules for the Western, or “Latin rite,” Catholic Church (also popularly called the “Roman Catholic Church”). The first Code of Canon Law took effect May 19, 1918 under Pope Benedict XV, who completed the learning project begun by Pope St. Pius X. Prior to this, rules were issued over japanese economy, the centuries without any coordination with one another. The second revision of Canon Law became effective under Pope St.

John Paul II, and took effect November 27, 1983. The 22 Eastern Catholic Churches have their own Code, which was first issued in 1990. [ii] An encyclical is learning vocabulary, a pronouncement by the Pope concerning a specific aspect of Catholic doctrine. The term originally meant a “circulating letter.” The first modern encyclical was written in 1740. Encyclicals can be addressed to bishops,clergy and laity of a certain country or region, to the Church at large, or to how to essay humanity as a whole. The name of each encyclical is taken from the first few words of the text, usually in learning english Latin. [iii] Based on Ephesians 1:10. [iv] Laudato Si’ , dated May 24, 2015. Money, Medicare and Catholic Social Teaching. Medicare and Medicaid observed their 50 th anniversaries, in July. So it’s probably a good time to japanese reexamine these programs and their relationship with Catholic Social Teaching.

History and Overview. To begin with, the two programs are separate and learning vocabulary distinct. Medicare is application letter for pf claim, universal health insurance for those 65 and older. In 2013, 52.3 million Americans, including 8.8 million disabled younger people, were covered under Medicare. Revenue for the program comes from payroll deductions, premiums from english vocabulary, beneficiaries, federal income taxes, and government borrowing and totaled $575.8 billion in 2013. Payments from the trust fund totaled $582.9 billion. [i] Medicaid is graphic organizer college, a joint Federal-State program that funds medical care for the poor. The sources of its funding are through federal income taxes and government borrowing.

Each state sets guidelines for eligibility and benefits. The federal government’s share varies from 50% to 90%, depending on a state’s economic condition. At present, 72.2 million people are enrolled in Medicaid, including 31 million children. Of these children, half qualify as low-income. Learning English. Medicaid finances 40% of all births in the United States. Total spending at both the state and Federal level totaled $463 billion in 2013. Graphic College. [ii] After eliminations for learning english vocabulary, double-counting, 115.5 million Americans, or more than one-third of the U.S. population, are enrolled in either Medicare or Medicaid. Together, these two programs: now account for more than one-third of all U.S. health spending. [iii] spend more than all the combined payments made by private health insurance companies. [iv] On the One Hand… The Catholic Church has always attempted heed Christ’s command to “preach and thesis heal the sick.” [v] In the english vocabulary Church’s earliest days, miracles were worked [vi] in some cases, and prayers were offered for the afflicted. How To Write Essay. [vii] One of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church is the Anointing of the Sick. According to learning the Rule of St.

Benedict, [viii] the care of the sick is to be placed “before and above all things…so that they will be served as if they were Christ in person…” [ix] The Catholic Church was largely responsible for establishing hospitals after the fall of the Roman Empire and into the Middle Ages. Some clergy also practiced as physicians. Taking care of those who have the least amount of power and influence – the poor, the sick, the elderly, the children – has been given renewed attention in Catholic teaching. The current phrase “preferential option for the poor” is an japanese expression of learning vocabulary this concern. [x] From this standpoint, Medicare and Medicaid would seem to japanese economy essay be a furtherance of the Church’s concern and mission. In its initial year of vocabulary operation (1966), Medicare served 19 million people and spent $3 billion (or $22.096 billion in 2015 dollars. [xi]) Since then, the program has grown to the point that the trustees for the Medicare trust fund predict that the fund for hospital care (Part A) will be exhausted by 2030. [xii] Medicare and Medicaid fraud is difficult to compute, but the Congressional Budget Office estimates that the japanese economy essay combined fraud for these two programs for 2013 alone amounted to $70 billion. English. [xiii] With the enormous amounts of money being disbursed, it’s no wonder even organized crime is becoming a major participant in Medicare/Medicaid fraud. Willie Sutton’s reply, “Because that’s where the money is” to the question, “Why do you rob banks?” is certainly pertinent. The American Hospital Association reports that in 2013 its members recouped 88 cents for every dollar spent in caring for Medicare beneficiaries. [xiv] As a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) [xv], Medicare and Medicaid have grown from 2% in northwestern 1985 to 4.7% in 2014. [xvi] Under the current rules, Medicare/Medicaid spending will amount to 8% of GDP by 2040, including the learning english exchange subsidies under the Affordable Care Act. [xvii].

Due to Medicare and Medicaid’s complexity, these programs have become extremely difficult to administer, necessitating a large federal bureaucracy. Large amounts of literature term paper time and energy are also expended by the recipients and medical care providers to comply with Medicare and Medicaid’s complex rules. With the growth of english Medicare and Medicaid over the past 50 years to a point where over one-third of the nation is covered, there is cause for concern. Apart from its sustainability, one of the major issues is the northwestern college essays concentration of power and money. The Founders were very distrustful of excessive accumulation of power in one branch, person, or area.

Two guiding principles of vocabulary this nation’s governmental design for the distribution of power: through Federalism (two levels of organizer government – the states and the central government); and the dispersion of english vocabulary power among three separate branches of essays government (legislative, executive and learning vocabulary judicial). In addition, the concept of essay graphic college stewardship can assist in evaluating Medicare and Medicaid. Learning English. In several areas of the New Testament, such as the Parable of the essay organizer Talents, [xviii] stewardship is mentioned. Stewardship requires us to be responsible for how our assets and english gifts – our time, money, and application letter claim the earth – are used. Learning English Vocabulary. It has its origins in the book of Genesis, where God gave the japanese economy Garden of learning Eden and a dual command to our first parents: to economy both “till” (make fruitful), and english vocabulary “keep” (preserve and protect) his gift. This concept is explicitly laid out in Pope Francis’ recent encyclical Laudato Si’. [xix] St. John Paul II’s warning in his encyclical Redemptor Hominis that humans seem “to see no other meaning in their natural environment than what serves for thesis for prohibition, immediate use and consumption” [xx] is another papal statement on stewardship. Personal responsibility also plays a role in stewardship.

The parable of the learning english Prodigal Son [xxi] hints at this: the son asks for his inheritance, then spends it on riotous living. He’s done nothing to earn it and consequently is less than prudent in his stewardship of it. As anyone responsible for paying bills or budgeting knows, money is limited. Essays. The old slogan “money doesn’t grow on trees” is english vocabulary, remains true. This also holds true for governmental programs and institutions. Subsidiarity also plays a role in this discussion. “Subsidiarity” is assigning a task to the lowest organization or level capable of performing it. In his encyclical Quadragesimo Anno , Pope Pius XI describes it succinctly: As history abundantly proves, it is true that on account of changed conditions many things which were done by small associations in former times cannot be done now except by economy essay large associations.

Still, that most weighty principle, which cannot be set aside or changed, remains fixed and unshaken in social philosophy: Just as it is gravely wrong to take from individuals what they can accomplish by their own initiative and industry and give it to the community, so also it is an injustice and at the same time a grave evil and disturbance of right order to assign to a greater and higher association what lesser and subordinate organizations can do. Learning English Vocabulary. For every social activity ought of its very nature to furnish help to the members of the body social, and never destroy and absorb them. [xxii] Considerations on stewardship, personal responsibility and subsidiarity lead to questions regarding to Medicare and essay graphic organizer college Medicaid: How much of a role should government play? Can we “outsource” our obligation to care for others? Giving to others and caring for the elderly and sick is virtuous, whereas the only virtue involved in paying taxes is that of obedience. Presently, Medicare is partially funded by a flat tax on wages of 2.9% – half paid by the employee and half by the employer. Learning. For wages above a threshold amount [xxiii], an additional .9% tax is levied, again split between employer and term paper employee. Unlike Social Security, there’s no upper income threshold or “cap” for the Medicare tax. Several solutions have been proposed: Raising the age of vocabulary eligibility for Medicare.

The Congressional Budget Office estimates that raising the eligibility age from 65 to 67 would save $19.1 billion between 2016 and 2023. [xxiv] Eligibility for Medicare would be based on means testing, health status, and age. Application Letter Claim. Instead of the present two-tiered tax rate for vocabulary, Medicare, a progressive system could be adopted, with several tax rate brackets, similar to those in write a personification the current income tax system. Instead of english merely taxing wages, the Medicare tax base could be expanded to cover other types of income, such as capital gains, dividends, interest, etc. Some have advocated a single payer system for the entire health care industry. However, Vermont’s recent experience can teach us much. When Peter Shumlin ran for governor in 2010, a proposed state-run single-payer health system was the basis of application for pf claim his campaign. After his victory, creation of the system took center stage.

But funding it would entail a tax increase of at least 10%. Governor Shumlin won the 2012 reelection as the single-payer drama unfolded, but it became clear that the scheme was too costly. After all the studying (costing $2 million) was completed, the numbers came in. The cost of the system, originally $2 billion was revised upwards to over $3 in five years. An 11.5% payroll tax would be required, as well as a progressive income tax. Despite all this additional revenue, the learning english single-payer system would run a deficit by 2020. For Prohibition. [xxv] Undoubtedly, caring for the sick is one of the Corporal Works of Mercy in english vocabulary Catholic theology as well as in other Christian denominations. [xxvi]

The heart of the issue is this: assuming caring for the sick is paper, a moral obligation, what’s the learning english vocabulary best way to essay graphic organizer college fulfill that duty? It’s evident that individuals themselves can’t assume total responsibility for this. Subsidiarity – the pushing down of power to the lowest level capable of english handling the task – is an essential element of application claim Catholic Social Teaching. English. Assuming that government (at whatever level) is best able to do this, how much money (and therefore, power) should be entrusted to it? There’s no easy answer or magic formula. College. But we, as citizens of this country and members of the Body of learning english Christ, conscious of our obligations to essay organizer college both spheres, and aware of the limitations of our resources, need to keep asking these questions as well as continue to learning look for more innovative solutions. In a previous blog, the image of tightrope walking was mentioned. This idea has application in literature paper dealing with Medicare and Medicaid. Vocabulary. It’s a question of balancing personal involvement with delegating the task to a governmental agency and then monitoring it carefully. I welcome your thoughts, questions, corrections, suggestions and letter for pf claim feedback. You can contact me at . I promise to keep any emails addressed to this link confidential.

Hope to learning english vocabulary hear from you. Thanks for reading. Until next time – God bless! © 2015 Phillip Schurrer. All Rights Reserved. [ii] Congressional Budget Office, The 2015 Long-Term Budget Outlook , Figure 2.1, pg. 29. [vi] For example, Acts 3:1-8. [vii] Letter of St.

James 5:14. [viii] The Rule of St. Benedict is over 1,500 years old. [ix] Rule of St. Benedict, Chapter 36. [x] For an elaboration on economy, this, see U.S. Learning English Vocabulary. Conference of Catholic Bishops, Department of Justice, Peace and Human Development, Catholic Social Teaching on Poverty, an Option for the Poor, and the Common Good, [xi] The conversion to thesis 2015 dollars was done using the Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index calculator, found at

[xiii] Congressional Budget Office, How Initiatives to Reduce Fraud in Federal Health Care Programs Affect the Budget, October 2014 , pg. 6. [xv] Gross Domestic Product is an estimate of the size of a nation’s economy. [xvi] Congressional Budget Office, The 2015 Long-Term Budget Outlook , pg. 27. [xvii] Ibid. pg. 28.

[xviii] Matt. 25:14-30. [xix] Laudator Si’ , par. Vocabulary. 124. [xx] Redemptor Hominis , par. 287. [xxi] Luke 15: 11-32. [xxii] Quadragesimo Anno , par. 79.

[xxiii] Presently $200,000 for a single person and $250,000 for a married couple filing jointly. [xxiv] Congressional Budget Office, Raising the Age of college Eligibility for Medicare from 65 to 67: An Updated Estimate of the Budgetary Effects , October 2013. [xxv] This material is based on How Single-payer Health Care Failed in learning english vocabulary Progressive Paradise , Wall Street Journal, August 1, 2015. [xxvi] Matt 25:34-35 lists six works of mercy. The seventh, that of burying the northwestern college dead, has its scriptural origin in the Old Testament book of Tobias (Tobit) 1:20-21.

Money, Emotions – and Tightrope Walking. Economics has occasionally been referred to as the “dismal science.” [i] For some people, all those forecasts, graphs and charts are about as interesting as watching paint dry or grass grow. Money is an important measurement tool in economic analysis. And economics in learning english general and money in particular do intersect with Catholic social teaching. Money has at least two basic functions: first, as a medium of exchange and, second, as a store of literature term value. We use money to learning purchase goods and essay college services – it’s far easier and more efficient than barter.

We can also delay spending until a future date and be somewhat confident that the value of money – its purchasing power – will remain relatively unchanged. [ii] In economic jargon, money that’s spent currently is called “consumption”; money that’s retained to be spent later is termed “savings” or “investment.” Money can purchase medical services that save lives, or illegal drugs that cost lives. It can be funneled by mobsters through legitimate businesses to be “laundered,” or can be lent to small business owners in learning english vocabulary developing countries to start enterprises employing scores of people and lifting a community out of grinding property. It can build churches or gas chambers at concentration camps. In short, money is a tool. And like most other tools at our disposal, it has no inherent morality of its own. Any ethical conclusions will depend on its use – and by our attachment to it. The Emotional Component.

Money is more than just entries in a checkbook, or debits and credits, or even the subject of Biblical quotations. Money can evoke an emotional reaction. Like it or not, money is near and dear to the heart of most of us. It’s been said that “A man’s pocketbook is the seat of his sensitivities.” [iii] There’s an emotional component that attaches to how to a personification money. Want proof? Just walk up and learning english vocabulary down the street and college essays ask strangers the amount of their taxable income, or how much money they earned last year. Rest assured, you’ll be given strange and even hostile looks, and many responses will be emotional – as in english vocabulary “None of your ____ business!”

Or listen to a family that has just lost its source of income, either through death or a layoff. When gathered to discuss family economics [iv] and the prospect of lack of essay food or losing their home, the conversation will not be conducted in dry academic tones. There’s true emotion here because a major threat has arisen to learning the family’s survivability. A Balancing Act. So, as Catholics, how do we view money or, for that matter, the things that money buys? The best image might be a tightrope. How To Write A Personification Essay. We have to learning english find a balance between, on the one hand, acquiring what we need for our sustainability and thesis that of english vocabulary our loved ones, and on literature, the other hand, becoming overly attached toward material possessions. We need food; too little and we starve; too much and we become overweight through gluttony.

Often, when we see news reports of people who have lost their homes and english vocabulary possessions in a flood, tornado or other disaster, quite often we’ll hear expressions of gratitude that the family member escaped, and that the rest of it is, “just stuff.” Indeed. There’s a quote regarding the paper length of a woman’s dress that seems appropriate here: the problem is not whether it’s too long or too short; the vocabulary problem is where to write a personification draw the line. [v] The Perspective of Jesus. So, what’s the proper approach to money or, indeed, any material thing? We are to be “in the world, but not of it.” Jesus himself tells us that it’s difficult – but not impossible – for a rich person to enter heaven. [vi] We’ve all heard that “Money is the root of all evil.” [vii] We’ve also heard Scripture references to “Lay up in english heaven your treasures, where neither moth nor rust destroys…for where your treasure is, there will your heart also be.” [viii] Material things were put here on earth for our benefit and college essays use. Money is a human invention that simplifies the exchange of one good or service for another. Jesus himself paid the temple tax, [ix] and was not afraid to provide premium material things to humans – recall the wedding feast at english, Cana, where he transformed water into wine for how to write essay, the benefit of the newly married couple. Learning. Not just any kind of wine, but the choice variety. [x] Jesus encouraged a woman to anoint his head and how to write essay feet with precious oils when he was eating, despite their cost. [xi] Some of the onlookers objected to such extravagance, but Jesus told them that “the poor you always have with you; you will not always have me.” [xii]

However, it’s safe to say that Jesus was not overly attached to material possessions. Learning English Vocabulary. When he died, he literally had nothing to his name. At his crucifixion, his clothing was the prize in a dice game, [xiii] and he was buried in a borrowed tomb. [xiv] Money – and the things it buys – is part of our culture. It’s in the air all around us. Literature Paper. So how do we handle and manage it, and our desire – driven by learning our nature and culture – for more, more, more?

Those in thesis the tax profession know the phrase “highest and best use,” [xv] and it certainly applies here. Any decision about the best use of worldly goods has a situational element to it: finding the “highest and best use” for money and the things it buys. It depends on the facts and circumstances, and requires both reflection and learning english vocabulary judgement. It’s our degree of attachment that makes all the difference. And, because we have inherited the effects of letter Original Sin, it’s a lifelong struggle to maintain that proper balance.

But, if we truly want to have a personal relationship with Christ, to learning vocabulary be his followers, we need maintain that balance – to thesis for prohibition walk that tightrope – each and every day. Thanks for english vocabulary, reading. Until next time…God Bless! © 2015 Phillip Schurrer. All Rights Reserved.

[i] The first recorded use of the japanese essay phrase “dismal science” occurred in Thomas Carlyle’s 1749 essay, “Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question.” [ii] Of course, that confidence also depends on how far into the future we eventually will spend the money. In the words of finance, “a dollar today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow” due to inflation. And all this confidence evaporates if there is rampant inflation, such as in Germany in the 1920’s, or rampant deflation, such as occurred in the United States in the 1930’s. [iii] I’d like to attribute this quote to Jefferson, but can’t be sure of the source. [iv] The word “economics” originates in the ancient Greek words for “good practices for household management.” [v] Again, an unattributed quote. I’d like to credit G.K. Chesterton but, again, can’t be certain. [vi] Matthew 19:23-26. [vii] The exact quote is from 1 Timothy 6:10 “the love of money is the learning english vocabulary root of all evil.” (My emphasis.) That’s much different than “money is the root of all evil.” [viii]Matthew 6:20-21. This quote is part of the Sermon on the Mount.

[ix] Matthew 17:23-26. [xi] Matthew 26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9; Luke 7:36-50; John 12:1-8. This event is one of the events in the life of Christ reported by all four evangelists. [xii] This is reported in how to write essay Matthew, Mark and John. See footnote 10 for specific citations. [xiii] Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34; John 19:23-24. English. Again, one of the events reported in all four Gospels. [xiv] Matthew 27:57-60.

[xv] This phrase is often found in northwestern college property tax regulations regarding the valuation of real estate.

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congo state essay Mapping Africa: Problems of Regional Definition and Colonial/National Boundaries. by Ralph A. Austen. frica is perhaps the most mapped of the world's major regions. Back in my school days during the 1940s and 1950s, the continent was studied only in geography classes. If it appeared at learning english vocabulary, all in essay, studies of history or politics, the central issue was colonialism, which again involved maps of the boundaries which European powers had drawn between the territories they carved out for themselves. Once African Studies came into maturity as a study of developments within indigenous societies and cultures, there was an understandable hostility to maps as external impositions. Nonetheless, cartography is essential to grasping both the forces within Africa and the constraints--both natural and political--which continue to place this region at a disadvantage in english vocabulary, the global order. More specifically, maps can help us understand three major issues in the history of application for pf claim Africa: first, the physical and ecological factors which define this continent both internally and in relationship to the outside world; secondly, indigenous representations of space in english, the precolonial era, which provide a basis for putting more recent Western cartography into perspective; and, finally, colonial boundaries, which represent both European interventions in Africa and the continuing cartography of postcolonial development. Continent/regions: Geometry and geography.

In its most basic cartographic representation, Africa is a well-defined geometric entity: a continent surrounded by natural bodies of water on all sides except for a small isthmus in the extreme northeast joining it to western Asia (and even this is now broken by the Suez Canal). There is, however, a geographic convention of application claim dividing Africa into Mediterranean and sub-Saharan zones, with the former treated as an extension of the Middle East (Maghreb the Arabic term for North Africa means West) while the latter is the true Africa. Another division distinguishes tropical and temperate zones, with the latter category including not only the learning english vocabulary Maghreb but also South Africa, whose relative hospitality to European settlement is thus explained. Northwestern! Such distinctions are not politically acceptable in english vocabulary, present-day Africa (the Organization of African Unity includes states from all portions of the essay continent) but maps can help us decide whether they have any geographical and historical justification. If we look again at the continental outline of Africa, it is clear that the northern and northeastern portions are separated by relatively narrow (sometime very narrow) bodies of water from Europe and Asia, thus explaining why they have been in close communication with those continents since ancient times. However, the Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts--especially the former--are quite distant from other major land masses. English Vocabulary! Moreover, their coastlines have relatively few indentations, meaning that most of the inhabited areas are also far from northwestern any coast; compare this to profiles of Europe and the Middle East. Furthermore, while the Nile is navigable throughout the learning vocabulary entire extent of northwestern essays Egypt (about 700 miles), the vocabulary rivers linking the japanese tropical interior to the coast (the Niger, Congo, Zambezi, etc.) are widely separated from one another and generally navigable less than 100 miles inland, where all of them encounter cataracts, due to abrupt rises in land elevation. Thus limits of water transportation--the most efficient means of long-distance carriage prior to the Industrial Revolution--left sub-Saharan Africa relatively isolated from the rest of the Old World and even internally divided for most of its history. The Sahara desert is also a barrier to land travel, although one that was breached (while far from eliminated) around 1 CE by the introduction of camels into the region. The vegetation map also indicates very different ecological patterns in the various parts of the continent.

The savanna and tropical rain forest that dominate the tropical regions require different cropping patterns than the temperate zones and are generally less secure environments for the support of large populations. The major language divisions broadly, but not always consistently, follow these same patterns. The north and northeast are dominated by Afro-Asiatic languages, the tropical region by the Niger-Congo family and the south, until fairly recently, contained large areas in which the learning english languages of aboriginal hunter-gatherers and pastoralists (Bushman/Khoi) were still spoken, indicating the late immigration of economy essay Niger-Congo (Bantu in this case) speakers (and very much later European arrivals). To divide Africa along these lines--Mediterranean, Black African and South African--may thus be perceived as racist but any more unified view of the learning english vocabulary continent must at least take into graphic organizer account the internal geography suggested by vocabulary, maps of physical endowments and the historical distribution of populations. While cartography in sub-Saharan Africa is economy generally associated with outside perceptions and even economic and learning, political impositions, there are indigenous traditions of representing space which pre-date colonial rule. Those most consistent with European practices are linked to northwestern essays Islam and Middle Eastern culture, which entered the sub-Saharan regions of the continent as early as the eighth century CE. Muhammad Bello, the highly literate ruler of the Sokoto Caliphate in learning vocabulary, the north of present-day Nigeria could thus provide early nineteenth-century European explorers with a reasonably accurate map of his domains and the major trade routes within them. Literature Paper! However, it is not clear whether such visual representations were used for vocabulary internal purposes within this state and political boundaries are not indicated with any degree of precision.

In this case of formal visualization, just as in letter claim, the oral statements about the spatial dimensions of learning english vocabulary African states recorded in many other instances (Wilks), power is seen as radiating out from a clearly defined center to college more vague frontiers, sometimes marked by (but not necessarily identified with) natural features such as the Niger river (in the Sokoto case). This political cartography stands in learning english vocabulary, strong contrast, as will be seen, to modern conceptions of statehood expressed in colonial (and postcolonial) African boundaries. Precolonial African representations of space were not limited, however, to economy essay political and economic issues. The most developed and striking forms of learning english cartography used landscape references to express ideas about identity, migration histories, mythology, and relationships with spiritual forces. They were definitely created for internal use rather than communication with outsiders and might take the form of elaborate artifacts such as the Luba lukasa or wall decorations, temporary drawings on the ground, body tattoos and even compass orientations inscribed on to objects which do not themselves represent space (Bassett). These complex forms of indigenous cartography provide evidence of African ability to japanese economy essay think systematically and graphically about space and force us to extend our own conceptions of maps (which were not always such practical devices in earlier European history). However, colonial rule ultimately imposed modern European cartography upon Africa. Colonial maps and national boundaries. European cartography is a complement of other technologies of political power: literate bureaucratic agencies (these existed in english, the Sokoto Caliphate and other African Islamic states, but in limited form), the thesis for prohibition need for regular tax collection and even, at times, conscription of populations for military or public works service.

It has also been argued in the much-cited work of Benedict Anderson that such colonial mapping ultimately created national identities among the learning vocabulary multiple ethnic groups which found themselves within colonial boundaries (or had been more loosely incorporated into pre-colonial kingdoms and empires). Tropical Africa is thesis for prohibition a good test for this proposition, since colonial rule lasted here for less than a century, national states have been somewhat insecure entities since independence, yet the colonial maps have survived as the delineators of boundaries between these states. All this happened despite the arbitrary nature of learning english much colonial map-making, which has been noted by many African critics. Conferences and literature term paper, diplomatic maneuverings in learning vocabulary, distant European capitals often drew lines to literature term paper deal with tensions among the english vocabulary colonizing powers rather than addressing internal African issues. What has been less noticed are the frequent boundary changes made after the northwestern college original partition to suit further intra-European concerns--most notable, but by no means the only one, being the outcome of World War I (Austen). Whatever the grounds upon learning english which colonial maps were drawn, it has not been easy to propose an alternative cartography which would better suit the natural or historical features of Africa, whether the landscape and indigenous states or ethnicity, now recognized as a fluid and often arbitrary set of markers, as much (pace Anderson) the product of internal colonial mapping as of more autonomous developments (Ranger). Colonial maps did impose some serious disadvantages upon japanese essay Africa, although perhaps less due to the specific boundaries they established than to the way they imposed outwardly oriented development patterns upon the continent. English Vocabulary! Balkanization into numerous territories of varying sizes rather than a few big units is only a problem if one assumes that bigger is better, which is not demonstrated by the relative success of various postcolonial states e.g. some of the how to write a personification essay very large ones such as the Republic of Congo and Sudan have experienced the english most severe problems (Herbst 139-72). Japanese! More significant, perhaps, was the competitive outward orientation of transport networks that did not link African territories to one another but rather tied each to a port within its own colonial domain and ultimately to trade with its European metropole. Vocabulary! But this outward orientation and dependence upon modern infrastructures is also due in significant part to the internal geography of the continent, as already indicated.

It is application claim also important to note that once African states gained freedom from European rule, they all became staunch defenders of the existing boundaries. The charter of the Organization of African Unity government thus contains an agreement by the signatory governments to respect the frontiers [of all member states] existing on their achievement of national independence. In the extensive turbulence of postcolonial African politics, there have been very few attempts by states to take over significant portions of their neighbors' territories. English! The only successful secession movements are based on previous colonial boundaries (Eritrea, Somaliland). Some scholars have argued that the existing boundaries are, nevertheless, arbitrary and paper, that the states operating within them have attained only juridical as opposed to learning english vocabulary empirical sovereignty (Jackson and Rosberg). Juridical sovereignty refers to thesis territorial entities maintained by agreements among outside powers (in this case both the learning vocabulary international community and the rulers of other African states) rather than by real integration of the resident populations into a common political community. The ongoing crises in term, such states as Angola, the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Somalia suggest that colonial maps have not laid out a stable basis for nationhood in Africa. However, no alternative cartography suggests itself.

The colonial regimes established boundaries that at least allowed the vocabulary beginnings of essay college complete territorial control although in practice, European rulers never attempted to exercise such control to the full degree that was demanded by subsequent African national regimes. (Herbst: 94-96). Africans have sometimes tried to learning go beyond the national model to create regional economic communities on the model of Western Europe but these have also failed. The most important such bloc, ECOWAS (the Economic Community of West Africa States) was mobilized militarily in the 1990s to deal with crises in specific states. But here too, the seeming emergence of the largest West African state, Nigeria, as a kind of northwestern college dominant regional power could not be sustained due to the internal costs of such an effort. Learning English! The best clue that maps give us to the current situation is that areas with readily accessible mineral resources are more susceptible to literature term paper the kind of warlord politics that actively challenge the sovereignty of learning colonial successor regimes. However, warlordism, even when based on ethnicity, has not produced sustainable regimes (Reno). Instead, it is college another example of how external interests--in these cases buyers of easily exportable resources such as diamonds--may determine the geography of African power. For the present therefore, and english, perhaps for the immediately foreseeable global future, African cartography may be telling the same story as it did a half-century ago: that the modern mapping of this region is still linked to write a personification essay its asymmetrical relationships with outsiders.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR | Ralph A. Austen. Ralph A. English Vocabulary! Austen is Professor of literature term African History and co-chair of the Committee on African and African American Studies at vocabulary, the University of essay organizer Chicago. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1966. His current research focuses on english vocabulary the political economy and write a personification, cultural dimensions of European overseas expansion, the Atlantic Slave Trade in African and African-American memory, and the historical development of African oral and written literature (focusing on the Mande region of West Africa). COPYRIGHT | This article is adapted from a workshop organized by the Centers for Latin American, Middle Eastern, East Asian, South Asian, and Eastern Europe/Russia/Eurasian Studies and the Committee on African Studies at the University of Chicago, June 18-29, 2001.