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Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary and Analysis of Nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson first published Nature in chicago citation 1836. Stanford Online? The essay served as one of the founding documents of the Transcendental Club, whose members would come to include future Transcendentalist luminaries like Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott. The Club convened its first meeting a week after the publication of Nature , led by Emerson. The critical reception of his seminal work has shifted over chicago style citation doctoral time.
Nature was once dismissed as a gospel of selfishness, naive optimism, and narrow parochialism. However, scholars, with the benefit of hindsight, now understand his work as not only the harbinger of Transcendentalism, but also a modern rethinking of nyu application essay, Stoicism, Plato, and chicago style Kant. In this essay, Emerson outlines his initial ideas about the fundamental relationship of humanity with nature, which he would develop further in later essays. Online? His conception of this relationship was revolutionary for its time when many thought of humanity as separate from and above the rest of the natural world, and of nature as the mere reflection of human will/manipulation, a means for human ends. Introduction and Nature.
Our age is retrospective, Emerson begins. It builds on doctoral dissertation the sepulchers of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. While earlier generations beheld God and nature face to face, the present merely sees the world through the eyes of the past. On Knowledge Management? Troubled by this trend, Emerson asks, Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and chicago citation doctoral dissertation a religion by revelation to funny us, and not the history of chicago, theirs? After all, the sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts.
Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. In this way, Emerson opens his essay with a sweeping dismissal of butcher, those tools of chicago style citation dissertation, insight based on the past, and a demand to understand the world - that is, God and nature (two sides of the same coin for him) - instead through our own personal, direct relationship to and revelations about the world. The rest of the introduction is spent outlining what such an understanding would entail and require - its methods, aims, and definitions. As the title of his essay suggests, he grounds his approach to nyu application funny essay understanding the world in Nature, which along with the doctoral dissertation, Soul, composes the universe. By Nature, Emerson includes everything that is not me (i.e., separate from the Soul), both nature [as conventionally understood, i.e., those essences unchanged by on knowledge, humans, like a tree or a river] and art [those essences mixed with the will of humans, like a house or a canal], all other men and my own body. Like the Stoics, Emerson believed that in nature could be found the source of chicago style, moral principles and well being. However, in butcher the present age, he argues, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing.
For seeing/understanding nature entails not only style citation dissertation asking what nature is or how it operates, but also to an essay virus what end is nature? To pursue such an understanding of nature - an inquiry he believes allied to science, all of which aims to find a theory of nature - he does not appeal to style citation dissertation other authorities on the subject, past or present, but rather his own experience to craft a theory he believes self-evident and butcher boy essays self-validating. While this may not seem scientific in terms of objectivity, he argues, Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Chicago Style? Its test is that it will explain all phenomena. His success in crafting such a theory arguably derives from his ability to immerse his readers in his own experiences, as with the essays on the letter symbolism, passage, Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of chicago style citation, special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration.
I am glad to the brink of fear. Another famous passage describes his experience as a transparent eyeball, a conduit for God as he stands in nature: Here [in the woods] I feel that nothing can befall me in stanford university life, - no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into dissertation infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or parcel of God. In the next sections, Emerson outlines in on computer virus detail and in ascending order of chicago citation dissertation, importance the components of the boy essays, relationship of citation, humanity and nature: the common uses/aspects of nature (see Commodity, Beauty, and Language), our lived experience vis-a-vis nature (see Discipline), and the manifestation of the universal/divine (what he calls, Reason) in nature (i.e., Transcendentalism; see Idealism, Spirit, and essay questions service Prospects). The most obvious and chicago style doctoral dissertation tangible aspect of the relationship between humanity and nature is the on knowledge, practical usefulness of style citation doctoral dissertation, nature as a source of raw material and energy.
Emerson observes that all parts of nature - as material, process, and nyu application funny result - work toward the benefit of humanity: “The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the doctoral, vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on stanford creative writing this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the chicago style doctoral dissertation, animal; and thus the about community service, endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man.” He further illustrates this process in his admiration of a tide-mill, which, on the seashore, makes the tides drive the chicago style citation doctoral, wheels and grind corn, and which thus engages the assistance of the moon like a hired hand, to grind, and wind, and pump, and saw, and split stone, and roll iron. However, Emerson argues the use of nature as commodity is the lowest of benefits, and quickly moves on to less material gifts and aspects. In this section, Emerson describes the ways in stanford writing which nature provides humanity with its ideas and chicago citation doctoral dissertation standards of beauty. “The standard beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms the totality of nature.” Emerson asserts this is because such is the constitution of boy essays, things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the style citation dissertation, tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves,” as evidenced by the creations of artists (e.g., poets, painters, sculptors, musicians, architects). In other words, it is a given based on the relationship of humanity with the natural world: The world thus exists to the soul to about service satisfy the desire of beauty.” Ultimately, no reason can be asked or give why the soul seeks beauty, which includes 1) physical beauty, 2) moral beauty (or virtue), and 3) intellectual beauty (or truth). As beauty is grounded in nature, so is language.
Emerson asserts, Nature is the vehicle of chicago citation doctoral dissertation, thought, and offers three main components to this observation. First, words are signs of natural facts. Based on etymology, Emerson illustrates how not only words like apple are rooted in nature (i.e., the visible, concrete, and tangible aspects of the external world), but also most abstractions. For example, supercilious is stanford online, from the style citation doctoral, Latin super cilia , which means raising the eyebrow. Another example, not mentioned by essays scarlet symbolism, Emerson, is consider, which comes from the Latin con siderare , meaning to study the stars. Next, Emerson says, “Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts,” which emphasizes the use of nature to express our ideas. Every appearance in nature corresponds to doctoral some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. As enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is service, innocence; a snake is doctoral, subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections.
Light and darkness are our familiar expression for essay questions service knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Emerson asserts that if you go back in history, language becomes more image-based, and in the earliest stages it is all poetry based on natural symbols. In modern times, Emerson argues, our language has become corrupted by style doctoral dissertation, secondary desires - the desires for money, pleasure, power, and praise - rather than the simple and fundamental desire to communicate our thoughts without loss (i.e., with the images and symbols of nature). As such, our language has ceased to create new images based on essay questions about visible nature, the old words have become perverted and abstracted, and doctoral the obviousness of his point is difficult to see. As he will later say in The Poet, language is now fossil poetry, filled with dead metaphors and words cut away from their roots. Finally, Emerson argues, Nature is the symbol of spirit, an assertion grounded in Platonist idealism.
Basically, the reason why people, especially writers, can successfully use nature in their language (e.g., as image, trope, noun, verb) is not simply because of the meaning they confer upon nature, but rather because nature itself is writing online, a language. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Style? Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of nature is essays on the scarlet letter symbolism, a metaphor of the human mind. That is, nature is an expression of the laws and ideas (i.e., the metaphysics) that underpin the visible world. By tapping into the language of nature, humans are able to in turn express the laws and ideas of the world. Emerson suggests this is citation doctoral dissertation, why popular proverbs of different nations usually consist of a natural fact, like a rolling stone gathers no moss, a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush, and the last ounce broke the camel's back. In this section, Emerson describes how our lived experience vis-a-vis nature is scarlet letter, a discipline, or rather, a multifaceted education for understanding intellectual truths (Understanding) and moral truths (Reason). In regard to intellectual truths, Emerson observes that every aspect of our everyday engagement with the world (e.g., space, time, food, climate, animals) and matter (e.g., its solidity, inertia, form, divisibility) teaches us lessons that form our common sense about the world (e.g., about difference, likeness, order, particularity, generality). Furthermore, each encounter teaches us about power, about the ability for chicago doctoral dissertation humans to shape nature according to their will.
Nature is thoroughly mediate. On Computer Virus? It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the chicago style dissertation, ass on dissertation on knowledge management which the Savior rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material that he may mold into what is useful. In regard to chicago style citation doctoral dissertation moral truths, our engagements with nature teaches us about the premonitions of Reason - by which Emerson means the essay questions about community service, universal soul, his Transcendentalist conception of God - and thus shape our conscience. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion; that every globe in the remotest heaven, every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life, every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine, every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and chicago citation doctoral dissertation wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. This entails that despite the infinite variety of natural processes and forms, they all embody a version of the moral law of the universe, which illustrates the unity of Nature - its unity in variety. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light that traverses it with more subtle currents; the essay questions community, light resembles the heat that rides with it through Space. Creatures are only a modification of one another; the likeness between them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same. Style Citation Doctoral? A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of Nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit.
Finally, Emerson asserts the amount of moral influence each encounter has on an individual depends on the amount of essay questions about community, truth it illustrates to the individual, which cannot be easily quantified. Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? How much tranquility has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? In the preceding sections, Emerson focuses on the uses and benefits of nature. In Idealism and Spirit, he shifts to questions of what nature is. Such questions are based on his Idealism, and thus do not mean what is nature composed of, but rather, is there a higher reality or law behind nature, and style doctoral does visible nature really exist? In part, his new line of questions is one of epistemology - how do we know what we know?
He first offers the claim of the radical Idealist, who believes reality is fundamentally constructed by the mind: In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in boy essays heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul. However, he also denies the extreme conclusion that reality, and style citation dissertation thus nature, does not exist independent of the mind: Any distrust of the permanence of laws [e.g., gravity] would paralyze the faculties of man. He settles the issue by showing how various aspects of dissertation on knowledge, culture - including 1) motion (which affirms the style doctoral dissertation, internal reality of the observer due to the feeling of the sublime that arises from the difference felt between the observer/human and essay the spectacle/nature, as when seeing the shore from a moving ship), 2) poetry (which affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which poets conform nature to their thoughts and makes them the words of the Reason or the soul), 3) philosophy (which like poetry, affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which philosophers animate nature with their thoughts and makes them the words of Reason, except in chicago doctoral dissertation this case for Truth rather than Beauty), 4) intellectual science (which generates insight based on abstract ideas and management thus the spirit), and 5) religion and ethics (which degrades nature and suggests its dependence on the spirit) - convince us of the reality of the external world, of nature and spirit, and thus tend to imbue us with a moderate form of idealism: It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of dissertation, particular phenomena, as of heat, water, and azote; but to an essay virus lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to style dissertation attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and effect.
As a qualification to the discussion of Idealism in on computer virus the previous section, Emerson asserts that Idealism is citation, ultimately an butcher, introductory hypothesis (like carpentry and chemistry) about nature. If it only style citation denies the existence of matter, or external reality, as with extreme Idealism, then it of no use to him, for butcher boy essays it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. In other words, Idealism is useful to chicago think with insofar as it informs us of the distinction between the soul and the world/nature. By recognizing this distinction, and the existence of each, we can then understand their relation to dissertation on knowledge management one another - that is, how spirit (the Supreme Being, the Universal Soul) acts through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old, and thus is not subject to the human will, as with the rest of the world/nature. In this last section, Emerson argues it is better approach the world as a naturalist than as a student of chicago dissertation, empirical science. Essay Community Service? Compared to the precision and experiments of the scientist, the style citation dissertation, naturalist employs self-discovery and humility, and thus continues to learn about his relation to the world, and remains open to the secrets of nature. The naturalist will pay attention to the truth and to butcher boy essays the real problems to be solved: It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the style citation doctoral, most diverse to one form. Emerson uses this comparison as a metaphor for a more general criticism of the present approach humanity takes toward nature based on pure understanding (that is, of the intellect) without Reason (that is, with spiritual insight).
However, there are occasional examples of how humanity might act with both: Such examples are, the traditions of miracles in butcher the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of chicago citation, Jesus Christ; the on computer, achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and doctoral dissertation the Shakers; many obscure and essay yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. Until humanity begins to act with both understanding/intellect and reason/spirituality towards nature, to repair its relationship with nature and the world, humanity remains disunited with itself and the world lacks unity. To correct this trend, Emerson argues people need to acquire a new, educated way of seeing the chicago citation, world, by which he means the Transcendentalist approach he has laid out in the previous sections. So we shall come to nyu application funny look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect (“What is truth?), as well as that of the affections (“What is good?”), by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/self-reliance-and-other-essays/study-guide/summary-nature in chicago dissertation MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Self Reliance and Other Essays Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Self-Reliance Nature The Over-Soul Circles The Poet Experience The Divinity School Address The Dial Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Ralph Emerson Biography. Self Reliance and Other Essays Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Self Reliance and Other Essays is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
This speaks to a few themes. I think that generally it speaks to man finding his own individuality and identity. The passage indicates that life is about being satisfied with one's plot of land and making the best of it rather than coveting other. What do you mean by dwlf? Study Guide for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays study guide contains a biography of Ralph Emerson, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by on the letter symbolism, students and provide critical analysis of Self Reliance and style doctoral Other Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson.
E-Text of Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays E-Text contains the an essay, full text of Self Reliance and Other Essays.
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The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics. Beneficent actions and motives have traditionally occupied a central place in morality. Common examples today are found in social welfare programs, scholarships for needy and meritorious students, communal support of style citation doctoral, health-related research, policies to improve the welfare of animals, philanthropy, disaster relief, programs to benefit children and the incompetent, and preferential hiring and admission policies. What makes these diverse acts beneficent? Are such beneficent acts and policies obligatory or merely the pursuit of optional moral ideals? These questions have generated a substantial literature on beneficence in both theoretical ethics and applied ethics. Nyu Application Essay? In theoretical ethics, the style citation dissertation, dominant issue in recent years has been how to place limits on the scope of nyu application essay, beneficence.
In applied and professional ethics, a number of issues have been treated in the fields of biomedical ethics and business ethics. 1. The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence. The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity. It is chicago dissertation suggestive of on the symbolism, altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others. In ordinary language, the notion is chicago citation doctoral broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all forms of action intended to benefit or promote the stanford creative, good of other persons. The language of a principle or rule of chicago citation dissertation, beneficence refers to a normative statement of a moral obligation to act for the others' benefit, helping them to scarlet symbolism, further their important and chicago style doctoral legitimate interests, often by preventing or removing possible harms. Many dimensions of applied ethics appear to incorporate such appeals to obligatory beneficence, even if only implicitly. For example, when apparel manufacturers are criticized for essay questions about community not having good labor practices in factories, the chicago style doctoral, ultimate goal of the criticisms is usually to obtain better working conditions, wages, and benefits for workers. Whereas beneficence refers to an action done to benefit others, benevolence refers to the morally valuable character traitor virtueof being disposed to act to benefit others.
Many acts of beneficence have been understood in moral theory as obligatory, as determined by principles of beneficence that state moral obligation. However, beneficent acts also may be performed from nonobligatory, optional moral ideals, which are standards that belong to a morality of meritorious aspiration in which individuals or institutions adopt goals and practices that are not obligatory for everyone. Exceptional beneficence is university creative writing online commonly categorized as supererogatory , a term meaning paying or performing beyond what is chicago obligatory or doing more than is required. This category of extraordinary conduct usually refers to high moral ideals of action, but it has links to virtues and to Aristotelian ideals of moral excellence. Such ideals of action and moral excellence of character need not rise to dissertation on knowledge, the level of the moral saint or moral hero. Even moral excellence comes by doctoral dissertation degrees. Not all supererogatory acts of beneficence or benevolent dispositions are exceptionally arduous, costly, or risky.
Examples of less demanding forms include anonymous gift-giving, uncompensated public service, forgiving another person's costly error, and complying with requests to provide a benefit that exceeds the obligatory requirements of ordinary morality or professional morality. Saintly and heroic beneficence (and benevolence) are at the extreme end of essay, a continuum of beneficent conduct and commitment. This continuum is not merely a continuum mapping the territory beyond duty. It is a continuum of beneficence itself, starting with obligatory beneficence. The continuum runs from strict obligation (grounded in the core norms of chicago, beneficence in ordinary morality) through weaker obligations (the outer periphery of ordinary expectations of persons, such as great conscientiousness in attending to a friend's welfare) and on to the domain of the morally nonrequired and exceptionally virtuous. The nonrequired starts with lower?level acts of management, supererogation such as helping a stranger who is lost find a desired location in a city. An absence of this sort of beneficence constitutes a defect in style citation doctoral the moral life, even if not a failure of nyu application essay, obligation. The continuum ends with high-level acts of supererogation such as heroic acts of self-sacrifice to benefit others. Chicago Doctoral Dissertation? Beneficence is best understood as spread across this continuum. However, there is considerable controversy about where obligation ends and supererogation begins on the continuum.
A celebrated example of beneficence that rests somewhere on this continuum, though it is hard to stanford writing, locate just where, is the New Testament parable of the chicago style, Good Samaritan. In this parable, robbers have beaten and left half-dead a man traveling from Jerusalem to Jericho. A Samaritan tends to his wounds and cares for funny essay him at an inn. The Samaritan's actions are beneficent and the motives benevolent. However, they do not seemon the information givento rise to the level of heroic or saintly conduct.
The morally exceptional, beneficent person may be laudable and emulable, yet neither a moral saint nor a moral hero. 2. The Historical Place of Beneficence in chicago doctoral dissertation Ethical Theory. The history of ethical theory shows that there are many ways to think about beneficence and benevolence. Several landmark ethical theories have embraced these moral notions as central categories, while proposing strikingly different conceptual and stanford creative writing online moral analyses. Prime examples are found in the moral-sentiment theory of David Hume, where benevolence is the central “principle” of human nature in his moral psychology, and in utilitarian theories, where the principle of utility is dissertation itself a strong and essays scarlet demanding principle of beneficence. Beneficence in these writers is close to the essence of morality. Other writers, including Kant, have given less dominance to beneficence, but still give it an chicago style dissertation important place in morality. Hume's moral psychology and butcher virtue ethics make motives of benevolence all important in moral life.
He argues that natural benevolence accounts, in great part, for what he calls the origin of morality. A major theme is his defense of benevolence as a principle in human nature, in opposition to theories of psychological egoism. Much in Hume's moral theory is directed against chicago style citation, Mandeville's (and perhaps Hobbes's) theory that the motive underlying human action is private interest and that humans are naturally neither sociable nor benevolent. Hume argues that egoism rests on a faulty moral psychology and maintains that benevolence is an “original” feature of human nature. Benevolence is an essay on computer Hume's most important moral principle of chicago citation dissertation, human nature, but he also uses the an essay on computer, term “benevolence” to designate a class of style citation doctoral, virtues rooted in goodwill, generosity, and love directed at others. Hume finds benevolence in many manifestations: friendship, charity, compassion, etc. Although he speaks of management, both benevolence and justice as social virtues, only benevolence is a principle of human nature. Rules of justice, by contrast, are normative human conventions that promote public utility. In his inquiries into the principle of self-love, Hume does not reject all aspects of the egoists' claims about the absence of impartial benevolence in human motivation.
He acknowledges many motives in human nature and uses metaphors of the dove, wolf, and serpent to illustrate the mixture of elements in chicago style citation our nature. Essays On The? Principally, he sees human nature in the domain of moral conduct as a mixture of benevolence and doctoral dissertation self-love. Whereas the egoist views human nature as limited to motives such as survival, fear, ambition, and the search for happiness, Hume regards persons as motivated by a variety of passions, both generous and ungenerous. He maintains that these elements vary by degree from person to person. Lacking distinctive information about a particular individual, we cannot know whether in that person benevolence typically dominates and symbolism controls self-love, or the chicago citation dissertation, converse. In Utilitarianism , John Stuart Mill argues that moral philosophers have left a train of unconvincing and incompatible theories that can be coherently unified by a single standard of beneficence that allows us to university writing, decide objectively what is right and wrong. He declares the principle of utility, or the “greatest happiness” principle, to be the basic foundation of style doctoral, morals: Actions are right in proportion to their promotion of happiness for stanford university online all beings, and doctoral dissertation wrong as they produce the reverse. This is a straightforward principle of beneficence and potentially a very demanding one. Community Service? Mill and subsequent utilitarians mean that an citation doctoral dissertation action or practice is right (when compared with any alternative action or practice) if it leads to the greatest possible balance of beneficial consequences (happiness for Mill) or to the least possible balance of bad consequences (unhappiness for butcher boy essays Mill). Doctoral Dissertation? Mill also holds that the concepts of duty, obligation, and right are subordinated to, and determined by, that which maximizes benefits and minimizes harmful outcomes.
The principle of utility is presented by Mill as an absolute or preeminent principle, thus making beneficence the nyu application essay, one and only supreme principle of ethics. It justifies all subordinate rules and is not simply one among a number of prima facie principles. Mill's theory of chicago doctoral, morality is welfare-oriented at its core because moral rightness is determined by essay service goodness, which is itself to be understood in terms of the welfare of individuals. It is a consequentialist theory because the moral rightness and obligatoriness of actions are established by their beneficial results. It is an aggregative theory because a judgment about right or obligatory action depends on an appraisal of the effects of different possible actions on the welfare of all affected parties, which entails summing positive benefits and negative effects over style citation doctoral dissertation all persons affected. Beneficence has rarely occupied such a central role in a moral theory. Kant notoriously rejects the utilitarian model of a supreme principle of beneficence, but he still finds a vital place in the moral life for beneficence.
He seeks universally valid principles (or maxims) of duty, and beneficence is one such principle. A motive of benevolence based on sentimentso admired by Humeis morally unworthy in Kant's theory unless the motive behind benevolent action is a motive of stanford, duty. The motive likewise cannot rest on utilitarian goals. Kant argues that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, i.e. to dissertation, be helpful to others according to one's means, and without hoping for any form of personal gain thereby. Benevolence done from friendly inclination he regards as “unlimited” (a term subject to different interpretations, but meaning at least “having no boundaries in potential scope”), whereas beneficence from duty does not place unlimited demands on persons. Questions About Community Service? Nonetheless, the chicago style citation doctoral dissertation, limits of duties of beneficence are not clear and precise in Kant. While we are obligated to questions, some extent to sacrifice some part of our welfare to benefit others without any expectation of recompense, it is not possible in the abstract to fix a definite limit on how far this duty extends.
We can only chicago style citation dissertation, say that everyone has a duty to dissertation on knowledge, be beneficent, according to that person's means, and that no one has an unlimited duty to chicago citation dissertation, do so. Kant here anticipates, without developing, what would later become one of the most difficult areas of the theory of beneficence: How, exactly, are we to specify the limits of beneficence as an obligation? 3. Is Beneficence Obligatory or Merely a Moral Ideal? Deep disagreements have emerged in moral theory regarding how much is demanded by obligations of essays on the scarlet letter, beneficence. Doctoral Dissertation? Some ethical theories insist not only that there are obligations of beneficence, but that these obligations sometimes demand severe sacrifice and extreme generosity in the moral life. Butcher? Some formulations of utilitarianism, for example, appear to derive obligations to chicago style citation dissertation, give our job to a person who needs it more than we do, to give away most of our income, to devote much of our time to civic enterprises, etc. It is university online likely that no society has ever operated on such a demanding principle, but it does seem embraced, at least abstractly, by a number of moral philosophersarguably even on chicago doctoral dissertation Kant's theory of the categorical imperative (although, as already mentioned, Kant seems to deny such scope to obligatory beneficence). By contrast, some moral philosophers have claimed that we have no general obligations of beneficence. We have only duties deriving from specific roles and assignments of duty that are not a part of ordinary morality. Funny Essay? These philosophers hold that beneficent action is virtuous and a commendable moral ideal, but not an chicago style citation doctoral dissertation obligation, and thus that persons are not morally deficient if they fail to act beneficently. An instructive example is found in the moral theory of Bernard Gert, who maintains that there are no moral rules of beneficence, only moral ideals.
The only obligations in the moral life, apart from creative writing, duties encountered in professional roles and other specific stations of duty, are captured by moral rules that prohibit causing harm or evil. In Gert's theory, the general goal of morality is to minimize the causation of evil or harm, not to promote good. Rational persons can act impartially at all times in regard to style citation, all persons with the aim of not causing evil, he argues, but rational persons cannot impartially promote the good for all persons at all times. Those who defend such a beneficence-negating conclusion (regarding obligation) do not hold the extreme view that there are no obligations of beneficence in contexts of role-assigned duties, such as those in professional ethics and in specific communities. They acknowledge that professional and other roles carry obligations (or duties, as Gert insists) that do not bind persons who do not occupy the essay about community, relevant roles; they claim that the actions one is chicago style citation doctoral obligated to perform within the on computer virus, roles are merely moral ideals for any person not in the specific role. That is, these philosophers present beneficence not as a general obligation, but as a role-specific duty and style doctoral as institutionally or culturally assigned. In rejecting principles of obligatory beneficence, Gert draws the line at obligations of nonmaleficence. On The Symbolism? That is, he embraces rules that prohibit causing harm to other persons, even though he rejects all principles or rules that require helping other persons, which includes acting to prevent harm to them. Style Citation Doctoral Dissertation? Thus, he accepts moral rules such as “Don't kill,” “Don't cause pain or suffering to others,” “Don't incapacitate others,” “Don't deprive others of the goods of life,” and the like. His theory therefore makes nonmaleficence central to the nature and theory of moral obligation while denying that beneficence has any place in the theory of scarlet, obligation.
However, the mainstream of chicago style citation doctoral dissertation, moral philosophy has been to make both not-harming and helping to be obligations, while preserving the distinction between the two. This literature can be confusing, because some writers treat obligations of nonmaleficence as a species of nyu application funny essay, obligations of beneficence, although the two notions are very different. Rules of beneficence are typically more demanding than rules of nonmaleficence, and rules of style doctoral, nonmaleficence are negative prohibitions of action that must be followed impartially and that provide moral reasons for dissertation on knowledge legal prohibitions of certain forms of conduct. Style? By contrast, rules of an essay virus, beneficence state positive requirements of action, need not always be followed impartially, and rarely, if ever, provide moral reasons that support legal punishment when agents fail to abide by citation doctoral dissertation the rules. The contrast between nonmaleficence and beneficence notwithstanding, ordinary morality suggests that there are some rules of beneficence that we are obligated to follow impartially, such as those requiring that we make efforts to rescue strangers under conditions of minimal risk. Even some legal punishments for failure to rescue strangers may be justifiable.
Significant controversies have arisen in nyu application funny both law and moral philosophy about dissertation, how to essay questions about community service, formulate and citation defend such requirements, but one more or less classic idea has been to argue that a person P has an obligation of beneficence to creative online, help another whenever the other is at risk of significant loss of or damage to some basic interest; P's action is necessary (singly or collaboratively) to prevent this loss or damage; P's action (singly or collaboratively) is likely to prevent the loss or damage; and style doctoral dissertation P's action does not present significant risks, costs, or burdens to P while the essay questions service, benefits that the other person can be expected to gain outweigh any burden that P is likely to incur. 4. Citation? The Problem of boy essays, Over-Demanding Beneficence. Some philosophers defend extremely demanding and far-reaching principles of obligatory beneficence. Peter Singer's theory is the most widely discussed example. In his early work, Singer distinguished between preventing evil and promoting good and contended that persons in doctoral dissertation affluent nations are morally obligated to on the symbolism, prevent something bad or evil from happening if it is in their power to do so without having to sacrifice anything of comparable importance. In the face of preventable disease and poverty, for example, we ought to donate time and resources toward their eradication until we reach a level at which, by giving more, we would cause as much suffering to ourselves as we would relieve through our gift. Singer leaves it open what counts as being of comparable importance and chicago style citation dissertation as being an appropriate level of sacrifice, but his argument implies that morality sometimes requires us to invest heavily in rescuing needy persons in the global population, not merely at essay questions about the level of local communities and political states. This claim implies that morality sometimes requires us to make enormous sacrifices. It would appear that the style citation, demand is placed not only on individuals with disposable incomes, but on all reasonably well-off persons, foundations, governments, corporations, etc. All of these parties have moral obligations to refrain from spending resources on nonessential items and to use the available resources or savings to lend assistance to those in urgent need. Stanford University Writing Online? Frills, fashion, luxuries, and the like are never to determine expenditures, and one is to give to the needy up to the point that one (or one's dependent) would be impoverished.
Singer has not regarded such conduct as an enormous moral sacrifice, but only as the discharge of chicago style citation dissertation, a basic obligation of beneficence. Singer's proposals have struck many as overly demanding, impracticable, and a significant departure from the about service, demands of ordinary morality. This assessment has generated a number of criticisms, as well as defenses, of demanding principles of beneficence such as the one proposed by Singer. Critics continue today to argue that a principle of beneficence that requires persons, governments, and corporations to seriously disrupt their projects and plans in order to benefit the poor and underprivileged exceeds the limits of chicago style citation dissertation, ordinary moral obligations and have no plausible grounding in moral theory. They argue that the essays scarlet symbolism, line between the obligatory and the supererogatory has been unjustifiably erased by such a principle. In effect, the claim is that an aspirational moral ideal has redrawn the lines of real moral obligation. Singer has attempted to reformulate his position so that his theory of beneficence does not set an style dissertation overly demanding standard. He maintains that no clear justification exists for the claim that obligations of ordinary morality do not contain a demanding principle of beneficence, in particular a harm-prevention principle. He apparently would explain the lack of concern often shown for poverty relief as a failure to draw the correct implications from the very principles of beneficence that ordinary morality embraces.
Later in his series of publications on the subject Singer attempted to take account of objections that his principle sets an university writing unduly high standard. He has not given up his strong principle of beneficence, but he has suggested that it might be morally wise and most productive to publicly advocate a lower standardthat is, a weakened principle of beneficence. Chicago Doctoral? He therefore proposed a more guarded formulation of the principle, arguing that we should strive for donations of a round percentage of income, such as 10 per cent, which amounts to funny essay, more than a token donation and yet also is not so high as to make us miserable or turn us into moral saints. This standard, Singer proclaimed, is the minimum that we ought to citation dissertation, do to conform to about community service, obligations of style citation dissertation, beneficence. Controversy continues today about how to stanford university writing, analyze and evaluate the commitments of a principle of beneficence, including how to formulate limits that reduce required burdens on style agents' life plans and make meeting the obligations of beneficence a realistic possibility. Various writers have noted that even after many persons have donated generous portions of their income, they could still donate more while living decent lives; and, according to a strong principle of beneficence, they should donate more. Establishing the theoretical and practical limits of donation and sacrifice is letter symbolism clearly very challenging, and perhaps an impossible ideal. However, it does not follow that we should give up a principle of beneficence. Chicago? It only follows that establishing the moral limits of the demands of beneficence is profoundly difficult. Liam Murphy has proposed to fix the limits of individual beneficence to meet global problems of questions about community service, need by using a cooperative principle of fairness in which, in any given circumstance, it must first be determined what each reasonably affluent person must do to contribute a fair share to an optimal outcome.
An individual is only required to aid others beneficently at the level that would produce the best consequences if all in society were to give their fair share. One is not required to do more even if others fail in their fair-share obligations of beneficence. Unlike act-consequentialism, this theory does not demand more of agents when expected compliance by others decreases. Murphy's cooperative principle is chicago style citation dissertation intuitively attractive, but it may not have the necessary moral punch to address issues such as global poverty. Murphy seems right to an essay on computer, suggest that large-scale problems requiring beneficence should be conceived as cooperative projects, but his limit on individual obligations seems unlikely to have a practical effect of increasing international aid and the like beyond present commitments and style dissertation levels.
If, as is to be expected in virtually all situations of global poverty, others fail to comply with their fair-share obligations of on knowledge management, beneficence as set out in this theory, it is not clear why each person's obligation is set only by the original calculation of a single fair share. This is not to say that Singer's approach is superior. The more demanding a principle is, the less likely are people to comply with its demands. Chicago? Also, at an intuitive level, Murphy seems right that an individual's obligations of beneficence should not increase to fill gaps merely because others are failing to meet their obligations. In his Uehiro Lectures on Global Poverty, Singer defended his arguments about beneficence including the public advocacy thesis (see the Other Internet Resources). Stanford University Creative Writing Online? Here a difference of emphasis emerged in his theory, together with a somewhat sympathetic response to Murphy. Singer seems concerned with which social conditions will motivate people to chicago citation doctoral, give, rather than with attempting to determine obligations of beneficence with precision. Singer responds to letter symbolism, critics such as Murphy by conceding that perhaps the limit of what we should publicly advocate as a level of giving is style citation doctoral no more than a person's fair share of what is needed to relieve poverty and on computer the like. Chicago Style Citation Dissertation? Unless we draw the virus, line here, we might not be able to citation dissertation, motivate people to give at all. Nyu Application? A fair share is a lower threshold of one's obligations than the obligations Singer originally envisaged, but more realistic.
The emphasis on motivation is presumably intended to give is a more subtle and convincing approach to the nature and limits of beneficence. Wherever the line of precise limits of chicago style citation dissertation, obligatory beneficence is drawn, the line is likely to be revisionary by drawing a sharper boundary on our obligations than exists in ordinary morality. Singer's proposals, unlike Murphy's, seem to dissertation on knowledge, represent a revision of ordinary morality's requirements of beneficence, despite the faint presence in the history of Western morality of chicago style doctoral, religious obligations of tithing. Boy Essays? A variety of chicago citation doctoral dissertation, proposals regarding the limits of beneficence have been made by philosophers, but no agreement on even a general principle exists. Accordingly, many now doubt that ethical theory or practical deliberation is equipped to establish precise conditions and limits of obligations of beneficence. 5. Liberty-Limiting Beneficence: The Problem of Benefit Paternalism. A still much-discussed issue about beneficence descends historically from nyu application funny, Mill's On Liberty , where Mill inquired into style doctoral, the nature and limits of justifiable social control over the individual. He argues that the university creative online, measure of a person's libertyor personal autonomyis the measure of the style citation doctoral, person's independence from influences that control the person's preferences, thoughts, and behavior. Various principles commonly assumed to be moral principles have been advanced to justify the limitation of university creative, individual liberties. Joel Feinberg, who was philosophically close to various of Mill's views, called these principles “liberty-limiting principles.” Mill defended the view that only one principle validly limits liberty.
Feinberg called it the harm principle : A person's liberty (or autonomy) is justifiably restricted to prevent harm to others caused by that person. Mill and Feinberg agreed that the principle of citation dissertation, paternalism , which renders acceptable certain attempts to benefit another person when the other does not prefer to receive the benefit, is not a morally acceptable liberty-limiting principle. The term paternalism has its roots in the notion of nyu application funny essay, paternal administrationgovernment as by a father to administer in the way a beneficent father raises his children. The analogy with the father presupposes two features of the paternal role: that the father acts beneficently (that is, in accordance with the interests of his children) and that he makes all or at least some of the decisions relating to his children's welfare, rather than leaving them free to citation, make those decisions. Nyu Application Funny Essay? On this model, “paternalism” may be defined as the citation dissertation, intentional overriding of one person's known preferences or choices by another person, where the person who overrides justifies the on computer virus, action by the goal of substantially benefiting or avoiding harm to the person whose preferences or choices are overridden. (Both “benefiting” and “avoiding harm” can here, though not always, be understood as forms of beneficence.) An act of paternalism, then, overrides moral obligations to respect autonomous choice on grounds of beneficence. Philosophers divide sharply over whether some restricted form of paternalism can be justified and, if so, on what basis. One plausible beneficence-based justification of paternalistic actions places benefits on a scale with autonomy interests and balances the two: As a person's interests in autonomy increase and the benefits for that person decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes less cogent; conversely, as the benefits for a person increase and that person's interests in doctoral autonomy decrease, the justification of on the scarlet letter symbolism, paternalistic action becomes more plausible.
Thus, preventing minor harms or providing minor benefits while deeply disrespecting autonomy lacks plausible justification; but actions that prevent major harms or provide major benefits while only trivially disrespecting autonomy have a highly plausible paternalistic rationale. Though no consensus exists over the justification of paternalism, virtually no one thinks that benefit paternalism can be justified unless at chicago style least the following conditions are satisfied: A person is at risk of essay about community service, a significant and dissertation preventable harm or loss of a benefit. The paternalistic action has a strong likelihood of preventing the dissertation, harm or obtaining the benefit. Style Citation? The projected benefits of the paternalistic action outweigh its risks. The least autonomy-restrictive alternative that will secure the benefits and reduce the risks is adopted. Debates about benefit paternalism have also emerged in public policy contexts.
Often health policies have the goal of avoiding a harm or providing a benefit in a population in which most affected parties are not consulted. Some percentage of the population will not support the essays on the scarlet, policy, for example, because they are given no choice in the matter, whereas others will approve the policy. In effect, the policy is intended to benefit all members of a population without consulting the preferences of individuals affectedall the while foreseeing that many individuals will reject the imposed control that the policy exerts over their lives. So-called neopaternalists have argued for chicago style citation doctoral dissertation government policies intended to protect or benefit individuals through shaping or steering their choices without, in creative fact, altogether disallowing or coercing those choices. Some recommend policies that pursue values that an intended beneficiary already, at least implicitly, holds but cannot realize because of limited capacities, limited resources or limited self-control.
In this context, the individual's own stated preferences, choices, and actions are deemed unreasonable in chicago style light of on the scarlet, other standards the person is style doctoral dissertation regarded as embracing. This conception faces the problem that what an informed and competent person chooses to do is generally the best evidence we have of his or her values. Essay About Community? For example, if a deeply religious man fails to follow the doctoral, dietary restrictions of his religion, although he is in the abstract strongly committed to all aspects of the religion, his departures from dietary laws may be the best evidence we have of his true values on the particular matter of dietary restrictions. Because it seems correctshort of counterevidence in particular casesthat competent informed choice is the best evidence of a person's values, a justified paternalism must, among other things, have adequate evidence that this assumption is misguided in management any given case. 6. Beneficence in Biomedical Ethics. Since the late 1970s, principles of beneficence have been a mainstay of the literature of biomedical ethics. Persons engaged in medical practice, research, and public health appreciate that risks of harm presented by interventions must often be weighed against possible benefits for patients, subjects, and the public. Their professional obligations are deeply informed by their commitments to prevent or reduce harm and to produce a positive balance of goods over doctoral dissertation inflicted harms. Beneficence has played a major role in a central conceptual issue about the nature and goals of medicine as a social practice. If the end of medicine is healing, a goal of beneficence, then arguably medicine is fundamentally a beneficent undertaking.
If so, beneficence grounds and determines the professional obligations and virtues of the physician. Authors such as Edmund Pellegrino write as if beneficence is the dissertation on knowledge management, sole foundational principle of professional medical ethics. In this theory, medical beneficence is oriented exclusively to the end of chicago citation doctoral, healing and not to any other form of benefit. The category of medical benefits does not, for Pellegrino, include items such as providing fertility controls (unless for the prevention and maintenance of health and bodily integrity), performing purely cosmetic surgery, or actively helping a patient to effect a merciful death by the active hastening of death. This characterization of the ends of medicine allows Pellegrino to limit severely what counts as a medical benefit for patients: Benefit in medicine is limited to healing and related activities such as caring for and preventing injury or disease.
This thesis is controversial. Even if healing and essay about community the like are interpreted broadly, medicine does not seem to have such precise boundaries to many other writers. If beneficence is style doctoral a general moral principle and if physicians are positioned to supply many forms of benefit, there is no manifest reason why physicians' hands are tied to the single benefit of healing, even in their role as medical professionals. The range of benefits that might be considered relevant seems broader and could include prescribing pharmaceutical products or devices that prevent fertility (where there is no healing-related purpose), providing purely cosmetic surgery for aesthetic (by contrast to on knowledge, reconstructive) reasons, helping patients write realistic living wills, complying with terminally ill patients' requests for physician-assistance in dying by hastening death, and the like. If these are bona fide medical benefits, then how far does the range of benefits extend? If a physician runs a company that manufactures powered wheel chairs for chicago style citation dissertation the elderly, does this activity supply a medical benefit? When physicians consult with an essay insurance company about cost-effective treatments that save their patients money, is this activity a beneficent component of the practice of medicine? Controversy over the ends of medicine requires decisions about what is to count as the practice of chicago, medicine and, derivatively, what counts as medical beneficence. Controversy appears not only in the literature of biomedical ethics, but also in some split decisions of the U. S. Supreme Courtmost notably in Gonzales v. Oregon , a case dealing with physician-hastened death. The majority decision in this case asserts that there is no consensus among health care professionals about the precise boundaries of the legitimate practice of medicine , a legal notion similar to the medical-ethics notion of the proper ends of medicine.
The court notes that there is on knowledge management reasonable disagreement in doctoral dissertation the community of physicians regarding the appropriate process for determining the boundaries of medical practice and that there is disagreement about the extent to which the government should be involved in drawing boundaries when physicians themselves disagree. This court opinion allows that, depending on state law, a physician may legitimately assist in various ways to essays scarlet letter symbolism, help bring about the death of a terminally ill patient who has explicitly and competently requested this assistance from the physician. 6.2 Harms and Benefits in Health Care. A health professional's conception of both harm to and benefit for a patient can differ sharply from that of the patient, but the health professional's understandings of benefits also often depend on the patient's view of what constitutes a benefit or a worthwhile risk. Different patients take different views about what constitutes a harm and a benefit, and when each view is reasonable it is morally unacceptable to maintain that the notions of medical benefit and chicago doctoral dissertation harm are objectively independent of the patient's judgment. Physician-hastened death by request of the patient controversially characterized as physician-assisted suicideis again a prominent example of this problem.
Physicians and nurses have long worried that patients who forgo life-sustaining treatment with the intention of dying are killing themselves and that health professionals are assisting in their suicide. Nyu Application Funny Essay? These worries have recently receded in significance in biomedical ethics, because there is now a consensus in law and ethics that it is never a moral violation to withhold or withdraw a medical treatment that has been validly refused. Chicago Dissertation? This consensus began to nyu application essay, be developed with the case of Karen Ann Quinlan in citation doctoral dissertation 1976 and eventually was formed around U. S. Boy Essays? Supreme Court decisions, especially the Cruzan Case of 1990. The writings of numerous philosophers and lawyers contributed to chicago doctoral, the formation of this consensus. A clear part of the consensus is that it is a moral violation not to withhold or withdraw a validly refused treatment. If death is hastened in butcher boy essays this way by a physician's omission or action, there can be no moral objection to what has been done, and a physician's cooperation can rightly be viewed as merciful and benevolent.
However, this problem has been replaced by chicago style doctoral another: Is it harmful or beneficial to help a competent patient who has requested a hastened death? In addition to scarlet symbolism, vexed questions about the chicago citation, purported distinction between killing and letting die, the issue presses the question of what counts as a benefit and what counts as a harm. Is requested death in the face of miserable suffering a benefit for some patients while a harm for other patients? When is it a benefit, and when a harm? Is the answer to dissertation on knowledge management, this question determined by the method used to chicago style citation doctoral dissertation, bring about death--for example, withdrawal of treatment by contrast to writing, use of lethal medication? 6.3 Social Beneficence and Public Policy. A number of controversial issues in biomedical ethics concern how public policy could, and should, change if obligations of style citation doctoral, social beneficence were given more strength in policy formulation than they have traditionally been afforded. The foundations of public policy regarding organ procurement provide an instructive example.
Established legal and policy precedents in many countries require express consent by a decedent before death or by the family after death. A near absolute right of autonomy to decide about the boy essays, disposition of organs and tissues has been the prevailing norm. However, this approach impairs the chicago style citation doctoral, efficient collection of needed tissues and organs, and many people die as a result of the shortage of organs. The scarcity of organs and tissues and letter the inefficiency of the system have prompted a spate of chicago style, proposals for reform of the current system of procurement, with the goal of creating more space for social beneficence. One policy proposal with a notably strong social-beneficence commitment is the routine retrieval of organs and creative online tissues.
In this system of procurement, a community is citation dissertation permitted to, and encouraged to, routinely collect organs and tissues from the deceased, unless the dead person had previously registered his or her objection to on the symbolism, the system with the state. Chicago Style? The routine retrieval of tissues and organs from the deceased is unjustified on on knowledge management traditional grounds of respect for autonomy. However, advocates of the policy of dissertation, routine retrieval argue that members of a community have an obligation to provide other persons with objects of lifesaving value when no cost to themselves is nyu application required. Citation Doctoral Dissertation? That is, the justification is in beneficence, not respect for autonomy. The debate will continue for many years about whether beneficence or respect for an essay on computer autonomy should prevail in public policy governing organ retrieval. Advocates of the current system argue that individual and family rights of citation doctoral dissertation, consent should retain dominance. Advocates of routine retrieval argue that traditional social priorities involving beneficence in conflict with autonomy have been wrongly structured.
Most contributors to the literature on stanford writing the subject agree that the present situation of low-level organ-procurement is morally unsatisfactory and in need of some measure of reform. 6.4 Social Beneficence and Social Justice. Some of the most important issues in the ethics of health and chicago style doctoral health care today are widely classified as issues of social justice. However, at dissertation the hands of many writers, social justice is chicago style dissertation notably similar to social beneficence. The underlying moral problem in global ethics is essay community how to structure both the global order and national systems that affect health so that burdens are avoided, benefits are provided, and chicago citation then both are fairly distributed using a threshold condition of equitable levels of health and university creative online access to health care. Globalization has brought a realization that problems of protecting health and providing beneficial services are international in nature and that their alleviation will require a restructuring of the global system. John Rawls's A Theory of style, Justice has been an enormously influential work in discussions of on the letter, these problems in biomedical ethics. Rawls argues that a social arrangement forming a political state is a communal effort to advance the chicago citation dissertation, good of all in the society. His starting assumptions are layered with beneficent, egalitarian goals of making the unequal situation of the naturally disadvantaged members of society both better and stanford online more equal.
His recognition of a positive societal obligation to eliminate or reduce barriers that prevent fair opportunity and that correct or compensate for various disadvantages has implications for discussions of both beneficence and justice in health care, although Rawls himself never pursued these health issues. Rawls's theory has influenced many writers on moral problems of health and biomedical ethics, including Norman Daniels, Thomas Pogge, Martha Nussbaum, and Madison Powers and Ruth Faden. One of Daniels' main questions is chicago style citation “How can we meet health needs fairly under reasonable limits to resources committed to the task?” The “fairly” part of this formulation may be justice-based, but the notion of dissertation management, “reasonable limits to resources” is closely tied to the problems of the limits of chicago style citation, beneficence mentioned previously. Daniels argues that because health is affected by many social factors, theories of justice should not center entirely on access to essays on the letter symbolism, health care, but also on the need to citation, reduce health inequalities by improving social conditions that affect the health of societies, such as having clean water, adequate nutrition, and general sanitation. Pogge views the management, well-being of the worst-off members of global society as the style citation doctoral dissertation, proper starting point for a practical theory of essays on the, justice, but his theory can also be expressed as an argument from social beneficence. Chicago Style Citation Doctoral Dissertation? Pogge has been concerned with the sweep of global poverty and its impact on on the scarlet symbolism health and welfarean interest almost identical to style citation doctoral, the theories of Singer and Powers and Faden. The consequences of extreme poverty for health are well-documented, and these consequences inform Pogge's and Powers and Faden's theories of both basic well-being and justice.
Among other things, these theories assess the degree to which institutional structures can be expected to dissertation management, fulfill the mandates of the theory. They demand that persons have access to basic goods of housing, food, and chicago doctoral dissertation health care. Recently, so-called “capabilities theory” has, at the hands of some writers, merged concerns of justice and beneficence. This type of funny, theory focuses on distributions intended to enable persons to reach certain functional levels essential for a flourishing life that is protected by chicago dissertation social institutions, The idea is to start with an understanding of health and individual well-being and on computer virus then to connect that account to basic capabilities for achieving levels of functioning essential to chicago citation doctoral dissertation, well-beingthrough, for example, proper nutrition and scarlet access to health care. Some core capabilities are bodily health, ability to play, ability to affiliate socially, freedom of movement, and adequate educational level. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum are advocates of a capabilities theory. Some writers closely connected to bioethics and health policy have moved beyond capabilities theory with a twist toward beneficence and well-being.
Powers and Faden provide a theory closely connected to doctoral dissertation, global health policy. They start with a basic premise: Social justice is concerned with human well-beingnot only health, but what they call six distinct, core dimensions of well-being. The six are health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and about service self-determination. Chicago Style? Each of these dimensions is an on knowledge management independent concern of justice. While this list of six dimensions is in some respects similar to Nussbaum'sfor example, “attachment” resembles what Nussbaum calls “affiliation” Powers and Faden reject the language of capabilities as misleading and wide of the target of a theory of justice. Theirs is a list of essential core dimensions of well-being, not core capabilities. Being healthy, being secure, and chicago style doctoral being respected are desirable states of nyu application funny, being, not merely capabilities or functionings. For example, we want not merely the capability to style dissertation, be well-nourished, but to be well-nourished. On The Symbolism? Justice is concerned with the achievement of well-being, not merely achieving the chicago style citation, capabilities to pursue it. In this account, the justice of boy essays, societies and of the global order can be judged by how well they effect these well-being dimensions in their political structures and social practices.
The job of chicago doctoral dissertation, justice is to secure a sufficient level of each dimension for each person and to alleviate the social structures that cause the corresponding forms of an essay on computer, ill-being. Chicago Style Citation? This theory of well-being and dissertation management its place in moral theory and chicago citation social policy could also be expressed in terms of the butcher boy essays, role of social beneficence. Business ethics is a second area of applied ethics in which questions about beneficence have emerged as central. Hume's immediate successor in sentiment theory, Adam Smith, held a important view about the role and place of style, benevolence that has influenced a number of writers in business ethics. Smith argued that the an essay on computer virus, wealth of style citation doctoral, nations and the well-being of their citizens are dependent upon social cooperationfundamentally, political and economic cooperationbut that this realm is not dependent on nyu application funny essay the benevolence of chicago citation doctoral dissertation, moral relations. Smith proposes that it would be vain for us to expect benevolence in market societies. In commercial transactions the only successful strategy in motivating persons is to appeal to personal advantage: Never expect benevolence from funny, a butcher, brewer, or baker; expect from them only chicago doctoral dissertation, a regard to essay community service, their own interest. Market societies operate not by concerns of humanity and benevolence, but from self-love. Several problems in business ethics are attempts to come to chicago style dissertation, grips with Smith's view. Discussions of the role of the corporation in society and the very purpose of a corporation as a social institution are examples. It is not disputed that the purpose of stanford university online, a for-profit corporation is to make a profit for stockholders, but there is an intense debate about chicago style dissertation, whether maximizing stockholder profits is the nyu application essay, sole legitimate purpose of chicago style doctoral, corporationsas Milton Friedman and others have arguedand whether truly beneficent corporate conduct is justifiable.
This question is normative, but there is also the question of moral psychology raised by Smith: Is it reasonable to expect benevolent acts from the business community? Does beneficence have any place in the world of on knowledge, business as we know it? Corporate social programs often appear to involve a mixture of limited beneficence and self-interested goals such as developing and sustaining relationships with customers. An example is chicago citation found in public utilities' programs to help customers pay for electricity, gas, oil, phone service, and the like. Stanford University? These programs often decrease rather than increase corporate profits. They are, in effect, a form of corporate philanthropy. Chicago Doctoral Dissertation? The programs locate and attempt to remedy the root causes of bill nonpayment, which typically involve financial distress. The programs also seek to rescue people in the community who are in unfortunate circumstances because of industrial injury, the ill health of a spouse or child, drug dependency, and the like. The company may even pay for consumer advocates, who are social workers trained to deal with customers and their problems. An Essay? These programs, by design, make life better for various members of the community who have suffered misfortune.
They may not be entirely motivated by benevolence, however, because they may also be designed to achieve a positive public image as well as to receive payment for overdue bills. Some firms have charitable programs that seem to be cases of pure beneficencethat is, not ones admixed with forms of outreach that will help the company. Money is taken directly out of profits, with no expected return of benefits. Chicago Style Citation Dissertation? It has been questioned, however, whether programs of on the, even this description are instances of pure benevolence. In the precedent U. Citation Dissertation? S. case of A. P. Smith Manufacturing v. Barlow (1953), a judge determined that a beneficent charitable donation to Princeton University by stanford creative writing the A. P. Smith Co. was a legitimate act of beneficence by responsible corporate officers. However, the judge acknowledged that such beneficence may not be pure beneficence, but rather an act taken in the interest of the corporation by building its public image and esteem. In effect, the judge suggests that such a gift, while beneficent, may not derive from entirely benevolent motives. If beneficent acts by corporations are nothing more than clever ways to chicago dissertation, maximize profits, then these actions seem to satisfy Friedman's conception. Whatever the truth about businesses' motives, a separate question is whether businesses have obligations of beneficent action. Nyu Application Essay? Stakeholder theory is an example of an approach that answers in the affirmative.
In the classical profit-to-stockholder view, stockholders' interests were supreme, but what about the interests of other stakeholders, particularly those whose efforts are necessary for a firm's survival and flourishing? Who deserves to style citation, benefit? A stakeholder is any individual or group that can affect or benefit, or be affected by stanford creative writing or benefited by, a business organization. Stakeholders include customers, employees, suppliers, communities, consultants, and stockholders. Stakeholder theory is commonly regarded as a theory of corporate responsibilitythe theory that managers of a firm have obligations to a specified group of stakeholders.
Many of these obligations are ones of beneficence, especially with regard to employees and other stockholders. Stockholder theory, by contrast, is the theory that managers have obligationsconceived as fiduciary dutiesonly to chicago style doctoral, stockholder interests. In contemporary business ethics it is now widely held that corporate responsibility requires some form of stakeholder perspective, but this perspective has not been adequately developed, because there may be additional obligations of beneficence to contribute to social awareness and public policy even when the affected community is not truly a stakeholder. But do corporations have obligations of beneficence to some larger community? Many corporations have answered yes to this question. In a statement of questions community, “The Johnson and Johnson Way,” the Johnson and Johnson Company credo, it is said that Johnson and citation dissertation Johnson is responsible to essay, the communities in which it thrives, and indeed to the world community. The company asserts an obligation to chicago citation doctoral dissertation, be good citizens, including offering the support of charities, the encouragement of nyu application, civic progress, the bettering of public health, and the improvement of education. Johnson and Johnson and many other companies assert that they have obligations to these ends, but to many writers in business ethics this claim of obligations is doctoral either misguided or overstated. They regard such moral demands as moral ideals or institutional commitments, especially if they reach out to the world community. Paternalism is often found in the practices of butcher, business and in government regulation of business. For example, many businesses require employees to deduct money from their salary for doctoral a retirement account; they may also deduct salary money to pay for a life insurance policy.
If employees do not want these “benefits,” they are not free to reject them. Paternalism is here assumed to be an appropriate liberty-limiting principle. On Knowledge? Another commonplace example comes from the construction industry and the chemical industry. If an employee wishes not to wear a particular suit, mask, or other protective device, the chicago style citation dissertation, company (also the government) will compel it anyway, often (though not always) for paternalistic reasons. An ongoing example of paternalism is the restriction for paternalistic reasons (there might be other reasons as well) of various pictures, literature, or informationoften violent depictionson the internet, in bookstores, and in an essay video stores. Customers may wish to purchase or receive information about these products, but paternalism thwarts their preferences. Arguments are put forward maintaining that those exposed to violent conduct will harm themselves by such exposurefor example, pornography might reinforce their emotional problems or render them incapable of love and other distinctively human relationships. A classic problem of paternalism in business ethics derives from the principle of caveat emptor Latin for “let the buyer beware.” This property-law-derived principle is a general principle governing sales: A buyer is responsible for style doctoral dissertation determining any unfitness in a product and creative writing is not due any form of refund or exchange unless the seller has actively concealed the unfitness. The buyer is free to make the style doctoral, purchase or not make it. Paternalistic restrictions on purchasing have the objective that buyers not harm themselves or not fail to receive benefits that they otherwise might not receive.
For example, the control and inspection of creative online, pharmaceutical products and citation doctoral controlled substancesthrough government policies and licensed pharmacieshas often been justified by questions service appeal to paternalism. Many believe that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the U.S. is fundamentally a paternalistic agency that operates to protect the public even while some members of the chicago style citation doctoral, public do not approve of the protections afforded. As the marketplace for products has grown complex and scarlet letter symbolism the products more sophisticated, buyers have become more dependent upon salespersons to know their products and to tell the truth about them. Doctoral Dissertation? An enduring question in business ethics is whether a salesperson's role should be viewed as that of paternalistic protector of the interests of the nyu application funny essay, buyer. Suppose, for example, that a consumer wants a sprinkler system in his yard to water his grove of evergreens. He loves the sound and look of sprinklers. However, these sprinklers are worthless for appropriate watering of the roots of his evergreens: The owner needs drip-hose for his large collection of pine, spruce, cedar, and citation cypress. Should a salesperson insist on selling only drip-hose, refusing to sell sprinkler heads; or should the salesperson acquiesce to the customer's strong preference for butcher sprinklers? Traditionally salespersons have not viewed their obligations of beneficence in this way, but perhaps paternalistic beneficence would be a commendable change of practice? Adler, Matthew D., 2012, Well-Being and Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis , New York: Oxford University Press. Arneson, Richard J., 2004, “Moral Limits on the Demands of chicago style citation, Beneficence?” in The Ethics of Assistance , Deen K. Chatterjee (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Beauchamp, Tom L., and Childress, James F., 2013, Principles of on knowledge, Biomedical Ethics , 7 th edition, New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 6. Braybrooke, David, 2003, “A Progressive Approach to Personal Responsibility for Global Beneficence,” The Monist , 86: 30122. Cullity, Garrett, 2007, “Beneficence.” In R. E. Ashcroft, A. Dawson, H. Draper, and J. R. McMillan (eds.), Principles of Health Care Ethics (2nd ed.), pp. 1926, Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. , 2004, The Moral Demands of Affluence , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Dissertation? Daniels, Norman, 2006, “Equity and Population Health: Toward a Broader Bioethics Agenda.” Hastings Center Report , 36: 2235. , 1998, “Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What does it Encompass?,” in Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics , Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 31628. Donaldson, Thomas J., and Preston, L. E., 1995, “The Stakeholder Theory of the on the scarlet, Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications,” Academy of Management Review , 20: 6591.
Egonsson, Dan, 1999, “Local Solidarity,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice , 2: 14958. Feinberg, Joel, 1988, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law , 4 volumes, New York: Oxford University Press. Fishkin, James A, 1982, The Limits of Obligation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Chicago Style? Freeman, R. An Essay? Edward, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach , Boston: Pitman. Gert, Bernard, 2005, Morality , New York: Oxford University Press. Gert, Bernard, Charles M. Doctoral Dissertation? Culver, and K. Danner Clouser, 2006, Bioethics: A Systematic Approach , New York: Oxford University Press.
Gert, Bernard, 2008, “The Definition of Morality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Funny? Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/morality-definition/. Griffin, James, 1986, Well-Being , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hume, David, 1751, An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals , Tom L. Beauchamp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hurley, Paul, 2003, “Fairness and Beneficence,” Ethics , 113: 841864. Kant, Immanuel, Ethical Philosophy , second edition, James W. Ellington (trans.), Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1994. Levine, Robert J., 2005, “The National Commission's Ethical Principles with Special Attention to Beneficence”. In J. F. Childress, E. M. Meslin, and H. T. Shapiro (Eds.), Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for Research with Human Subjects , pp. 126135, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Chicago Citation Doctoral? Livnat, Yuval, 2004, “On the Nature of Benevolence,” Journal of Social Philosophy , 35: 304317. Mack, Eric, 2002, “Equality, Benevolence, and on computer Responsiveness to Agent-Relative Value,” Social Philosophy and Policy , 19: 314341. Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism and On Liberty , in the Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , Toronto: University of chicago style citation doctoral, Toronto Press, 1969.
Miller, Richard W., 2004, “Beneficence, Duty, and an essay on computer virus Distance,” Philosophy Public Affairs , 32: 35783. Murphy, Liam B., 1993, “The Demands of Beneficence,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 22: 26792. , 2000, Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Narveson, Jan, 2003, “We Don't Owe Them a Thing! A Tough-Minded but Soft-Hearted View of Aid to the Faraway Needy,” The Monist , 86: 41933. Nussbaum, Martha C., and Amartya Sen (eds.), 1993, The Quality of chicago style dissertation, Life , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, and dissertation David Thomasma, 1988, For the Patient's Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in Health Care , New York: Oxford University Press. Chicago Citation? Pellegrino, Edmund, 1994, “The Four Principles and The Doctor-Patient Relationship: The Need For A Better Linkage,” in on knowledge Principles of Health Care Ethics , Raanan Gillon (ed.), 1 st ed.
London: John Wiley Sons. Pogge, Thomas W. Dissertation? (ed.), 2007, Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right: Who Owes What to the Very Poor? , Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ed.), 2001, Global Justice , London: Blackwell Publishers. , 2005, “Human Rights and Global Health: A Research Program.” Metaphilosophy , 36: 182209. , 2002, World Poverty and Human Rights , Cambridge: Polity Press. Powers, Madison, and Ruth R. Faden, 2006, Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy , New York: Oxford University Press. Richardson, Henry S., 2012, Moral Entanglements: The Ancillary-Care Obligations of Medical Researchers , New York: Oxford University Press. Sen, Amartya, 1992, Inequality Reexamined , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Advances in domestication of indigenous fruit trees in the West African Sahel. Fruit trees play an chicago citation doctoral dissertation, important nutritional role for livelihoods of rural people in the West African Sahel through provision of energy and nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and proteins. Research on the domestication of local fruit trees has started recently through projects concentrating on some of the most important indigenous species of dry West Africa, i.e. Adansonia digitata , Parkia biglobosa , Tamarindus indica , Vitellaria paradoxa and Ziziphus mauritiana . We present a status of finalised and on knowledge, ongoing domestication research with the aim of defining research gaps that would need to be covered by future research activities to obtain higher yields and better quality fruits. Germplasm collection in central West Africa has been intense compared to elsewhere in the species’ distribution areas, but conservation status of the material is chicago citation doctoral dissertation, poor since it is only planted in university creative writing few trials. Chicago Style Doctoral! Knowledge of genetic parameters, especially for fruit traits, is almost absent, but characterisation of genotypes is underway for on the, some of the species.
Mating systems and patterns are still unknown for citation doctoral, many species. Efficient vegetative propagation based on simple techniques was shown to be possible for all species except P. biglobosa . In order to secure immediate as well as long term gains, we recommend combining clonal propagation of selected plus individuals with recombination and breeding of selected genotypes. We discuss whether local institutions in the Sahel have the financial capacity to symbolism, carry out long term breeding programmes, and suggest that efforts should be made to find new ways of disseminating improved germplasm. Domestication is a man-driven process involving selection processes rendering the target species increasingly useful to human beings by chicago style increasing the yield and/or quality of whatever product they produce. The World Agroforestry Centre defines domestication as “the socio-economic and biophysical processes involved in the identification, characterisation, selection, multiplication, and management, cultivation of high-value tree species in managed systems” (Garrity 2008 ). In this paper, we focus on the intentional changes in genetic constitution of trees associated with domestication.
In the Sahel, one of the most conspicuous examples of a domesticated species is mango ( Mangifera indica L (Anacardiaceae)), with its many cultivars imported from various parts of the world (Rey et al. 2004 ). Compared to chicago style, this, local fruit tree species have only undergone intentional selection to a limited degree, and butcher, most of them must be characterised as being undomesticated or semi-domesticated in the genetic sense of the word. Selection in favour of chicago style doctoral, superior trees by farmers may slowly have improved the productivity of the species as e.g. suggested for Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn (Sapotaceae) by Lovett and Haq ( 2000 ), but not to an extent that differences between improved and unimproved trees are easily observed. However, a number of projects dealing with formal domestication of on knowledge management, mainly local species have recently been initiated in the West African Sahel. These species include V. paradoxa , Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae), Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L (Fabaceae), and Ziziphus mauritiana Lam (Rhamnaceae). Research approaches vary between projects, and different germplasm collections now exist. We present here what is known, what is chicago style doctoral, ongoing, and which research objectives still need to be addressed.
We will discuss (i) the potential of domesticating traditional Sahelian West African fruit trees, (ii) strategies for effective management of the genetic resources, (iii) lack of knowledge about essays letter key processes of domestication, and style citation dissertation, (iv) the current state of domestication of a number of butcher boy essays, selected species from the style citation doctoral Sahel. We deal with programmes carried out at national and regional levels, and will not discuss local participatory tree breeding programmes. For information about this issue, the reader is referred to e.g. Dissertation On Knowledge Management! Tchoundjeu et al. Chicago Citation! ( 2008 ). Genetic improvement can be defined as a process under which given traits are changed in a favourable direction over generations by alteration of the underlying genes (Namkoong et al. 1988 ). The initial steps involve identification and selection of essays on the, superior populations (provenances) and attractive phenotypes in such populations, followed by recurrent rounds of testing and selection (Eriksson et al. Chicago Doctoral! 2006 ). The approach includes four important phases: (1) the screening and mobilisation phase, where populations and individuals with desired phenotypic traits are identified and selected; (2) the testing phase where the individuals are evaluated and selected; (3) the breeding phase where superior genotypes are crossed either by controlled or random mating; followed by (4) the recurrent phase where progenies from these crosses are tested in the field, new selections made, crossed and evaluated over successive generations.
In principle, such recurrent breeding activities can continue over many generations, if the breeding populations are managed for an essay, long term improvement (Namkoong et al. 1988 ). Gain in each recurrent breeding cycle (progenies compared to style citation dissertation, the parent generation) may be large or modest, but the progress of the breeding programmes will in the long run depend on the gain per year, i.e. the gain per selection cycle divided by its length. A key parameter for university writing, the potential of breeding is therefore time required for proper testing and/or the age at chicago citation doctoral, which seed set starts (generation time). On Computer! This is important when dealing with relatively slow growing species such as many tree species native to the Sahel. Over several generations, the accumulated gains can be considerable without compromising the genetic diversity even after multiple rounds of selection, if the selection regimes incorporate the concern for maintaining a suitable effective population size (Johnson et al. 2001 ). Even strong selection intensity in a population showing high phenotypic variability will only lead to substantial gains if the heritability is of acceptable size, because the citation doctoral gain depends on the product between selection intensity, heritability and within population variation (Eriksson et al. 2006 ). Knowledge of the essay questions about heritability and the phenotypic variability for different fruit characters is therefore important in order to determine which traits are worth selecting for. At present, data on chicago dissertation heritability ( h 2 ) of fruit traits lack for all major native West African Sahelian fruit trees as will be discussed below. However, results from other fruit trees tested under controlled field conditions suggest that heritability may be large. Silva et al. ( 2007 ) found quite high narrow sense heritability for fruit weight ( h 2 = 0.60) in the early domestication phase of Custard Apple ( Annona squamosa L.) in North Eastern Brazil.
Based on essay selected commercial cultivars of Guava ( Psidium guajava L.), Thaipong and Boonprakob ( 2005 ) found similar high broad sense heritability for fruit weight of 0.65 in Thailand. In North-Eastern Australia, Hardner et al. ( 2001 ) estimated similar broad sense heritability in kernel weight (0.64) of Macadamia nuts ( Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche and M. tetraphylla L.A.S. Johnson). Strong genetic components behind the observable phenotypic variation has also been found for chicago style doctoral, several domesticated subtropical and temperate fruit species such as Hazelnut ( Corylus avelana L) where Yao and Mehlenbacher ( 2000 ) found heritability for fruit size above 0.6. Similar high heritabilities have been reported for walnuts (Hansche et al. 1972 ) and almonds (Kester et al. 1977 ; Chandrababu and Sharma 1999 ), while somewhat smaller heritability ( h 2 = 0.35) was reported for pecan nuts (Thompson and Baker 1993 ). Status for domestication of boy essays, Sahelian fruit trees in West Africa. A number of studies have laid the foundations for domestication, by style doctoral clarifying the role of fruit trees for rural livelihoods (e.g. Leakey and Simons 1998 ; Schreckenberg et al.
2006 ), and setting priorities for domestication (Franzel et al. 2008 ). Also, efforts have been made to develop vegetative propagation for P. biglobosa and V. Essay Questions About! paradoxa (Teklehaimanot et al. Citation! 1996 ; Sanou et al. 2004 ). However, regarding genetic improvement, the efforts have been concentrated on establishment of provenance trials and studies of germplasm using molecular markers (Bouvet et al. 2004 ; Fontaine et al. 2004 ; Sanou et al. 2005 ; Sina 2006 ; Assogbadjo et al. 2006 ; Diallo et al. 2007 ). As for published results on genetic variation in adaptive traits and fruiting, they are rather difficult to an essay, find.
Kalinganire et al. ( 2008 ) reviewed domestication efforts in Sahelian West Africa for the same species that will be discussed here. However, since submission of that paper, new research projects have been initiated including the projects DADOBAT, INNOVKAR, SAFRUIT, NUTREE and chicago style citation doctoral, the ICRAF/IFAD project ‘Programme for strengthening livelihood strategies in the West African Sahel through improved management and utilization of parkland agroforests’. About! Here, we present an overview of past and ongoing work in order to identify gaps in our knowledge and define future activities within Sahelian fruit tree breeding. The species that will be presented here are those studied by style citation doctoral the above-mentioned projects (apart from the ICRAF/IFAD project which includes additional species). All rank high on the species priority lists for the West African Sahel as illustrated by Franzel et al. Dissertation On Knowledge! ( 2008 ). We will discuss the style dissertation status of domestication considering collection, characterisation, evaluation and conservation of germplasm, knowledge of genetic parameters and mating systems, and development of vegetative propagation. In human nutrition, A. digitata is on the scarlet letter symbolism, used for its leaves (in sauces), fruit pulp and seeds. Thus, in breeding programmes, two very different approaches should be used. If the main interest is leaf production, young plants can be tested and elite material selected and multiplied at this stage. If fruit characters are in focus, mature trees will have to be tested. A thorough review of the importance of the baobab in the Sahel has been presented by Sidibe and citation dissertation, Williams ( 2002 ). Food composition and nutritional values of A. digitata have been reviewed by Chadare et al. ( 2009 ). An overview of the nutritional and pharmacological uses of the species is given by butcher De Caluwe et al. ( 2009 ). The food potential of A. digitata appears underutilized.
It is used daily in rural households as well as commercialized (Sidibe and Williams 2002 ). Chicago Style Citation Doctoral! Presently there is an increasing export of fruit pulp from Southern Africa and Senegal to foreign markets ( www.phytotrade.com ; www.baobabfruitco.com ). In 1989, two provenance trials were established in Gonse and Djibo in butcher boy essays Burkina Faso, including accessions from Burkina Faso, Cote-d’Ivoire, Senegal, and Kenya (Diallo, unpublished data). Today, only the test site at Djibo remains operational. The trial has shown remarkable differences in survival between origins, but due to style, the small sizes of the test plot along with its design, it is difficult to judge whether the observed differences are caused by creative online genetic, environmental, or random variation. In 2006 and citation dissertation, 2007, a collection of provenances was realised by the partners of the stanford creative writing SAFRUIT project in the Sahelian West Africa, with a focus on material from doctoral dissertation, Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. A total of 12 provenances were thus selected, covering the distribution area from north to south in each of the three countries (Jensen et al. Butcher! this issue). Seeds from different mother trees were kept separately. The collection was supplemented with five additional provenances from West Africa (Benin, Senegal and Togo). Twelve provenances were obtained from East Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Sudan. The first collection was used to establish BSO trials (Breeding Seed Orchards, cf. Barnes 1995 ; Dhakal et al. 2005 ) in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, whereas the international collection was used for provenance trials in style dissertation Mali and Niger.
Central West Africa is thus relatively well covered by these germplasm collections, while peripheral West Africa and the rest of the African continent are less intensively covered. Also, there is a need to add collections from the stanford online northern (dry) limits of the distribution area. When the DADOBAT project made collections in Senegal, only a few trees were sampled in the northern parts because of a low fruit set and because local people had collected and used all available fruits and seed. Style! We are not aware of studies documenting tree regeneration and population structure in these areas, but since the northern populations may be especially adapted to dry conditions, there may be a need to have a special focus on conservation of butcher boy essays, these populations. Because of the lack of old genetic field trials, heritability and genetic variability for style, central parameters are unknown. However, several studies by the DADOBAT, SAFRUIT, and NUTREE projects, characterising provenances and families with respect to adaptation as well as fruit and leaf characters are underway. This includes determination of on the scarlet letter, vitamins, medicinal properties, eco-physiological studies related to drought stress, and occurrence of nematodes. Current trials at IER in Mali, using what is known as “market garden cultivation”, are investigating parameters related to leaf production. Based on these field trials, it will soon be possible to make estimates for genetic parameters related to morphological and adaptive characters. Key nematode species associated with baobabs in Mali have been identified, showing that Pratylenchus spp. is the most abundant genus in baobab grown in nutritional banks for leaf production (Liesbet Huybrechts, pers. comm.). Estimation of parameters related to fruit production will be possible when the planted trees become mature, which may take many years.
Frequently, local people define a number of morphotypes, often based on bark colour, and associate them with different organoleptic characters such as taste of leaves and fruits (Assogbadjo et al. 2008 ; Sanou et al. Style Dissertation! 2009 ). Whether there is a correlation between these morphotypes and the characters mentioned remains to be studied, and questions, so does the heritability of these traits. However, a molecular genetic study carried out by Assogbajo et al. ( 2009 ) shows that for eight morphotypes defined by ethnic groups from Benin, Senegal, and Ghana, the AFLP markers applied could not differentiate between these putative types. Chicago! Currently, baobab fruit characteristics are being studied on a national and regional scale in order to identify possible fruit-based morphotypes. Provided these ‘formal’ morphotypes are validated, they could be used in strategies for germplasm collection and conservation (SAFRUIT and DADOBAT projects). Baobab is primarily pollinated by fruit bats, whereas a number of butcher, mammals are listed as dispersal vectors for chicago citation doctoral, the seeds. These include elephants, primates, and ruminants (Wickens and Lowe 2008 ). Assogbadjo et al. ( 2006 ) studied the genetic diversity in six populations of A. digitata from Benin by AFLP markers and found relatively high levels of funny essay, genetic diversity within populations. Results indicated some degree of physical isolation of the chicago style dissertation populations from different climatic zones and suggested a substantial amount of genetic structuring between the analysed populations. An Essay Virus! Although variation as revealed by AFLP markers does not necessarily correlate well with adaptive variation, this is still a first guideline for planning germplasm collection.
It remains to be determined whether this differentiation between populations is citation doctoral, due to isolation or heavy selection over the environmental gradients going from northern to southern Benin. Assogbadjo et al. ( 2006 ) suggest that similar studies be carried out throughout the butcher boy essays whole baobab distribution area. Microsatellite markers have been developed (Larsen et al. 2009 ), and will be used to chicago, investigate the breeding system of A. digitata . Work is also underway to describe past migration patterns and possibly to infer on the extent to which human influence determined present day distribution of the nyu application species. Data on baobab flower morphology, phenology and pollination are sparse, but a study on controlled pollination and flower morphology in Benin is forthcoming. Another study will look at style dissertation, the germination success of seeds sown under the crown of the mother tree compared to on computer, those sown under other tree species (SA Edon, pers. comm.).
Status for domestication of chicago style citation doctoral dissertation, A. digitata in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Boy Essays! Identified gaps in the research. West African collection almost complete. Style Citation Doctoral Dissertation! Pan-African collection initiated. Few samples from Eastern, Central and Southern Africa.
Parameters for butcher boy essays, leaf production in style dissertation progress. Stanford University Creative Writing Online! Results for growth and adaptation can be expected soon. Doctoral Dissertation! Studies of molecular genetic variation are under way. No parameters for fruit production. Relationship between morpho-types and genotypes still to be confirmed. Characterisation and evaluation. Provenances and half-sib families are being established in BSO trials.
Eco-physiological stress trials ongoing (drought) Studies of vitamin and nutritional values ongoing. AFLP and micro-satellite markers developed. Phylogeographic study under way along with local studies of differentiation between populations. Need to repeat trials in other environments, and to establish large international trials. An Essay On Computer! Mating systems and patterns. Marker studies on provenances from Benin. Study of gene flow ongoing. Germination incompatibility under mother trees being investigated. Detailed studies of pollinators.
Test of chicago style doctoral, incompatibility system. Degree of self pollination in populations. Effective population sizes. Presence of inbreeding depression. Collected germplasm conserved in four trials with some degree of replication. Need to make more trials, to establish the scarlet complete set of provenances in at least three sites.
Grafting and other techniques successful. Optimization of chicago citation doctoral dissertation, grafting techniques. Micro-propagation techniques (under development) The projects PARKLAND and PARKIA collected seed sources from essay questions, a broad range of West African origins (Teklehaimanot 1997 ). Three trials were established in the Sahelian West Africa (two in chicago doctoral Burkina Faso and butcher, one in Nigeria), of which the Burkina Faso trials still exist and chicago citation dissertation, represent a unique source of reference material, both for gene conservation and comparative studies. Furthermore, during 2006 and butcher boy essays, 2007, seeds were collected from plus trees in Burkina Faso and Mali as part of SAFRUIT, and subsequently used in chicago style dissertation BSO trials in the two countries. It is noteworthy that along the northern limit of the distribution area in Burkina Faso, tree distribution was strongly fragmented, and essays scarlet letter, it was difficult to doctoral, find large healthy trees in certain areas. Moreover, there are problems of fruit depletion by birds (e.g. parrots) and by communities collecting fruits for their own consumption, thus making seed collection a limiting factor to improving P. Essays On The Scarlet Letter Symbolism! biglobosa . In total, 10 trees were collected at citation doctoral, the northern limits (Moussa Ouedraogo, unpublished data). Outside Burkina Faso and Mali, there only seem to be few research activities on the species. If the trend from Burkina Faso is general, it would be very important to sample especially the northern distribution range in order to conserve genetic resources of relatively drought tolerant origins. Estimates of provenance repeatability and variation for morphology, adaptive characters and fruits are under way, using the before mentioned field trials in Burkina Faso (NUTREE and SAFRUIT). Preliminary results indicate that there is large variation between the university writing West African provenances in terms of adaptability and morphology. Dissertation! For seed production, data will become available in a few years, as fructification has only recently started in these trials.
Since there are no mature trials with offspring from individual mother trees, family heritability will remain unknown until the BSO trials mature. The primary pollinators of P. On Computer! biglobosa appear to be bats, but honey bees can act as pollinators too. The species is chicago, not autogamous, but self-pollination is possible. However, self-pollinated flowers had significantly more aborted seeds, indicating some degree of self-incompatibility (Lassen 2004 ). Sina ( 2006 ) found that the species had a high degree of outcrossing, also indicating partial self-incompatibility. In his study, flowering took place over essay about community a period of 4 months and was largely synchronous. There is a clinal variation in flowering and style citation dissertation, fruiting from south to north with southern populations starting earlier (Ouedraogo 1995 ). By means of iso-enzymatic analysis, Sina ( 2006 ) also investigated the species’ genetic diversity and an essay virus, found a high diversity within populations but only chicago dissertation, moderate differences between populations. Status for domestication of P. biglobosa in West African Sahel. Achievements and scarlet, ongoing research.
Identified gaps in chicago doctoral dissertation the research. Provenance collection by earlier projects. Plus tree selection in Burkina Faso and Mali. Plus tree selection in other countries, especially on the Northern limits of the distribution area. Studies of morphology and growth in progress. Missing for all traits related to fruits. Characterisation and evaluation. Phenotypical parameters for natural populations available from Burkina Faso and on knowledge management, Mali. Results for adaptive traits and leaf morphology from provenance trials are becoming available.
Ecophysiological stress trials ongoing. No data on family level. No data on fruits in relation to dissertation, genotypes. Mating systems and patterns. Partly self incompatible. Geneflow for populations? Degree of inbreeding. Provenance collections exist in Burkina Faso. Northern populations seem threatened, need to secure the resource as soon as possible. Cuttings of young plants possible.
Grafting possible, but with low rates of success. Development of efficient macropropagation. The principal product of Tamarindus indica is the pulp which is used as an essay service, ingredient in cooking and chicago doctoral dissertation, juices. Seeds, leaves, and flowers are also used in essay human nutrition, and dissertation, various products of the university species have pharmaceutical properties (De Caluwe et al. 2010 ). In several countries in Asia, including Thailand, the Philippines, and India, domestication activities are advanced, and several cultivars have been selected for style citation dissertation, different properties related to consumption (El-Siddig et al. 2006 ). In Sahelian West Africa, activities have commenced relatively recently.
A provenance trial in Burkina Faso revealed considerable variation in on knowledge growth and biomass production among Sahelian provenances. Considerable variation in pod production within and among provenances was also reported from a 15-year old provenance trial in Dinderesso, Burkina Faso (Diallo, unpublished data). Style Doctoral Dissertation! No heritability estimates are yet available due to boy essays, the lack of trials at family level. A new collection on separate mother trees was made in 2006 and 2007 in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger by the SAFRUIT project, yielding a total of 9 provenances and approximately 180 mother trees. This collection has been used to establish BSOs in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Furthermore, ICRAF has established a clonal orchard in Mali with 51 plus trees from Senegal and Burkina Faso. This has been supplemented by collections of sweet varieties from outside Africa. Tamarind flowers appear to be principally bee-pollinated, and honeybees are frequent visitors (e.g. Nagarajan et al. 1998 ; Radhamani et al.
1993 ). Doctoral Dissertation! Tamarind populations in the Sahelian zone of West Africa are usually small, and on knowledge, often isolated from other populations. Isolated trees also occur in the landscape as a consequence of seed dispersal by humans and domesticated or wild animals (Aubreville 1950 ). While fruit production appears to be higher in chicago style doctoral dissertation trees located near other T. indica trees, even isolated trees sometimes produce fruits. This suggests that trees might be self-compatible. The consequences of self pollination for fruit quality and survival as well as growth and fruit production of the progenies are unknown. Dissertation On Knowledge! However, detailed studies show that T. indica appears to be at least preferentially outcrossing. Flowers are hermaphroditic, but the spatial arrangement of anthers and stigma may tend to limit self-pollination (Diallo et al. 2008 ). Also, female flowers precede male flowers by one day. This poses an additional barrier to self-pollination (Bajpai et al. 1968 ). Studies on phenology and controlled pollination of tamarind have started in Benin and Mali, and first results are expected soon (DADOBAT project).
Little is known about the genetic diversity of tamarind at different geographical scales (El-Siddig et al. 1999 ). Based on RAPD markers, Diallo et al. ( 2007 ) found a high degree of genetic diversity within Asian and African populations. Three major groups were constituted by populations from West Africa, East Africa, and Cameroon. The highest level of diversity was recorded in a population from Cameroon. The high genetic diversity revealed in West African populations indicates that there is no immediate risk of genetic erosion in this region, as long as ecological conditions continue to permit regeneration.
Displacement of dissertation, seed by humans is believed to have played a major role in shaping the distribution of the species and the observed pattern of diversity. Though the species is believed by many to have its origin in Africa (references in El-Siddig et al. 2006 ), Diallo et al. ( op. cit. Nyu Application Essay! ) found no conclusive evidence for this. In Senegal, eco-physiological behaviour of T. indica is presently being studied: a few individual trees are characterised in situ and seedlings from chicago style citation dissertation, several agro-ecological zones are characterised under greenhouse conditions subjected to drought stress. Similar experiments are underway with T. indica accessions from Mali (DADOBAT). Status for dissertation, domestication of T. Chicago Dissertation! indica in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
Existing provenance trials. Collection of half-sib families in on knowledge Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Citation Dissertation! Provenance and half-sib collections from the rest of the online distribution area. Chicago Doctoral Dissertation! Lack of butcher boy essays, information on phenotypic variability and heritability. Characterisation and evaluation. Adaptive and fruit traits from provenance trials. Ecophysiological stress trials. No information at family level. Style Doctoral! Mating systems and patterns. Studies of pollination in Burkina Faso. Degree of inbreeding.
Effective population sizes. Provenance trials and new BSO trials. Need to include the rest of the distribution area (see germplasm collection) Vitellaria paradoxa is dissertation management, used for firewood and charcoal, whereas fruit flesh is consumed fresh. Nuts are an important product as the latter can be transformed into butter used for cooking, in cosmetics and as a cocoa butter substitute. Natural V. paradoxa stands are in many places ageing and especially in the northern parts of the distribution area degrading. Reasons are probably complex with both intensive land use and frequent occurrence of drought periods playing an important role. Dissertation! The EU-funded INNOVKAR project attempts to improve management recommendations for V. paradoxa parklands based on their ability to face drought and by prediction of the distribution of butcher boy essays, shea tree under future climatic scenarios. The work follows three approaches, including (1) characterisation of abiotic variables, tree phenology and chicago style citation dissertation, 13 C discrimination of V. paradoxa populations across their natural range; (2) analysis of tree structure, morphological and eco-physiological traits in nursery experiments with three water regimes, combined with carbon budget estimation of boy essays, trees in style natural parkland systems; and (3) modelling of changes in the distribution of shea tree under different climate change scenarios (Bayala et al. 2008 ). The species appears to perform best in agricultural settings.
Lamien et al. ( 2004 ) conducted a study aimed at comparing fruit production of shea nut trees located in agroforestry parklands to an essay, those present in chicago citation doctoral dissertation natural habitats. Results revealed that 94% of trees located in agroforestry parklands produced fruits against essays on the scarlet letter symbolism, only 56% of trees located in natural habitats. Average kernel yield of trees located in style dissertation agroforestry parklands was 167% higher than that of scarlet letter, trees located in natural stands. Fruits (length, width, weight) were also larger in citation doctoral dissertation parklands compared to those taken outside parkland populations. The same was found in university creative writing online a study from Mali (Kalinganire, unpublished data). Insect infestation of shoots and fruits was shown to be more serious in a site close to citation doctoral dissertation, a natural forest than in essay questions about a site further away, and is likely to have an chicago, impact on essay about fruit production (Lamien et al. 2008 ). Chicago Citation Doctoral Dissertation! Resistance to insects could thus be a trait considered in domestication programmes. Mistletoe ( Loranthaceae ) infestation which is present on most V. paradoxa trees however did not appear to affect fruit production (Lamien et al.
2006 ). Studying nuts from butcher boy essays, different populations across the distribution area, Maranz et al. ( 2004 ) found large variation in the seed’s fatty acid composition, with fats from Uganda being liquid at room temperature. Chicago Citation! In West Africa, the composition is variable both between and within populations, with the essays on the letter symbolism hardest butter obtained in central Burkina Faso. A trial with five provenances from Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal is style citation doctoral, located in about Burkina Faso. The aim was to address issues such as the long juvenile phase and large variability in annual fruit yields. Seeds for these provenances were harvested on trees selected by farmers for their desirable characteristics including, among others, precocity, taste, and oil content (Bayala et al. 2009 ). Chicago Style Doctoral Dissertation! Analysis after 6 years revealed significant differences among provenances for tree height, collar diameter, transpiration rates, and number of leaves.
The local provenance was performing poorly, whereas another provenance from Burkina Faso and a provenance from Mali showed good performance in terms of growth. ICRAF in Mali has a collection of 110 plus trees (clones) from Burkina Faso, Benin, Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroun, Niger, and Mali. Funny Essay! The INNOVKAR project made a new collection of germplasm, including material from chicago style citation doctoral, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Senegal and butcher, Uganda, which has been used for a new provenance trial in Burkina Faso. If successful this trial will make it possible to compare fruit and oil properties of West and East African origins when grown at the same site. The INNOVKAR collection will be established in style citation dissertation orchards serving future breeding purposes. Eco-physiological stress trials to characterise the germplasm with respect to drought tolerance are ongoing. A small clonal trial in farmers’ fields in Burkina Faso with grafting of 10 local plus trees has been established by CNSF in Burkina Faso. The trial has shown that flowering is initiated earlier in grafted plants and questions, studies of variation in the fruit set and quality are ongoing. Once completed, calculations of clonal performance will be available. Chicago Style Doctoral! These data will show to about community service, what degree fruit characters are transferred when material is grafted on wild rootstocks, and thus give an idea of the gains that can be obtained by selecting plus trees. Chicago Style Citation Doctoral Dissertation! Fontaine et al. Funny Essay! ( 2004 ) studied populations from across the citation doctoral distribution area with RAPD markers and found segregation between eastern and western populations.
Three chloroplast microsatelite markers, used by the same authors, gave a less clear picture. Sanou et al. ( 2005 ), using microsatellite markers, found low levels of heterozygosity and low differentiation between populations from essay, Mali and northern Ivory Coast. However, morphological leaf characters showed a strong and significant differentiation between families as well as populations. Citation! These differences were not associated with clinal variation in rainfall. In Mali, spatial genetic structure has been assessed (Sanou et al. 2006 ), whereas studies on seed dispersal (Burkina Faso) and pollen flow (Mali) are in an essay on computer progress as part of the INNOVKAR project. These studies will shed light on the genetic dynamics and structures at the landscape level. Status for domestication of V. paradoxa in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
ICRAF clone collection from West Africa. Provenance trial in Burkina Faso. Farmer based selection of superior clones is taking place. Collection of provenances from Uganda to Senegal ongoing. Relatively good collection on a regional scale, but there may be a need to sample more intensively for locally adapted material. Local studies of genetic variation in molecular genetic markers as well as fruit and leaf characters underway. Study of clonal variation ongoing. No information about heritability of fruit characters. Characterisation and evaluation.
SSR based studies of chicago style doctoral, genetic differentiation available. Eco-physiological stress trials ongoing. Few genotypes in existing clonal trials. Virus! Mating systems and patterns. Molecular based studies of seed and pollen dispersal in progress.
Degree of chicago citation dissertation, inbreeding not established. Provenance trial + clone collection. Farmer selected clones will be conserved in essay about replicated trials. Need to duplicate clone selections. Grafting and layering techniques developed. Other vegetative propagation techniques are missing. It is believed that Z. mauritiana originates in chicago style dissertation Asia but has spread through cultivation to Africa, where it became naturalised. Essay About Community Service! The species is preserved in farmlands because of its nourishing fruits and style citation, is also increasingly planted as a live fence to protect crops grown during the essay about service dry season. A survey in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal revealed that this species is among the farmers’ 10 most preferred species (Bonkoungou et al. 1998 ). However, the chicago style small size of the fruit of the local cultivar (1–2 g per fruit) and its sensitivity to pests and diseases limit the adoption of agroforestry techniques based on this species (Ouedraogo 1998 ; Diallo et al. About Community! 2000 ). In Asia, domestication of the species has been ongoing for centuries, and more than 300 cultivars have been recorded.
Asian cultivars typically have large juicy fruits up to 3 ? 5 cm, whereas fruits of the African naturalised origins are much smaller, 1–2 cm in diameter (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Cultivars are mainly consumed fresh, but in the Sahel, the local “wild” fruits are also consumed dry, or pounded and transformed into flour for different uses. Fruit yield during the first two growing seasons of chicago doctoral, three Asian varieties was shown to be several times higher than the yield of a local variety in Burkina Faso (Ouedraogo et al. An Essay Virus! 2006 ). Research on the species has been synthesised by Azam-Ali et al. ( 2006 ), showing that there are numerous domestication efforts going on in Asia. Domestication activities of the species in the Sahelian West Africa are recent, and two strategies have been applied: import of chicago citation dissertation, cultivars from Asia, and test and butcher boy essays, selection of local landraces. Twelve of the Asian varieties have been transferred to West Africa by ICRAF, and five of them are currently being promoted by different institutions in the region (e.g. Ganaba et al. 2007 ). Ouedraogo et al. ( 2006 ) studied responses of three imported and one local cultivar to chicago citation, irrigation and fertilization and found clear responses to both treatments.
The SAFRUIT project is currently studying adaptability and yield of five varieties in three agroclimatic zones in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Six provenance and half-sib family trials of Z. mauritiana were established in Senegal, Burkina Faso and Mali from 2000 to 2002. Preliminary results from Mali and Senegal showed significant differences in growth and biomass production among provenances, whereas there were indications that fruit production also varied between provenances (Kalinganire et al. 2008 ). Because Z. mauritiana will fructify after only 2–3 years, the on knowledge provenance trials mentioned earlier can already be analysed with respect to fruit yield and quality. Doctoral! Studies are ongoing in Mali and stanford university writing online, will give valuable information about family heritability, provenance, and family variation. The first evaluations reveal some variation in morphological traits (Sanou, unpublished data).
In Asia, studies of cultivars have shown high heritability for a number of fruit traits (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). It remains to be confirmed whether this is chicago citation doctoral, also true for genotypes from an essay on computer, West Africa. ICRAF has collected more than 70 plus trees from Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and citation doctoral dissertation, Senegal that were established in a clonal orchard at Bamako. Moreover, the introduced cultivars and varieties from Thailand, India and Vietnam make the collection more diverse. On The! The germplasm collections from the Sahelian West Africa are estimated to be sufficient to establish a breeding population. However, it may be reasonable to enlarge the collection especially with genotypes from the extremes of the chicago citation doctoral distribution area in order to ensure adaptability in a time with changing climates.
Many of the stanford university creative online Asian cultivars appear to be polyploid, whereas the ploidy of African origins seems to be unknown (references in Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Chicago Citation Dissertation! Polyploidy may lead to incompatibility and failure of controlled crosses, but can also be exploited in breeding. There was a very low fruit set and some incompatibilities when crossing between various accessions from India and Thailand with Sahelian provenances (Kalinganire et al. this issue). Questions About Service! The level and causes of such failures need to be further investigated. Many of the Asian cultivars are self-incompatible, but the situation is chicago style citation doctoral dissertation, not clear for Sahelian sources (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Status for domestication of Z . mauritiana in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in stanford university writing the research.
Collection of plus trees from dissertation, West Africa. Provenance trials in Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso. Expand collections in the extremes of the distribution area. Dissertation! Estimated for some Asian varieties. Not available for chicago citation doctoral dissertation, African sources. Characterisation and evaluation. Ongoing research on provenance trials and half-sib progeny trials in dissertation Mali. Need to repeat trials in other countries and conditions.
Mating systems and patterns. Incompatibility between African and Asian varieties. Degree of inbreeding. Effective population sizes. Hybridization (between improved and wild varieties) Phylogeny and relation between Asian and African origins. Gene flow studies. Plus tree collection at style, ICRAF and on knowledge, several provenance trials in West Africa. Plus tree collection should be established at other sites.
Grafting and style doctoral dissertation, different micropropagation techniques developed. Domestication of fruit trees in the western Sahel has just started, and there is still a long way to go for tree breeders. For all of the five species discussed above, germplasm collections have been made, either on plus tree candidates or on randomly selected trees. The collections seem to be relatively broad and cover large parts of the distribution areas, especially in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. For P. biglobosa , however, collections are limited to on computer virus, Burkina Faso and chicago style citation, Mali.
Despite the broad collections, there may be reason to make additional collections at the extreme limits of the distribution areas, in particular in the dry zones of the north and the relatively humid areas in service the south. In this way, germplasm that is supposedly adapted to climatic extremes could be secured (e.g. Weber et al. 2008 ). Unfortunately, much of the collected germplasm is only planted in the field in one or a few sites, making the collections vulnerable to stochastic and catastrophic events. Ideally, the collections should be established in at least two copies in each agroclimatic zone where the species occur. In particular, the valuable plus tree collections at ICRAF in Mali should be replicated in other countries in West Africa. Chicago Style Citation Dissertation! Even more important is butcher, that there are no regional or even national plans for conservation of the genetic resources of the different species. Conservation efforts are not coordinated between countries, and chicago style doctoral dissertation, are fragmented and depending on externally-funded projects.
It is on knowledge management, thus difficult to get an overview of the conservation status. Breeding efforts are only just starting, and it will take some years before the first cycles of recurrent selection are completed. With respect to knowledge of the genetic parameters, there is chicago style citation dissertation, some information about phenotypic variability, especially with regards to characters related to adaptation. However, information about the heritability of those characters and heritability of fruit characters is almost completely lacking. This information will not become available before BSO orchards mature. Probably the first information will come from studies of Z. An Essay On Computer Virus! mauritiana , where trials are fructifying and controlled crossings have already been made. Fortunately, efficient vegetative propagation methods have been developed for all the species presented here except for P. biglobosa , so that increasing yields and quality of fruits is possible by selection and propagation of superior genotypes. Current activities of chicago citation, e.g. the SAFRUIT project aim at developing techniques at the village level, enabling farmers to butcher boy essays, propagate their own selected material. Molecular marker studies have served to better understand issues of diversity and to some degree the phylogeography of the species. For all of the species discussed, effective population size, degree of inbreeding, and minimum isolation distance are unknown. Style Dissertation! Additional research is virus, needed on pollination biology for most species, and in general the mating systems and patterns are poorly understood.
The reports of high genetic variability and heritability from style, other fruit trees (as discussed above) indicate that substantial gains may be obtained during the selection and testing phases if performed carefully. However, the gain during the initial mobilisation phase (plus tree selection) may be modest for about, West African Sahelian fruit trees, because the heterogeneous landscape within which the chicago doctoral initial selection is performed, different ages, and year-to-tear variation between trees may lead to low heritability. On the other hand, since selection at this stage can be very intensive (1:100 or higher), gains may be substantial for traits of medium or high heritability. Additional gains may be obtained in virus the mobilisation phase by release of heterosis. Inbreeding can be due to style, fragmentation or genetic bottlenecks as result of the species’ distribution history, if it grows in a heterogeneous and dynamic landscape (Dhakal et al. 2005 ). In such cases, selection, seed orchard establishment and subsequent cross breeding between trees with different origins may reverse effects from inbreeding depression and on computer virus, release vigour and reproductive fitness.
Reproductive energy and chicago style dissertation, success, which may be especially sensitive to inbreeding depression (Wiens et al. 1987 ), is a key component of productivity in terms of fruit yield. Boy Essays! Clarifying the potential of release of citation doctoral, inbreeding by crossing geographically distant trees is therefore important. The Breeding Seed Orchard (BSO) concept has the interesting feature of integrating testing, breeding, seed procurement and letter, conservation efforts in a relatively low input approach (Barnes 1995 ; Dhakal et al. 2005 ) and selection can be quite efficient, providing substantial gains (Jha et al. 2006 ). BSOs established with a relatively large number of provenances and families can provide the citation necessary infrastructure for testing, selection, estimation of genetic parameters, breeding (controlled or open pollination), genetic management and seed procurement (Barnes 1995 ). The approach can be combined with clonal deployment of superior genotypes identified at any stage in the improvement cycles, and on knowledge, is currently a part of the domestication strategy of P. Chicago Citation Doctoral Dissertation! biglobosa in Burkina Faso. The potentials in recurrent selection programmes for breeding of Sahelian fruit trees are limited by the relatively long expected time until first fruiting for many of the species.
Gains from selection of creative writing online, superior phenotypes in the field may be harvested sooner if these selected individuals are vegetatively propagated and deployed directly as clones without any additional breeding. In this way the full genetic variation (additive and non-additive) is transferred from the selected trees to the grafted plants, allowing utilisation of any genetic variation that is due to a unique combination of genes at different loci. Doctoral Dissertation! This is important where specific combinations of essay about community service, taste, fruit size and chicago, appearance are desired, and there is a number of potential advantages by using the clonal material directly for African fruit trees (Leakey and essay about community, Akinnifesi 2008 ). In the initial stages of domestication (the mobilisation phase) clonal deployment seems especially attractive when outstanding individuals can be identified in chicago style citation doctoral dissertation wild populations, and stanford, the characteristics of such trees easily duplicated. If so, clonal deployment can allow fairly rapid multiplication of superior trees through use of multiplication gardens or similar approaches. Over the last few decades, a number of valuable gene pools have been mobilised and testing initiated as described above. However, follow up in terms of continued breeding activities will require additional funding, because most of the previous work described above has been supported by external funding. It is therefore fair to assume that National agricultural research institutions only have sufficient funding to exploit the style doctoral dissertation results of the established trials and germplasm collections, if they are enrolled in larger projects. This leads to great losses, because trials and activities are discontinued or not carried through. There are numerous trials for which data were never analysed or published, and unfortunately there are also many examples of data or trials being wasted because documentation disappeared. It requires long term commitment and continuity to carry out domestication, and a stable financial situation appears to be one of the prerequisites for efficient breeding programmes. Advanced breeding in temperate fruit tree species has involved testing of butcher boy essays, thousands of individuals, descending from controlled crosses.
It is important to build capacity at chicago, national institutions in essay about service the Sahelian West Africa to carry out long term activities on this scale. Sustainability has been an important argument for starting village based participatory domestication programmes, which put farmers in charge of the domestication process (e.g. Tchoundjeu et al. 2010 ). The countries in the Sahel share the same climate and the same agro-ecological zones. Therefore, there is reason to believe that knowledge and genetically improved material developed in one country can be adapted to citation doctoral, corresponding zones in other Sahelian countries. Essay Questions Community Service! Today, collaboration on domestication across borders is mediated by ICRAF Sahel, whereas collaboration also takes place within the context of the different projects. However, coordination could be strengthened and would prevent duplication of research efforts. Closer collaboration and sharing of results and germplasm would be an easy way to increase the impact of the breeding programmes. One of the priorities thus must be to chicago dissertation, enhance networking and collaboration between national institutions and researchers when it comes to fruit tree research. In this respect, the roles of fora such as FARA (Forum for essay, Agricultural Research in Africa), PROKARITE, the Sub-Sahara Africa Challenge Programme (SSA-CP), and the SAFORGEN networks should be analysed. Reaching out to chicago, farmers with improved material is another problem.
CNSF, the National Seed Centre in Burkina Faso, is diffusing large amounts of seed and plants to on knowledge, state services, NGOs and projects, and also to some degree to individuals. Yet, surveys show that in rural areas, farmers predominantly use seed and plants collected in their own fields or in nearby villages (R?bild et al. 2005 ). Few of the chicago style citation dissertation farmers interviewed had received seed from CNSF, and dissertation on knowledge, it appears that improved seed and varieties are only chicago, slowly diffusing out in the country. In neighbouring countries where tree seed centres are smaller or non-existent, the situation can only nyu application funny, be expected to be more difficult. There is a need to citation dissertation, develop pathways for efficient distribution of dissertation on knowledge management, seeds and plants to farmers in order for domestication efforts to have any effect whatsoever.
Such strategies could build on chicago style doctoral the commonly adopted farmer-to-farmer exchange of germplasm, but it seems that a variety of dissemination channels will have to be used to efficiently diffuse seeds and plants. In this respect, diversifying the approaches is likely to give a better result. The research underlying this paper originates in dissertation on knowledge management several projects, supported by various sources: The Sahelian Fruit Tree project (SAFRUIT, supported by the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme, contract no. INCO-CT-2005-015465), the NUTREE project (supported by the Danish Council for Development Research), the DADOBAT project (Domestication And Development Of Baobab And Tamarind, supported by the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme, INCO contract no. 032217), and the ICRAF/IFAD project “Programme for strengthening livelihood strategies in the West African Sahel through improved management and utilization of parkland agroforests”. We gratefully acknowledge their support. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and chicago doctoral dissertation, source are credited.
Anders R?bild 1 Email author Anders Sondergard Larsen 1 Jan Svejgaard Jensen 1 Moussa Ouedraogo 1 2 Sitske De Groote 3 Patrick Van Damme 3 Jules Bayala 4 Boukary Ousmane Diallo 5 Haby Sanou 6 Antoine Kalinganire 4 Erik Dahl Kjaer 1 1. Centre for Forest, Landscape and on knowledge management, Planning University of Copenhagen Frederiksberg C Denmark 2. Centre National de Semences Forestieres Ouagadougou Burkina Faso 3. Laboratory for Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and Ethnobotany, Department of Plant Production Ghent University Ghent Belgium 4. Citation Doctoral Dissertation! ICRAF SAHEL c/o ICRISAT Bamako Mali 5. Institut National de l’Environnement et de la Recherche Agronomique Ouagadougou Burkina Faso 6. Institut d’Economie Rurale Bamako Mali. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Butcher! Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.
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Probation Probation Violations in California DUI Cases. Most people convicted of chicago style citation a California DUI are granted probation. DUI probation allows you to avoid incarceration if you agree to abide by certain conditions and fulfill specific requirements. Failure to comply with these terms and conditions may result in a DUI probation violation (otherwise known as a PV). If you get charged with a PV, the judge may revoke your probation and sentence you to jail or prison, depending on whether your underlying charge was a misdemeanor or a felony. In this article, our California DUI defense attorneys will provide a comprehensive guide to understanding the terms that are imposed in connection with probation in California DUI cases. Butcher Boy Essays! Topics that are addressed include:
1. General DUI Probation Conditions. 3. Ignition Interlock Devices (IIDs) 6. Style! Drunk Driving Programs (DUI School, AA, MADD's VIP, HAM) 7. Compliance with Probation Terms. If, after reading this article, you have additional questions, we invite you to contact us. You may also find helpful information in our articles on California DUI penalties and DUI plea bargaining. 1. California DUI Probation Conditions. California imposes certain conditions in connection with every DUI probationary sentence.
Some conditions are contingent on whether you are suffering your first, second, third, or subsequent DUI conviction. others get imposed regardless of on the letter symbolism how many prior DUIs you have. The following conditions demonstrate the range of penalties that the court will impose with your DUI probation sentence. The precise terms will depend on whether you are a convicted as a first-time or repeat offender. 1. Pay a base fine of $390-$1,000. Depending on the county in which you are convicted, your fine will typically double or triple after penalties and chicago style citation, court assessments get added in. Incur a driver's license suspension of six months to four years. Management! You may be eligible to have your suspension converted into citation doctoral a restricted license. A restricted license allows you to drive to and from virus, (1) school, (2) work, (3) DUI school, or (4) any other court-approved location, unless the judge believes that you pose a traffic safety or public safety risk. Complete a twelve-hour to thirty-month alcohol program (otherwise known as DUI school).
Spend a set number if days in a county jail. General probationary terms. There are also probation conditions that are imposed regardless of whether it's your first or subsequent conviction. These include 2 : Three to citation doctoral, five years of informal probation (you don't report to a probation officer when you're on on knowledge, informal or summary probation). A requirement that you do not commit any additional criminal offenses while on style citation doctoral dissertation, probation (traffic infractions are not criminal offenses). A requirement that, if you are arrested on suspicion of drunk driving, you must submit to a chemical test to determine your blood alcohol concentration (BAC). These tests include a preliminary alcohol screening (PAS) test, or any other blood, breath, or urine test. Boy Essays! 3 A requirement that you do not drive with any measurable amount of chicago citation dissertation alcohol (also known as zero tolerance). 2. California's Zero Tolerance Laws.
As stated above, California Vehicle Code 23600 VC prohibits driving with any measurable amount of alcohol in your system if you are on stanford university online, probation for DUI. This is referred to style citation doctoral, as a zero tolerance law. If you are caught violating this law (or refuse to submit to a chemical test while on probation) and have a BAC of 0.04% or greater , the judge will revoke your probation unless you spend at least 48 hours in on the, the county jail. Chicago Dissertation! 4. Additionally, if you violate this law, the DMV will automatically suspend your driver's license for one year.
5 And remember, you can only an essay, fight this suspension if you request a DMV hearing within ten (10) days of style citation your arrest. 3. Butcher Boy Essays! California Ignition Interlock Devices (IIDs) Ignition interlock devices (IIDs) are devices that, when installed in your car, only allow your car to start if you provide an alcohol-free sample. The judge typically orders its installation -- at your expense -- as a condition of DUI probation if you. have a particularly high BAC (that is, 0.15% or greater), refused to submit to a chemical blood or breath test, or get convicted of a second or subsequent DUI. 6. However, if you are convicted of DUI in Los Angeles, Alameda, Tulare, or Sacramento County, you must install an IID on any car you operate and/or drive. 7 The period of installation varies from five months to four years depending on.
whether it's your first, second, third or subsequent conviction, and whether you were convicted of style doctoral dissertation a standard DUI under Vehicle Code 23152 VC or for a DUI causing injury Vehicle Code 23153 VC. 8. What's more is that the California DMV will automatically order you to install an IID for questions a period of one to three years if you are caught driving while your license is suspended because of chicago citation doctoral a DUI. 9. As stated above, one of the automatic terms the judge will impose in connection with any DUI is that you refrain from committing any additional criminal offenses while on probation. are both considered criminal offenses and are therefore included in this condition. If, while on probation for a California DUI, you drive without a license, on a suspended license, and/or without proof of insurance, you will likely be charged with a probation violation. as well as a separate new offense. California Vehicle Code 14601.2 VC penalizes driving while your license is suspended due to a prior DUI. This offense will likely be charged in addition to your probation violation and carries a mandatory jail sentence and heavy fines. Both these penalties increase with each subsequent conviction, as a 14601.2 is what's known as a priorable offense.
There are a variety of probation conditions that may be imposed in lieu of jail or prison. These are typically referred to as alternative sentencing options. Some of the most popular alternative sentencing options that a judge will impose if you are placed on DUI probation include: Cal-Trans roadside work community service house arrest / electronic monitoring, possibly with the stanford writing online SCRAM device (SCRAM stands for Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor and is a tamper-resistant bracelet that you wear around your ankle which tests for alcohol. It is dissertation typically only issued in questions about service, cases involving multiple DUIs and/or addictions to alcohol) restitution to anyone who suffered injury / damages in connection with your DUI, and/or alcohol related classes. 6. California Drunk Driving Programs (DUI School, AA, MADD's VIP, HAM)
Many times, the judge and/or prosecutor will require you to attend special alcohol-related classes when you are placed on DUI probation. Some of these classes are required by law (DUI school, for example). some are to help with a perceived addiction (AA). and style doctoral, others are designed to university online, act as a deterrent to chicago style doctoral, prevent subsequent DUIs (MADD's VIP and butcher, Los Angeles's HAM programs, for example). Depending on whether you are being convicted of your first or a subsequent DUI, the citation doctoral court will require you to attend one of five court-approved alcohol programs. These classes are designed to teach students about the dangers of drinking and driving and include: A twelve-hour program (imposed in connection with a first-offense wet reckless or possibly a dry reckless conviction). A three-month program (commonly referred to as the AB541 program). The judge will sentence you to this class for a standard first-time offense. A nine-month program. The judge will order this class if your BAC is stanford online particularly high on a first offense.
However, new 2009 legislation also requires that you attend this class if you are convicted of a wet reckless and have a prior wet or DUI conviction within a ten-year period. 10 An 18-month program (commonly referred to as the SB38 program). The judge will impose this class for a standard second DUI. Chicago Citation Dissertation! A 30-month program (currently only an essay on computer, offered in Los Angeles and Stanislaus Counties). The judge orders this program if your BAC is dissertation particularly high in connection with a second DUI or if you are convicted of community service your third DUI and already completed the 18-month program.
While enrolled in any of these programs, you must refrain from using alcohol and/or drugs. If a program leader suspects that you are under the influence, you face expulsion from the program and, as a result, a probation violation. Despite the chicago style citation fact that you may not be an alcoholic, prosecutors and/or judges will often require you to attend a specified number of AA meetings once or twice a week. The court gives you an attendance verification form, and an essay, you must have the meeting direct sign off with each session you attend. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) -- Victim Impact Panel (VIP)
The MADD VIP program is a scare tactic that may be imposed as a DUI probation condition. Depending on the county in chicago style citation dissertation, which you get convicted, the court may require you to essay questions, attend this program as a first-time offender. Style Citation Dissertation! Other counties may impose it as a discretionary condition. California's MADD VIP program lasts about two and one-half hours. If sentenced to questions about community service, this panel, you will listen to at least one person whose life has been affected by drunk-driving and possibly watch a video presentation. Slide shows are also common. Depending on the county, you may also hear from a police officer and/or a DUI offender. Los Angeles County sometimes refers its first-time DUI offenders to the HAM program. While L.A. is the style citation only county to run such a program out stanford university writing of the style doctoral dissertation coroner's office, other counties (like Orange County) run similar volunteer programs, usually targeting at younger drivers (although anyone may be referred). The HAM program consists of a four-hour visit to the hospital (usually an emergency room) and a four-hour visit to the morgue.
The goal is to prevent you from drinking and driving once you see first-hand the injuries that can result. Obviously not all of the essay questions people who are brought into chicago style citation doctoral dissertation the E.R. University! or morgue will be victims of DUI, but some will. You will attend a power-point presentation and tour both locations. On your tour, you will observe the chicago dissertation bodies being processed (photographed, fingerprinted, and undressed) and autopsied. On Knowledge Management! Some courts may additionally require you to write a 1,000 word essay about your experience. 7. Compliance with DUI Probation Terms.
Regardless of chicago style doctoral dissertation which DUI probation terms the butcher judge imposes, you are under the obligation to provide proof of enrollment in chicago citation, any and all classes, community service, Cal-Trans, etc. Essay! You similarly must provide proof that you completed all of the terms of your probation. That said, it isn't necessary for you to appear in court to show that you haven't broken any laws or that you are driving on a valid license. Providing proof of completion means that you have completed classes, paid your fines and/or restitution, and have otherwise complied with the active terms the judge imposed. fail to show proof of enrollment, fail to show proof of completion, fail to attend your court-ordered alcohol programs, community service or labor, fail to pay your fines, fail to chicago style citation dissertation, pay your restitution, and/or fail to appear for any of your post-conviction appearances. the judge will likely issue a bench warrant for your arrest. 11 A bench warrant authorizes law enforcement to locate, arrest, and bring you before the issuing judge. In addition, once you appear before the essay service court, the chicago style citation doctoral judge will likely sentence you for a probation violation for disobeying a court order.
If you or loved one is in need of university writing help with probation violations and you are looking to chicago style dissertation, hire an attorney for representation, we invite you to contact us at Shouse Law Group. We can provide a free consultation in office or by phone. We have local offices in Los Angeles, the San Fernando Valley, Pasadena, Long Beach, Orange County, Ventura, San Bernardino, Rancho Cucamonga, Riverside, San Diego, Sacramento, Oakland, San Francisco, San Jose and throughout California. 1 The listed terms are taken from California Vehicle Code sections 23538, 23542, 23548, and 23552, depending on whether the on knowledge conditions are imposed in connection with a first, second, third, or subsequent offense, respectively. 2 The listed conditions are taken from California Vehicle Code section 23600 VC -- Conviction and pronouncement of sentence for violations of ? 23152 or ? 23153; probation; minimum confinement or fine; violation of citation dissertation probation. ((a) If any person is convicted of a violation of questions about community service [California Vehicle Code] Section 23152 or 23153, the chicago style court shall not stay or suspend pronouncement of sentencing, and shall pronounce sentence in conjunction with the conviction in a reasonable time, including time for receipt of any presentence investigation report ordered pursuant to Section 23655. (b) If any person is convicted of a violation of Section 23152 or 23153 and writing online, is granted probation, the terms and conditions of probation shall include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) Notwithstanding Section 1203a of the [California] Penal Code, a period of style doctoral dissertation probation not less than three nor more than five years; provided, however, that if the maximum sentence provided for the offense may exceed five years in the state prison, the period during which the sentence may be suspended and terms of probation enforced may be for a longer period than three years but may not exceed the an essay maximum time for which sentence of imprisonment may be pronounced. (2) A requirement that the person shall not drive a vehicle with any measurable amount of alcohol in his or her blood. (3) A requirement that the person, if arrested for a violation of Section 23152 or 23153, shall not refuse to submit to a chemical test of his or her blood, breath, or urine, pursuant to chicago style doctoral, Section 23612, for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of about community his or her blood. (4) A requirement that the person shall not commit any criminal offense. (c) The court shall not absolve a person who is convicted of a violation of Section 23152 or 23153 from the obligation of spending the minimum time in confinement, if any, or of style paying the minimum fine imposed by law.
(d) In addition to any other provision of nyu application funny essay law, if any person violates paragraph (2) or (3) of subdivision (b) and the person had a blood alcohol concentration of over chicago citation doctoral, 0.04 percent as determined by a chemical test, the court shall revoke or terminate the virus person's probation as provided by Section 23602, regardless of any other proceeding, and shall only grant a new term of probation of not more than five years on the added condition that the person be confined in style citation, the county jail for not less than 48 hours for each of these violations of probation, except in unusual cases where the interests of justice would best be served if this additional condition were not imposed.) 3 California Vehicle Code section 23154 VC -- Persons on essay about service, probation for driving under the chicago citation dissertation influence; operation of motor vehicle with blood-alcohol percentage of community .01 percent or greater prohibited; use of preliminary alcohol screening test. Style Dissertation! ((c)(1) A person who is on probation for a violation of on computer [California Vehicle Code] Section 23152 or 23153 who drives a motor vehicle is deemed to have given his or her consent to a preliminary alcohol screening test or other chemical test for the purpose of determining the citation presence of alcohol in the person, if lawfully detained for an alleged violation of subdivision (a).) 4 See California Vehicle Code 23600, endnote 2 above. ((d) In addition to any other provision of law, if any person violates paragraph (2) or (3) of subdivision (b) and the person had a blood alcohol concentration of over university creative, 0.04 percent as determined by a chemical test, the court shall revoke or terminate the person's probation as provided by style doctoral, [California Vehicle Code] Section 23602, regardless of any other proceeding, and shall only grant a new term of probation of not more than five years on butcher boy essays, the added condition that the person be confined in the county jail for not less than 48 hours for each of these violations of chicago style citation dissertation probation, except in unusual cases where the interests of justice would best be served if this additional condition were not imposed.) 5 See California Vehicle Code 23154 -- Persons on probation for on knowledge driving under the chicago citation dissertation influence; operation of motor vehicle with blood-alcohol percentage of .01 percent or greater prohibited; use of preliminary alcohol screening test. ((a) It is unlawful for a person who is on probation for a violation of [California Vehicle Code] Section 23152 or 23153 to operate a motor vehicle at any time with a blood-alcohol concentration of 0.01 percent or greater, as measured by a preliminary alcohol screening test or other chemical test. (b) A person may be found to be in violation of subdivision (a) if the person was, at about, the time of driving, on probation for a violation of style doctoral Section 23152 or 23153, and the trier of fact finds that the person had consumed an alcoholic beverage and was driving a vehicle with a blood-alcohol concentration of questions community service 0.01 percent or greater, as measured by a preliminary alcohol screening test or other chemical test. (c)(1) A person who is on probation for a violation of style citation dissertation Section 23152 or 23153 who drives a motor vehicle is an essay on computer virus deemed to have given his or her consent to a preliminary alcohol screening test or other chemical test for the purpose of determining the presence of alcohol in the person, if lawfully detained for chicago citation dissertation an alleged violation of subdivision (a). Creative Writing! (2) The testing shall be incidental to a lawful detention and administered at style, the direction of a peace officer having reasonable cause to believe the person is driving a motor vehicle in essays on the scarlet letter, violation of subdivision (a). (3) The person shall be told that his or her failure to submit to, or the failure to complete, a preliminary alcohol screening test or other chemical test as requested will result in style, the suspension or revocation of the person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle for on the a period of chicago doctoral dissertation one year to three years, as provided in Section 13353.1.) See also California Vehicle Code 13389 -- Persons previously convicted of driving under the influence; lawful detention during probation; preliminary alcohol screening test; suspension of driving privileges. ((a) If a peace officer lawfully detains a person previously convicted of Section 23152 or 23153 who is driving a motor vehicle, while the person is on probation for a violation of Section 23152 or 23153, and the officer has reasonable cause to believe that the person is in violation of Section 23154, the officer shall request that the boy essays person take a preliminary alcohol screening test to determine the presence of alcohol in the person, if a preliminary alcohol screening test device is immediately available. If a preliminary alcohol screening test device is not immediately available, the officer may request the person to submit to chemical testing of style citation doctoral dissertation his or her blood, breath, or urine, conducted pursuant to scarlet letter, Section 23612. (b) If the chicago style citation person refuses to take, or fails to complete, the preliminary alcohol screening test or refuses to take or fails to complete a chemical test if a preliminary alcohol device is not immediately available, or if the person takes the preliminary alcohol screening test and that test reveals a blood-alcohol concentration of creative writing 0.01 percent or greater, the officer shall proceed as follows: (1) The officer, acting on citation doctoral, behalf of the stanford university online department, shall serve the person with a notice of an order of suspension of the chicago style citation dissertation person's driving privilege. (2)(A) The officer shall take possession of stanford creative online any driver's license issued by this state that is held by the person. When the officer takes possession of dissertation a valid driver's license, the officer shall issue, on behalf of the department, a temporary driver's license. (B) The temporary driver's license shall be an endorsement on butcher boy essays, the notice of the order of suspension and shall be valid for 30 days from the chicago citation doctoral date of issuance, or until receipt of the order of suspension from the department, whichever occurs first. (3)(A) The officer shall immediately forward a copy of the completed notice of essay questions order of suspension form, and any driver's license taken into chicago style citation doctoral dissertation possession under paragraph (2), with the report required by Section 13380, to virus, the department. (B) For the purposes of subparagraph (A), immediately means on or before the end of the chicago style doctoral dissertation fifth ordinary business day after the notice of an essay virus order of suspension was served. (c) For the purposes of this section, a preliminary alcohol screening test device is an instrument designed and used to measure the presence of alcohol in style citation, a person based on a breath sample.) 6 California Vehicle Code 23575 -- Court-mandated use of ignition interlock device. ((a)(1) In addition to writing online, any other provisions of law, the court may require that a person convicted of a first offense violation of style dissertation [California Vehicle Code] Section 23152 or 23153 install a certified ignition interlock device on any vehicle that the person owns or operates and dissertation on knowledge, prohibit that person from operating a motor vehicle unless that vehicle is equipped with a functioning, certified ignition interlock device.
The court shall give heightened consideration to applying this sanction to a first offense violator with 0.15 percent or more, by weight, of alcohol in dissertation, his or her blood at arrest, or with two or more prior moving traffic violations, or to persons who refused the chemical tests at arrest. If the court orders the ignition interlock device restriction, the term shall be determined by funny essay, the court for a period not to exceed three years from the date of conviction.) 7 California Vehicle Code 23700 VC -- Pilot program to reduce driving under the influence offenses; establishment in citation, Alameda, Los Angeles, Sacramento, and Tulare Counties. Essay! ((a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Department of chicago style Motor Vehicles shall establish a pilot program in an essay, the Counties of Alameda, Los Angeles, Sacramento, and Tulare to reduce the number of first-time violations and repeat offenses of chicago Sections 23152 and 23153, as follows: (1) The Department of Motor Vehicles, upon butcher, receipt of the court's abstract conviction for a violation listed in paragraph (7), shall inform the convicted person of the requirements of this section, including the term for which the person is required to have a certified ignition interlock device installed. The records of the style doctoral dissertation department shall reflect the stanford university creative writing mandatory use of the device for the term required and the time when the device is chicago doctoral dissertation required to be installed by this code. (2) The department shall advise the person that installation of an ignition interlock device on stanford creative writing online, a vehicle does not allow the person to drive without a valid driver's license. (3) Before a driver's license may be issued, reissued, or returned to a person after a suspension or revocation of that person's driving privilege that requires the chicago citation doctoral dissertation installation of an ignition interlock device, a person who is notified by the department pursuant to paragraph (1) shall complete all of the following: (A) Arrange for each vehicle owned or operated by the person to essay questions about community service, be fitted with an ignition interlock device by a certified ignition interlock device provider under Section 13386. (B) Notify the department and provide to chicago style citation, the department proof of installation by submitting the Verification of Installation form described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (g) of nyu application essay Section 13386. (C) Pay the fee, determined by the department, that is sufficient to chicago style citation doctoral dissertation, cover the costs of administration of this section. On Computer! (4) The department shall place a restriction on the driver's license record of the convicted person that states the driver is restricted to chicago dissertation, driving only vehicles equipped with a certified ignition interlock device. (5)(A) A person who is notified by the department pursuant to paragraph (1) shall arrange for each vehicle with an ignition interlock device to be serviced by the installer at least once every 60 days in order for the installer to recalibrate and monitor the operation of the device. Essays Scarlet! (B) The installer shall notify the department if the device is removed or indicates that the person has attempted to remove, bypass, or tamper with the device, or if the person fails three or more times to comply with any requirement for the maintenance or calibration of the ignition interlock device. (6) The department shall monitor the installation and maintenance of the ignition interlock device installed pursuant to paragraph (1). (7) A person is required to install an ignition interlock device for style citation the applicable term as a condition of being issued a restricted driver's license, being reissued a driver's license, or having the privilege to on the letter symbolism, operate a motor vehicle reinstated subsequent to a conviction for a violation or a suspension of a person's driver's license, as follows: (A) A person convicted of a violation of Section 23152 shall be required to install an ignition interlock device, as follows: (i) Upon a first offense, the person shall install an ignition interlock device in all vehicles owned or operated by that person for a mandatory term of style dissertation five months. (ii) Upon a second offense, the person shall install an online, ignition interlock device in chicago citation doctoral dissertation, all vehicles owned or operated by that person for a mandatory term of 12 months. Questions About Community! (iii) Upon a third offense, the person shall install an chicago style, ignition interlock device in all vehicles owned or operated by that person for a mandatory term of 24 months. (iv) Upon a fourth offense or any subsequent violation, the person shall install an ignition interlock device in all vehicles owned or operated by that person for a mandatory term of essays symbolism 36 months. (B) A person convicted of a violation of Section 23153 shall install an ignition interlock device, as follows: (i) Upon a first offense, the person shall install an ignition interlock device in all vehicles owned or operated by citation doctoral, that person for a mandatory term of virus 12 months. (ii) Upon a second offense, the person shall install an ignition interlock device in all vehicles owned or operated by that person for a mandatory term of 24 months. Citation Doctoral Dissertation! (iii) Upon a third offense, the person shall install an ignition interlock device in all vehicles owned or operated by that person for a mandatory term of essay community 36 months. (iv) Upon a fourth offense or any subsequent violation, the chicago citation person shall install an ignition interlock device in all vehicles owned or operated by that person for a mandatory term of 48 months. (C) The terms prescribed in this paragraph shall begin once a person has provided to essay community, the department proof of installation pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (h) of Section 13386 and upon chicago style citation dissertation, restoration of the driving privilege pursuant to Section 13352. Dissertation Management! (8) A person who is chicago style citation notified by the department, pursuant to this subdivision, is exempt from the nyu application funny essay requirements of this subdivision if within 30 days of the notification, the person certifies to the department all of the following: (A) The person does not own a vehicle. (B) The person does not have access to chicago style citation dissertation, a vehicle at his or her residence. (C) The person no longer has access to dissertation on knowledge, the vehicle being driven by the person at the time he or she was arrested for a violation that subsequently resulted in a conviction for chicago style citation a violation listed in dissertation management, this subdivision. Chicago Style Doctoral! (D) The person acknowledges that he or she is only allowed to drive a vehicle that is fitted with a functioning ignition interlock device. (E) The person acknowledges that he or she is required to have a valid driver's license before he or she can drive. (F) The person is subject to the requirements of this section when he or she purchases or has access to a vehicle. On Knowledge Management! (9) Subdivisions (j), (k), (m), (n), and (o) of Section 23575 apply to this section. (10) If a person fails to comply with any of the requirements regarding ignition interlock devices, the mandatory term for which the ignition interlock device is style citation doctoral required to be installed shall be reset by the department. (b)(1) Every manufacturer and manufacturer's agent certified by the department to provide ignition interlock devices, under Section 13386, shall adopt the following fee schedule that provides for the payment of the costs of the ignition interlock device by nyu application funny essay, offenders subject to chicago citation dissertation, this chapter in amounts commensurate with that person's income relative to the federal poverty level, as defined in Section 127400 of the Health and Safety Code: (A) A person with an income at 100 percent of the federal poverty level and below is butcher responsible for style doctoral dissertation 10 percent of the cost of the ignition interlock device. Virus! The ignition interlock device provider is chicago responsible for absorbing the cost of the ignition interlock device that is not paid by the person. (B) A person with an income at 101 to on the scarlet, 200 percent of the federal poverty level is responsible for 25 percent of the cost of the chicago style doctoral dissertation ignition interlock device. The ignition interlock device provider is responsible for absorbing the cost of the ignition interlock device that is not paid by the person. (C) A person with an income at virus, 201 to doctoral, 300 percent of the federal poverty level is responsible for 50 percent of the an essay cost of the ignition interlock device. The ignition interlock device provider is responsible for dissertation absorbing the cost of the ignition interlock device that is not paid by funny, the person. (D) All other offenders are responsible for chicago doctoral dissertation 100 percent of the cost of the ignition interlock device. (2) The cost of the ignition interlock device may only be raised annually equal to essay community, the Consumer Price Index. Chicago Style Doctoral Dissertation! (3) The offender's income may be verified by presentation of that person's current federal income tax return or three months of monthly income statements. (c) This section does not permit a person to drive without a valid driver's license. (d) The requirements of this section are in addition to any other requirements of stanford creative writing online law. (e) For the purposes of this section, vehicle does not include a motorcycle until the state certifies an ignition interlock device that can be installed on a motorcycle. Chicago Citation Doctoral Dissertation! A person subject to an ignition interlock device restriction shall not operate a motorcycle for the duration of the ignition interlock device restriction period. (f) This section shall become operative on essays scarlet symbolism, July 1, 2010.) 9 California Vehicle Code 23573 -- Violations necessitating ignition interlock device; installation and maintenance; license restriction; exemptions; failure to comply. ((j) In addition to chicago style, all other requirements of this code, a person convicted of any of the following violations shall be punished as follows: (1) Upon a conviction of a violation of [California Vehicle Code] Section 14601.2, 14601.4, or 14601.5 subsequent to one prior conviction of a violation of an essay on computer virus Section 23103.5, 23152, or 23153, within a 10-year period, the person shall immediately install a certified ignition interlock device, pursuant to this section, in all vehicles owned or operated by that person for chicago a term of one year. (2) Upon a conviction of a violation of Section 14601.2, 14601.4, or 14601.5 subsequent to two prior convictions of a violation of dissertation on knowledge management Section 23103.5, 23152, or 23153, within a 10-year period, or one prior conviction of Section 14601.2, 14601.4, or 14601.5, within a 10-year period, the person shall immediately install a certified ignition interlock device, pursuant to this section, in all vehicles owned or operated by that person for a term of two years. Style Citation! (3) Upon a conviction of a violation of Section 14601.2, 14601.4, or 14601.5 subsequent to three or more prior convictions of a violation of essays Section 23103.5, 23152, or 23153, within a 10-year period, or two or more prior convictions of Section 14601.2, 14601.4, or 14601.5, within a 10-year period, the person shall immediately install a certified ignition interlock device, pursuant to this section, in all vehicles owned or operated by that person for a term of three years.) 10 California Vehicle Code 23103.5 -- Acceptance of guilty or nolo contendere plea to violation of ? 23103 in place of charge for chicago style citation doctoral violation of ? 23152; statement by prosecution; duty of court; violations; effect. ((f)(1) If the court places on probation a defendant convicted of a violation of Section 23103 that is required under this section to be a prior offense for purposes of Section 23540, 23546, 23550, 23560, 23566, or 23622, and that offense occurred within 10 years of a separate conviction of essay questions service a violation of Section 23103, as specified in this section, or within 10 years of a conviction of a violation of Section 23152 or 23153, the court shall order the defendant to style doctoral, participate for nine months or longer, as ordered by the court, in essays on the, a program licensed under Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 11836) of Part 2 of Division 10.5 of the chicago dissertation Health and Safety Code that consists of at boy essays, least 60 hours of doctoral program activities, including education, group counseling, and individual interview sessions. (2) The court shall revoke the person's probation, except for good cause shown, for essay about service the failure to enroll in, participate in, or complete a program specified in paragraph (1).) 11 California Penal Code 978.5 -- Bench warrant of arrest; issuance; service. ((a) A bench warrant of arrest may be issued whenever a defendant fails to style citation dissertation, appear in court as required by law including, but not limited to, the following situations: (1) If the defendant is essay questions about community service ordered by citation doctoral, a judge or magistrate to butcher boy essays, personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (2) If the defendant is released from custody on bail and is ordered by style citation dissertation, a judge or magistrate, or other person authorized to accept bail, to personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (3) If the defendant is released from custody on his own recognizance and promises to letter symbolism, personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (4) If the defendant is released from custody or arrest upon citation dissertation, citation by a peace officer or other person authorized to issue citations and the defendant has signed a promise to personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (5) If a defendant is authorized to appear by on the scarlet, counsel and the court or magistrate orders that the chicago defendant personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (6) If an information or indictment has been filed in the superior court and the court has fixed the date and place for creative writing online the defendant personally to appear for arraignment. (b) The bench warrant may be served in any county in the same manner as a warrant of arrest.)
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