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beowulf eulogy essay Author: Patrick Thrasher. Institution: Swarthmore College '01. Though both considered heroes, Beowulf and Sir Gawain are drastically different characters in personality, ability, and perspective. The similarities are few: each performs deeds for which they gain fame and honor, and each is thesis seen, in slavery their own respects, as a paragon of virtue. Two factors immediately stand out as fundamental differences between the texts: Beowulf and thesis Sir Gawain and sontag the Green Knight suggest fundamentally disparate views of religion and of courtly manners.

Superficially, Beowulf displays a distinct lack of thesis either in any but the most rudimentary way, while Sir Gawain is completely permeated with both. All Kinds! These differences in the contextual worlds of the heroes shape and propel them in thesis often wildly different directions. Beginning from these superficial differences in Beowulf and Sir Gawain's respective worlds and then analyzing how these two champions (and others) function in their contextual spheres, one can uncover the deeper structures of their social orders, who actually holds power (and narrative power) in them, and, perhaps, something about the values the cultures that produced these two works held. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight describes a well ordered Medieval Christian world. Primal Religion Essays! Christianity guides the actions of a hero's soul, courtly love those of his heart &emdash; the most noble knights known under Christ sat around King Arthur's round-table (Part I-line 51). Sir Gawain as a character is the perfect cog in prep this system, that #91;knight#93; of courage ever-constant, and customs pure,/ Is pattern and paragon, and praised without end:/ Of all knights on earth most honored is all kinds of speech he (II-912-15)#91;1#93;. He is prep devout &emdash; he emblazoned the service 5 paragraph essay image of Mary on the inside of his shield &emdash; and chivalrous &emdash; his wheedling out of either affronting Lady Bercilak or betraying the trust of her Lord whilst in thesis their company is a truly virtuoso chivalric performance.

Sir Gawain's world is an edifice built of a dissertation (perhaps arbitrary) religious and chivalric codes that constrain, define and bolster its inhabitants, and Sir Gawain is its golden child. Thesis! Gawain is brave, for example, not because courage is intrinsically good and thus he, as a good knight possesses it, but rather because he puts his faith in God, whom naturally no Christian can second guess. Thus, as he rides to near certain death at the hands of the Green Knight, Gawain proclaims, I shall not give way to weeping;/ God's will be done, amen!/ I commend me to papers His keeping (IV-2157); when he begins his quest, had he not borne himself bravely, and thesis been on God's side,/ He had met with many mishaps and mortal harms (II-724-5). God will preserve his soul. Sir Gawain's chivalry is by the book, as well; after sparring verbally all morning with the as-yet-unnamed Lady Bercilak in all kinds a manner worthy of prep Andrew the write Chaplain himself, she trumps him, forcing him to thesis give her a kiss, declaring: But our guest is buying write not Gawain &emdash; forgot is that thought. So good a knight as Gawain is given out to be, And the model of fair demeanor and manners pure, Had he lain so long at thesis prep a lady's side. Would have claimed a kiss, by his courtesy, Through some touch or trick of phrase at some tale's end #91;III-1293-1301#93;.

She, knowing Sir Gawain would never be un-courtly to a lady, plays his own ethics against him to obtain her desire. Beowulf describes a world not of Christian harmony and logos but rather of barely restrained chaos, in which life is at best somewhat futile and at against slavery worst totally meaningless. Religion and courtly manners have not become as elaborate, and are generally more fluid. Beowulf is thesis judged a hero, then, against essays, different criteria. Thesis Prep! His deeds are valiant because they bring him reputation and buying a dissertation write glory: among his very first words to Hrothgar upon his arrival Beowulf proclaims, the thesis days/ Of my youth have been filled with glory (Beowulf chapter VI-line 408); several lines later he explains that. the monster's scorn of men. Is so great that he needs no weapons and all kinds fears none.

Nor will I. My lord Higlac. Might think less of me if I let my sword. Thesis! Go where my feet were afraid to. . God must decide. Buying A Dissertation! Who will be given to death's cold grip #91;VI-434-441#93;.#91;2#93; King Higlac's opinion of prep Beowulf is of great value to Beowulf, the former being a man of greatness as well. Beowulf does attribute to God the ultimate power of decision; unlike Sir Gawain, he does not put his trust in God, however &emdash; he merely acknowledges that some force (sometimes God, sometimes fate) has the decisive say. The intricate moral and religious framework in which Sir Gawain so righteously performs either does not exist in Beowulf's world, or is of such little consequence that the narrator can refrain from describing Beowulf in terms of it. Beowulf's deeds are judged by others solely in how they benefit mankind at large, and how they strengthen society. The importance of Beowulf's youthful excesses lies not in essays the bravery and strength required to perform them but in how, after his swimming contest, sailors could cross/ That sea-road and feel no fear; nothing/ would stop their passing ( Beowulf IX 537). After his death, the unnamed messenger delivering Beowulf's eulogy to the court praises him, the thesis prep best of kings, Beowulf &emdash; He who held our enemies away, Kept land and treasure intact, who saved.

Hrothgar and service the Danes - he who lived. All his long life bravely #91;XXXXI 3003-8#93;. Beowulf is a heroic, virtuous man because he kept did what others could not to preserve both his and his allies ways of life. Beowulf and Sir Gawain thus need markedly different societies in which to be known as heroic. Beowulf needs some social network, an amalgamation of receptive and judging individuals who support and thesis disseminate his reputation as a hero, for him to be a hero in actuality. Sir Gawain, while needing a society to perform in and that has criteria against which he can be assessed does not need the primal religion essays people within it: in the Christian world of prep Gawain salvation rests solely on the individual. Under the surveillance an omniscient God, only the actions as they are performed by the individual, not as they affect others, are of value. That a hero is revered by his neighbors and friends is coincidental: a true knight acts not for the praise of men but for the salvation only God can bestow.

A man's Goodness, then, is not awarded him by his peers; while performing socially responsible acts may be necessary to a dissertation be Good, God bestows the epithet, not other men, and thus society is of little use to a Good man except as an arena in which to prove his worth. #91;3#93; Governing structures seem so important in the world of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight that the Green Knight must create other, smaller ones in which to humble the most virtuous Gawain. All games have at thesis least one necessary (if not sufficient) element: rules and regulations which the cost research papers participants must obey (or by which they must forfeit something if they disregard). These precepts must be viewed as objective, if not by some outside arbitrator then by the participants. Thus, two games figure prominently into the adventure of Sir Gawain: the Christmas game ( Gawain I-283), which the Green Knight proposes with its rules &emdash; I shall stand him a stroke, steady on this floor. Thesis Prep! the Green Knight explains, In a twelvemonth and by susan a day/ He shall have of me the same;. Who dares take up the game (I-294-300); and the game (II-1111) the mischievous host Lord Bercilak proposes to Sir Gawain the night of Gawain's arrival, according to which the thesis prep Lord and cost accounting Sir Gawain will exchange all they won during the thesis course of the day. Like God in Christianity and (perhaps idealistically) the against slavery Lady Pursued in chivalry, Lord Bercilak &emdash; or his backers &emdash; creates the substructure in prep which Sir Gawain will act and by whose marks he will be judged. Bercilak presumably intended to teach Gawain (and Arthur's court) some sort of lesson, and he could never simply scold him into buying reforming (Gawain's record, is, after all, spotless).

Nor could he simply force him into acting against the tenets of those structures which have so rewarded and exalted him: Gawain would rather die first. Thesis Prep! Therefore, Bercilak must create a new edifice (the Christmas game) into which he invites Gawain, who then commits to its set of rules. Having lured Gawain into buying a dissertation this game and later the exchange game &emdash; which, unbeknownst to Gawain is prep a sub-game, rather than a completely unrelated one &emdash; Bercilak uses Gawain's unflinching dedication to his agreements #91;4#93; (ie - to participate according to cost papers the rules in prep Bercilak's games) to coerce Gawain to actions that conflict with his (social structure inspired) principles. In such a prescriptive society, trickery seems the best method of trying and reproaching someone's supposed heroism. In the Anglo-Saxon halls of primal Beowulf , however, a challenger need do far less to show up another. In chapter 8 (500-529), for example, Unferth rants against the deeds of Beowulf, claiming not only that Beowulf's swimming/monster-slaying match with his childhood friend Brecca was foolhardy (which few would doubt) but also that Brecca bested Beowulf &emdash; an assertion that Unferth in no way supports (through naming eye-witnesses, etc). Beowulf agrees that his deeds were reckless (We were both too young to know better - 536); he refutes Unferth's declaration of Brecca's victory, however, by recounting what (may or may not have) actually happened. Nor does Beowulf sustain his contention through any sort of solid evidence (though presumably one of his countrymen mingling nearby could have vouched for him): he instead attacks Unferth's reputation without support, though Unferth's repugnant acts seem well known to thesis those present. Beowulf can rebuke Unferth on his own, upon the strength of his noble birth (none but the Geats know more than his lineage at this point), and without the aid of artificial structures. The crucial difference between Beowulf and all kinds Sir Gawain, then, lies in thesis prep their respective narrative strength and narrative necessity. An author creates a text, but in essay against slavery a classically structured story, the protagonist propels the narrative throughout.

The protagonist has enormous power within his diegetic world. Thesis Prep! Fate or God put Sir Gawain into his society, and he excels in it (it seems). His excellence as a knight and a hero, however, is derived solely from his ability to act according to its principles &emdash; he simply obeys the rules more closely than most others. Never once does he willfully and knowingly stretch or bend the social framework of the diegetic world in which he acts and excels. Nor does he ever add to religion or remove from it any crucial tenet; rather it decrees upon him his status and honor. If Sir Gawain were to die, the world he lives in prep would continue as it did before his birth and essays during his ensoulment. But Beowulf's world is inconceivable without Beowulf. He had provided half a century of stability and well-being to his people, he proclaims with his parting breaths: I've worn this crown. For fifty winters: no neighboring people. Have tried to threaten the Geats, sent soldiers. Thesis! Against us or talked of all kinds terror.

My days. Have gone by as fate willed, waiting. For its word to be spoken, ruling as well. As I knew how, swearing no unholy oaths, Seeking no lying wars. Prep! I can leave. This life happy. #91;XXXVII 2732-40#93; Beowulf dies happy knowing that he ruled well and sontag protected his people: when he dies by the dragon (and by thesis prep, those who forsook him), his death signals an buying write end of a way of life. More crucially, however, Beowulf's death and the resulting end of society as it had once existed threatens the medium the propagation of his fame required. Reputation is sufficient to garner Beowulf respect and to make him heroic. The reputation associated with the heroic rank is composed of two elements: deeds, and others who hear and recount and judge those deeds. Sir Gawain can control only the former; the judgement is left to God and prep the occasional Pursued Lady. Beowulf, through those same deeds for sontag, which he is thesis renowned, creates and succors the very means by which he can be a hero: by preserving society, he preserves the lives of the people required to pass on his fame.

In a curiously self-referential moment, Wiglaf calls to the mortally wounded Beowulf: Beloved Beowulf, remember how you boasted, Once, that nothing in the world would ever. Destroy your fame: fight to keep it, Now, be strong, and brave, my noble. King, protecting life and fame. Essays By Susan! Together. #91;XXXVI 2663-68#93; If Beowulf dies, the prep very ability to have a narrative about him dies too . By Susan Sontag! Interestingly, the only character in Sir Gawain and thesis the Green Knight who has control over the narrative in buying a dissertation any way like Beowulf's is Lord Bercilak (or perhaps the true master puppeteer, Morgan la Fey). Bercilak, through his production of sub-structural games that ensnare Sir Gawain, demonstrates an ability (in modern parlance) to think outside the box: he can shunt Gawain out of the larger social structure into thesis prep his own and in the process turn him around so far that Gawain runs headfirst into his own ethics. Primal Religion! Bercilak can reveal and thesis prep manipulate the social framework of codes, but the framework does not depend on a dissertation write, his existence: Beowulf is a foundation for his society, without which it will probably crumble. Another, secondary discrepancy between the heroism of Sir Gawain and prep the Green Knight and that in Beowulf involves leadership: in Beowulf , heroes lead men. Religion Essays! Hrothgar's ancestry bulges with leaders; his father, Healfdane, was a fierce fighter/ Who led the Danes to thesis the end of his long/ Life. (I 57-8). Hrothgar himself, taking the throne, led. The Danes to such glory that comrades and kinsmen. Swore by his sword, and young men swelled.

His armies, and slavery he thought of greatness. #91;I 64-7#93;. To achieve true greatness in this realm a soldier must inspire respect and must lead his men to prep victory. Sir Gawain inspires awe through his abilities, his virtue, and all kinds his deeds, but never the same respect as a leader of men. Nor could he, I think: the only one at Sir Arthur's fete to step forward to accept the Green Knight's challenge is Arthur himself. Sir Gawain volunteers claiming that this folly befits not a king, and prep yet, one cannot help but feel he is motivated by accounting research, the fear of Arthur's possible death: he gives as a reason for thesis, his undertaking this task that the loss of #91;his#93; life would be least of any ( Gawain I 358 and 355, respectively). Beowulf, on the other hand, seems to be bestowed with powers above those of the usual rulers of his time: his insight into the inevitable demise of Hrothgar's kingdom in chapters 28 and 29 reveals a fatalistic understanding of the of speech inadequacies of those few social practices his culture uses. Beowulf and Sir Gawain are such vastly different heroes that the term collapses into thesis a concept totally dependent on its social context. Cost Accounting! The criteria upon which they are each judged a hero have at best a tenuous resemblance to each other: in Sir Gawain's world those who obey the religious and social codes (including chivalric ones) of his realm can be titled a hero, while in Beowulf those who actually create and prep support society itself are heroic. Gawain seems to primal essays have little motivation aside from the prep proddings of the against slavery morays of his culture; the preservation of his culture propels Beowulf. Not entirely altruistic, the prep continuation of Beowulf's legacy depends upon the preservation of people to circulate it, and thus Beowulf has almost supreme importance to his own narrative: when he dies, a very real chance exists that his people and hence the possibility of his continued existence after death will perish with him.

These differences, I think, reflect the enormous shift in perspective that Christianity brought to Northern Europe. By Susan! In traditional Norse mythology, brave warriors who die in battle proceed to an afterlife in Valhalla, awaiting the final call to thesis prep arms, Ragnarrok. The retelling of one's deeds among those still living constituted another, vital form of life after death, and thus even a quest for personal glory ultimately led to acts which perpetuated and served society. Ragnarrok was a singularity even the gods could not avoid: the final, ultimate triumph of entropy. Any act that helped stave off that triumph was heroic, and thus those who organized and strengthened their society, ie, the kings and chieftains, were worthy of high honor. But Christianity, with its notion of an omnipotent, ultimately benevolent Deity changed these tribes' cosmic perception: an a dissertation write over-arching order to thesis the cosmos now existed, created eternal by an eternal being, above any piddling systems men could create. This apocalyptic safety net thus removed the burden of fending off the write e'er encroaching entropy, and provided a set of new, absolute criteria for virtue and heroism. 1: If read as satirical, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight takes on a new flavor. The descriptions remain the same, however; only the thesis author's intention changes.

All Gawain citations are from Sir Gawain and primal essays the Green Knight , translated by Marie Borroff, 1967 by W.W. Norton and Company, Inc, New York and London. #91;back#93; 2: All Beowulf quotes are taken from Beowulf , translated by Burton Raffel, 1963 by Burton Raffel, published by Penguin Books, USA. #91;back#93; 3: This explains why the (presumed and unrecounted - Gawain II-705-735) deeds of Sir Gawain and Beowulf appear similar but feel so different &emdash; to an non-omniscient objective viewer, a man acting charitably out of compassion for other people and thesis prep a man acting charitably because God will save his (individual) soul appear to be performing the a dissertation same deeds.#91;back#93; 4: A tenet supplied by thesis, his chivalric code.#91;back#93;

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Preprints, Publications and Other Papers. Recent Developments in Spatial Graph Theory with Erica Flapan, Thomas Mattman, Ramin Naimi and Ryo Nikkuni (in Knots, Links, Spatial Graphs and Algebraic Invariants , ed. E. Flapan et. al., Contemporary Mathematics , vol. 689, 2017, pp. 81-102) Abstract: This article presents a survey of some recent results in the theory of spatial graphs.

In particular, we highlight results related to intrinsic knotting and linking and results about prep symmetries of spatial graphs. Of Speech. In both cases we consider spatial graphs in thesis, $S^3$ as well as in other 3-manifolds. Essays. The Alexander polynomial for virtual twist knots with Isaac Benioff ( Journal of Knot Theory and prep its Ramifications , vol. 26, no. 1, 2017)

Abstract: We define a family of virtual knots generalizing the community 5 paragraph, classical twist knots. Thesis. We develop a recursive formula for essays sontag, the Alexander polynomial $Delta_0$ (as defined by Silver and Williams cite ) of these virtual twist knots. These results are applied to provide evidence for a conjecture that the odd writhe of a virtual knot can be obtained from $Delta_0$. Alexander and prep writhe polynomials for accounting research, virtual knots ( Journal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications , vol. 25, no. Thesis Prep. 8, 2016)

Abstract: We give a new interpretation of the Alexander polynomial $Delta_0$ for virtual knots due to Sawollek and Silver and buying write Williams, and thesis use it to show that, for buying write, any virtual knot, $Delta_0$ determines the writhe polynomial of Cheng and Gao (equivalently, Kauffman's affine index polynomial). We also use it to define a second-order writhe polynomial, and give some applications. Colorings, determinants and Alexander polynomials for spatial graphs with Terry Kong, Alec Lewald and Vadim Pigrish ( Journal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications , vol. Thesis Prep. 25, no. 4, 2016) Abstract: A spatial graph has an integer weight on each edge, so that the directed sum of the weights at each vertex is zero. We describe the Alexander module and primal religion polynomial for balanced spatial graphs (originally due to Kinoshita cite ), and examine their behavior under some common operations on the graph.

We use the Alexander module to define the prep, determinant and $p$-colorings of a balanced spatial graph, and provide examples. We show that the determinant of a spatial graph determines for which $p$ the graph is $p$-colorable, and that a $p$-coloring of a graph corresponds to essays a representation of the fundamental group of its complement into a metacyclic group $Gamma(p,m,k)$. We finish by proving some properties of the Alexander polynomial. Prep. Topological symmetry groups of complete bipartite graphs with Kathleen Hake and Matthew Pittluck ( Tokyo Journal of religion Mathematics , vol. 39, 2016, pp.

133-156) Abstract: The symmetries of complex molecular structures can be modeled by the topological symmetry group of the underlying embedded graph. It is therefore important to thesis understand which topological symmetry groups can be realized by particular abstract graphs. This question has been answered for accounting papers, complete graphs; it is thesis, natural next to consider complete bipartite graphs. In previous work we classified the complete bipartite graphs that can realize topological symmetry groups isomorphic to $A_4$, $S_4$ or $A_5$; in religion essays, this paper we determine which complete bipartite graphs have an embedding in $S^3$ whose topological symmetry group is isomorphic to $mathbb _m$, $D_m$, $mathbb _r times mathbb _s$ or $(mathbb _r times mathbb _s) ltimes mathbb _2$. The forbidden number of a knot with Alissa Crans and thesis prep Sandy Ganzell ( Kyungpook Mathematical Journal , vol. 55, 2015, pp. 485-506) Abstract: Every classical or virtual knot is equivalent to by susan the unknot via a sequence of extended Reidemeister moves and the so-called forbidden moves. The minimum number of forbidden moves necessary to unknot a given knot is a new invariant we call the forbidden number . We relate the forbidden number to several known invariants, and calculate bounds for some classes of virtual knots. The Mathematics of Symmetry and Attitudes towards Mathematics, in Doing the Scholarship of Teaching and prep Learning in Mathematics, ed.

C. Bennett and J. Essays By Susan. Dewar, MAA Notes no. 83, 2015, pp. Thesis. 157-169. Abstract: We determine for which $n$, the complete graph $K_ $ has an embedding in $S^3$ whose topological symmetry group is isomorphic to one of the polyhedral groups: $A_4$, $A_5$, or $S_4$. Symmetries of embedded complete bipartite graphs with Erica Flapan, Nicole Lehle, Matt Pittluck and Xan Vongsathorn ( Fundamenta Mathematicae , vol. 226, 2014, pp. 1-16)

Abstract: We characterize which automorphisms of an buying a dissertation write arbitrary complete bipartite graph $K_ $ can be induced by a homeomorphism of some embedding of the graph in $S^3$. Classification of topological symmetry groups of prep $K_n$ with Erica Flapan, Ramin Naimi and Michael Yoshizawa ( Topology Proceedings , vol. 43, 2014, pp. 209-233) Abstract: In this paper we complete the essays by susan, classification of topological symmetry groups for complete graphs $K_n$ by thesis prep characterizing which $K_n$ can have a cyclic group, a dihedral group, or a subgroup of $D_m times D_m$ where $m$ is odd, as its topological symmetry group. Counting Links and Knots in Complete Graphs with Loren Abrams and Lowell Trott ( Tokyo Journal of Mathematics , vol. Primal Religion. 36, no. 2, 2013, pp. 429-458) Abstract: We investigate the minimal number of links and knots in complete partite graphs.

We provide exact values or bounds on the minimal number of links for all complete partite graphs with all but 4 vertices in thesis, one partition, or with 9 vertices in total. Primal Religion Essays. In particular, we find that the minimal number of links for $K_ $ is 74. We also provide exact values or bounds on thesis, the minimal number of knots for all complete partite graphs with 8 vertices. The calculations in this paper made use of the service, program Gordian , which is thesis prep, available on my Gordian page. Abstract: Tilings of the plane, especially periodic tilings, can be used as the essays, basis for flat bead weaving patterns called angle weaves. We describe specific ways to create intricate and beautiful angle weaves from periodic tilings, by placing beads on or near the vertices or edges of thesis a tiling and weaving them together with thread.

We also introduce the notion of star tilings and their associated angle weaves. We organize the angle weaves that we create into several classes, and all kinds of speech explore some of the prep, relationships among them. We then use the results to design graphic illustrations of many layered patterns. Finally, we prove that every normal tiling induces an angle weave, providing many opportunities for further exploration. Spatial Graphs with Local Knots with Erica Flapan and Ramin Naimi ( Revista Matemática Complutense , vol. 25, no. 2, 2012, pp.

493-510, DOI: 10.1007/s13163-011-0072-9) Abstract: It is shown that for any locally knotted edge of a 3-connected graph in $S^3$, there is a ball that contains all of the local knots of that edge and is unique up to an isotopy setwise fixing the graph. This result is applied to write the study of thesis topological symmetry groups of graphs embedded in slavery, $S^3$. Student Surveys: What Do They Think? with H. Zullo, K. Cline, et. al., in Teaching Mathematics with Classroom Voting: With and Without Clickers , ed. K. Cline and thesis prep H. Essay Against Slavery. Zullo, Mathematical Association of America, 2011. Abstract: We determine for which $m$, the complete graph $K_m$ has an embedding in $S^3$ whose topological symmetry group is isomorphic to one of the polyhedral groups: $A_4$, $A_5$, or $S_4$. Drawing a triangle on prep, the Thurston Model of Hyperbolic Space with Curtis Bennett and Patrick Shanahan ( Mathematics Magazine , vol. 83, 2010, pp. 83-99) Abstract: Experiments with a common physical model of the hyperbolic plane presented the authors with surprising difficulties in drawing a large triangle.

Understanding these difficulties led to an intriguing exploration of the a dissertation write, geometry of the Thurston model of the hyperbolic plane. In this exploration we encountered topics ranging from combinatorics and Pick’s Theorem to differential geometry and the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem. Counting Links in thesis, Complete Graphs with Thomas Fleming ( Osaka Journal of Mathematics , vol. 46, 2009, pp. Essays By Susan. 1-29) Abstract: We find the minimal number of links in an embedding of any complete k -partite graph on 7 vertices (including $K_7$, which has at least 21 links). We give either exact values or upper and lower bounds for the minimal number of links for all complete k -partite graphs on 8 vertices. We also look at thesis, larger complete bipartite graphs, and state a conjecture relating minimal linking embeddings with minimal book embeddings.

Intrinsic linking and knotting are arbitrarily complex with Erica Flapan and Ramin Naimi ( Fundamenta Mathematicae , vol. 201, no. 2, 2008, pp. 131-148) Abstract: We show that, given any $n$ and a dissertation $alpha$, every embedding of any sufficiently large complete graph in $mathbb ^3$ contains an oriented link with components $Q_1$, . $Q_n$ such that for every $inot =j$, $|lk(Q_i,Q_j)|geqalpha$ and $|a_2(Q_i)|geqalpha$, where $a_ (Q_i)$ denotes the second coefficient of the Conway polynomial of thesis $Q_i$. Tree Diagrams for String Links II: Determining Chord Diagrams ( Journal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications , vol.

17, no. 6, 2008, pp. 649-664) Abstract: In previous work, we defined the intersection graph of a chord diagram associated with a string link (as in cost accounting research papers, the theory of finite type invariants). In this paper, we look at the case when this graph is thesis, a tree, and we show that in many cases these trees determine the chord diagram (modulo the usual 1-term and 4-term relations).

Weight Systems for Milnor Invariants ( Journal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications , vol. 17, no. 2, 2008, pp. Of Speech. 213-230) Abstract: We use Polyak's skein relation to give a new proof that Milnor's string link homotopy invariants are finite type invariants, and to develop a recursive relation for their associated weight systems. We show that the obstruction to prep the triviality of essay these weight systems is the presence of a certain kind of spanning tree in thesis, the intersection graph of a chord diagram.

Virtual Spatial Graphs with Thomas Fleming ( Kobe Journal of Mathematics , vol. Community Service 5 Paragraph Essay. 24, no. 2, 2007, pp. 67-85) Abstract: Two natural generalizations of knot theory are the study of spatially embedded graphs, and Kauffman's theory of virtual knots.

In this paper we combine these approaches to begin the study of virtual spatial graphs. Three dimensional finite point groups and thesis the symmetries of beaded beads with Gwen Fisher ( Journal of Mathematics and the Arts , vol. All Kinds Of Speech. 1, no. 2, 2007, pp. 85-96; available online at Abstract: Beaded beads are clusters of beads woven together (usually around one or more large holes). Their groups of symmetries are classified by the three-dimensional finite point groups, i.e. the prep, finite subgroups of the orthogonal group of degree three, O(3). The question we answer is whether every finite subgroup of O(3) can be realized as the group of symmetries of a beaded bead. We show that this is possible, and we describe general weaving techniques we used to accomplish this feat, as well as examples of write a beaded bead realizing each finite subgroup of prep O(3) or, in the case of the seven infinite classes of finite subgroups, at least one representative beaded bead for each class. An Introduction to Virtual Spatial Graph Theory (Survey Paper) with Thomas Fleming (in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Knot Theory for Scientific Objects , OCAMI Studies, Vol.

1 (A. Kawauchi, editor), Osaka Municipal Universities Press, 2007) Abstract: Two natural generalizations of knot theory are the study of slavery spatial graphs and virtual knots. Our goal is to prep unify these two approaches into the study of virtual spatial graphs. This paper is a survey, and does not contain any new results. We state the definitions, provide some examples, and survey the known results. We hope that this paper will help lead to rapid development of the area. Intrinsic Linking and accounting research Knotting in Virtual Spatial Graphs with Thomas Fleming ( Algebraic and Geometric Topology , vol. 7, 2007, pp. 583-601)

Abstract: We introduce a notion of intrinsic linking and prep knotting for virtual spatial graphs. Our theory gives two filtrations of the set of all graphs, allowing us to measure, in a sense, how intrinsically linked or knotted a graph is; we show that these filtrations are descending and non-terminating. We also provide several examples of intrinsically virtually linked and knotted graphs. All Kinds. As a byproduct, we introduce the prep, of a knot, and show that any knot with non-trivial Jones polynomial has virtual unknotting number at essay, least 2. Tree Diagrams for String Links ( Journal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications , vol. 15, no. 10, 2006, pp. 1303-1318) Abstract: In previous work, the author defined the intersection graph of a chord diagram associated with a string link (as in the theory of finite type invariants). In this paper, we classify the trees which can be obtained as intersection graphs of string link diagrams. Intrinsic linking and knotting of graphs in prep, arbitrary 3-manifolds with Erica Flapan, Hugh Howards and Don Lawrence ( Algebraic and Geometric Topology , vol.

6, 2006, pp. 1025-1035) Abstract: We prove that a graph is intrinsically linked in an arbitrary 3-manifold M if and only if it is intrinsically linked in S 3 . Also, assuming the Poincare Conjecture, a graph is intrinsically knotted in M if and primal only if it is intrinsically knotted in thesis, S 3 . Intersection Graphs for String Links ( Journal of Knot Theory and essay its Ramifications , vol. 15, no. Prep. 1, 2006, pp. 53-72) Abstract: We extend the buying write, notion of intersection graphs for knots in the theory of finite type invariants to string links. We use our definition to develop weight systems for string links via the prep, adjacency matrix of the of speech, intersection graphs, and show that these weight systems are related to the weight systems induced by the Conway and Homfly polynomials. On the Topology of thesis Celtic Knot Designs with Gwen Fisher ( Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference of Bridges , 2004, published in Visual Mathematics , vol. 7, no. 1, 2005)

Abstract: We derive formulas for counting the religion essays, number of strands in a variety of knotwork designs inspired by traditional Celtic designs, including rectangular panels, circular borders, rectangular borders, and half frames. A Geometric Interpretation of Milnor's triple invariants with Paul Melvin ( Algebraic and Geometric Topology , vol. 3, 2003, pp. 557-568) Abstract: We give a geometric interpretation of Milnor's invariants $bar (ijk)$ in terms of triple intersection points of prep Seifert surfaces for the three link components. This generalizes ideas of Cochran to links which are not algebraically split.

A few weight systems arising from intersection graphs ( Michigan Math. J. Buying A Dissertation. , vol. 51, no. 3, 2003, pp. 509-536) Abstract: We show that the adjacency matrices of the intersection graphs of chord diagrams satisfy the 2-term relations of prep Bar-Natan and Garoufalides, and hence give rise to essays weight systems. Among these weight systems are those associated with the Conway and HOMFLYPT polynomials. We extend these ideas to thesis prep looking at a space of marked chord diagrams modulo an write extended set of 2-term relations, define a set of generators for prep, this space, and again derive weight systems from the essay slavery, adjacency matrices of the (marked) intersection graphs. Among these weight systems are those associated with the Kauffman polynomial. Thesis. On the existence of finite type link homotopy invariants with Dylan Thurston ( Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications , vol.

10, no. 7, 2001, pp. 1025-1040) Abstract: We show that for links with at most 5 components, the only finite type homotopy invariants are products of the linking numbers. In contrast, we show that for links with at least 9 components, there must exist finite type homotopy invariants which are not products of the linking numbers. Primal Essays. This corrects previous errors of the first author. Abstract: We define a notion of thesis prep finite type invariants for links with a fixed linking matrix. We show that Milnor's triple link homotopy invariant is of speech, a finite type invariant, of type 1, in this sense. We also generalize the thesis prep, approach to against slavery Milnor's higher order homotopy invariants and show that they are also, in a sense, of finite type. Finally, we compare our approach to another approach for defining finite type invariants within linking classes. Finite Type Link Concordance Invariants ( Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications , vol.

9, no. 3, 2000, pp. Thesis Prep. 367-385) Abstract: This paper is a generalization of the author's previous work on link homotopy to link concordance. We show that the only real-valued finite type link concordance invariants are the linking numbers of the components. Buying A Dissertation Write. (Note: This main result later turned out to be false - see On the existence of finite type link homotopy invariants) The Intersection Graph Conjecture for Loop Diagrams ( Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications , vol.

9, no. 2, 2000, pp. 187-211) Abstract: Vassiliev invariants can be studied by studying the spaces of chord diagrams associated with singular knots. To these chord diagrams are associated the intersection graphs of the chords. Thesis. We extend results of Chmutov, Duzhin and Lando to all kinds of speech show that these graphs determine the chord diagram if the graph has at most one loop. We also compute the prep, size of the subalgebra generated by these loop diagrams. Finite Type Link Homotopy Invariants ( Journal of all kinds Knot Theory and Its Ramifications , vol.

8, no. 6, 1999, pp. 773-787) Abstract: Bar-Natan used Chinese characters to show that finite type invariants classify string links up to homotopy. Thesis. In this paper, I construct the correct spaces of chord diagrams and cost accounting Chinese characters for links up to homotopy.

I use these spaces to thesis show that the only rational finite type invariants of link homotopy are the pairwise linking numbers of the components. (Note: This main result later turned out to be false - see On the existence of finite type link homotopy invariants) Gordian , with Loren Abrams and Lowell Trott, is a program to count the linked and knotted cycles in a spatial graph. Abstract: Chord diagrams on circles and their intersection graphs (also known as circle graphs) have been intensively studied, and have many applications to the study of knots and knot invariants, among others. However, chord diagrams on more general graphs have not been studied, and are potentially equally valuable in the study of spatial graphs. We will define chord diagrams for planar embeddings of planar graphs and their intersection graphs, and prove some basic results. Then, as an application, we will introduce Gauss codes for immersions of graphs in the plane and give algorithms to determine whether a particular crossing sequence is realizable as the Gauss code of an immersed graph. Spin^c Manifolds (Postscript file) (unpublished exposition, September 1995) For more papers on finite type invariants, check out the cost research, bibliography maintained by Sergei Duzhin. Most of my papers are posted on the mathematics arXiv.

A list of my papers on the arXiv is here.

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anita schnars resume a€? The board of directors of CSB Bancorp Inc. and Chelsea State Bank appointed Marni L. Schmid to the board of prep directors for both entities at its Jan. 12 board meeting. At the essays by susan sontag same meeting, the appointment of Mark A. Burmis as vice president of residential lending was confirmed. Schmid is director of thesis operations for Dexter Pharmacy, Inc. As vice president of papers Chelsea State Bank, Burmis will oversee the increased home mortgage activity for thesis prep, the bank. Burmis has nearly 20 years in the banking industry, most recently as vice president of lending for Farmers State Bank of Munith. a€? Anita Schnars was named Eastern Michigan University's new director of. training and organizational development, effective Jan. 4. a€? The Aphasia Community Friendship Center officially opened its doors one day a week starting on Jan. 15.

The new nonprofit community program invites adults with aphasia and other communication disorders to drop in to meet new friends and buying, continue their speech and language recovery in prep, a non-clinical setting. The Aphasia Community Friendship Center will be open every Friday from 10 a.m. All Kinds Of Speech! - 4: p.m. at thesis prep, the Hawthorn Suites, 3535 Green Court, Ann Arbor. For more information, visit or email a€? Midwestern Consulting, an Ann Arbor-based consulting engineering firm, named Hongbin (Ben) Chen a principal of the firm. Chen is the manager of the buying a dissertation write firm#8217;s wholly-owned subsidiary MS2, which provides transportation data management and thesis prep, analysis. a€? Ann Arbor design firm Hile Design LLC has created an animated 30-second TV spot for their client Grasshopper . Community 5 Paragraph Essay! Gary the prep grasshopper, the corporate mascot Hile designed last year when the primal religion essays company changed its name from GotVMail to Grasshopper, has the starring role in the commercial. a€? School of Public Health researcher Victor Strecher has been selected as the University of Michigan Distinguished University Innovator for 2010. Strecher is thesis prep, a professor of health behavior and health education at community service essay, the School of Public Health and an entrepreneur.

He has conducted breakthrough research leading to a fundamental shift in how digital technologies are adapted to thesis, support preventative health behaviors. The culmination of buying a dissertation write this research was the establishment of HealthMedia Inc. to deploy the novel technology. In 2008, HealthMedia was acquired by Johnson Johnson to become the health care giant's flagship enterprise in a wellness and prevention initiative. Strecher will receive his award March 25 during a ceremony at the U-M Biomedical Science Research Building. The event is open to the public, and a reception will follow. a€? A new health and wellness foundation, the Chelsea-Area Wellness Foundation , has been formed as a result of the thesis merger between Chelsea Community Hospital and Saint Joseph Mercy Health System . The foundation is focused on health and wellness in against, Chelsea Community Hospital#8217;s geographic service area, which includes Chelsea, Dexter, Manchester, Grass Lake and Stockbridge. The CWF endowment totals $25 million, and the foundation will invest approximately $1 million annually to impact community health and wellness. a€? Ann Arbor's Underground Printing has partnered with the Jalen Rose Charitable Fund to produce an exclusive line of Jalen Rose apparel, and a portion of the proceeds from the sale of prep each apparel item will benefit the accounting research papers the Jalen Rose Charitable Fund. Thesis Prep! Established in buying a dissertation, 2000, Rose's Fund seeks to create life-changing opportunities for under-served youth through the development of programs and the distribution of thesis prep grants to essay against slavery, qualified nonprofit organizations.

Grants focus on thesis prep education and sports and are distributed in Jalen#8217;s hometown of Detroit as well as other communities in need. a€? Donald Dersnah is the by susan new executive director of Saline Area Social Services. Dersnah, who was formerly a district manager with the Michigan Department of Human Services, succeeds retiring director Susan M. Brown. a€? Bodman LLP received top ranking as a #8220;highly recommended#8221; litigation law firm in thesis, the 2010 edition of Benchmark Litigation, a guide to America#8217;s leading litigation firms and attorneys. Cost Research Papers! Among the more than 40 lawyers who make up Bodman#8217;s Litigation and Alternative Dispute Resolution Practice Group, three Detroit-office partners and one Troy-office partner were listed as #8220;local litigation stars.#8221; Detroit-office partner Thomas Bruetsch and Ann Arbor-office partner Alan Harris were listed as #8220;future stars. Thesis Prep! a€? Nancy L. Hough , administrative assistant and maintenance supervisor for JOAK American Homes, was recognized by Cambridge Who's Who for showing dedication, leadership and excellence in all aspects of administrative services. JOAK American Homes, headquartered in a dissertation write, Ann Arbor, is a nonprofit founded in 1995 in an effort to provide support for individuals with mental illness and developmental disabilities. Thesis! a€? Sheryl A. Laughren was elected chair of the board of directors of Sacred Heart Rehabilitation Center, a not-for-profit organization that provides behavioral health services including substance use disorder prevention and treatment, mental illness treatment, HIV/AIDS prevention and care management. Laughren is an attorney and shareholder at Berry Moorman PC, which has offices in Detroit, Birmingham and Ann Arbor. All Kinds Of Speech! a€? David Rabkin , vice president of Delta Co-brands for American Express and thesis prep, an Ann Arbor native, volunteered at Osborn High School in Detroit on Martin Luther King Jr. Day. He, along with 260 other volunteers, helped make a difference by buying a dissertation write sprucing up the school as part of the American Express #8220;Travel With Your Mind#8221; volunteer initiative. a€? Avidasports , headquartered in Harper Woods, Mich., announced Jan. 26 an agreement with the University of Michigan men's and women's swim teams to use AvidaMetrics, a product using athletic telemetry for swimming.

The Wolverines will be the first collegiate program to use the technology which tracks information such as speed, stroke count, distance per stroke, stroke tempo, kick count, kick tempo, turn time and length time. a€? Terumo Corp. sponsored several presentations on key issues in cardiac and vascular surgery at Society of Thoracic Surgeons annual meeting earlier this week. Terumo was represented at the STS by prep its three subsidiaries: Terumo Cardiovascular Systems, headquartered in all kinds, Ann Arbor, produces products for cardiopulmonary bypass, endoscopic vessel harvesting and thesis, intraoperative monitoring. Terumo Heart Inc., also headquartered in Ann Arbor, produces the DuraHeart Left Ventricular Assist System, currently in clinical trials in the U.S.; Vascutek Ltd. is a leading manufacturer of vascular grafts. Essay Against Slavery! Terumo Corp. was Business Review's 2009 Deals of the Year winner in the health care sector category. a€? Ann Arbor-based Borders Group recently announced that Ron Marshall has resigned as president and CEO of the company. Borders named Executive Vice President and Chief Merchandising Officer Michael J. Edwards as the interim CEO. a€? Innovation consultancy Inovo announced Jan. 25 that it has acquired DASO Consulting . Under the agreement, DASO founder and President Brian Christian will join Inovo as a partner, along with Larry Schmitt , Steve Schwartz and Joshua Botkin . a€? Email items for People, Achievements and thesis prep, Paparazzi to . Sign up for cost research, the weekly Business Review email newsletter here. Registration on or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. 2013 MLive Media Group All rights reserved (About Us).

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cleopatra vii essay Folk-lore of Shakespeare , by T.F. Thiselton Dyer, [1883], at As in the case of the birds, considered in the previous chapter, Shakespeare has also interwoven throughout his plays an immense deal of curious folk-lore connected with animals. Not only does he allude with the accuracy of a naturalist to the peculiarities and habits of certain animals, but so true to thesis prep nature is he in his graphic descriptions of them that it is evident his knowledge was in a great measure acquired from his own observation. It is interesting, also, to note how carefully he has, here and there, worked into his narrative some old proverb, or superstition, thereby adding a freshness to the picture which has, if possible, imbued it with an additional lustre. In speaking of the dog, he has introduced many an old hunting custom; and 5 paragraph his references to the tears of the deer are full of sweet pathos, as, for instance, where Hamlet says (iii. 2), Let the stricken deer go weep. It is not necessary, however, to add further illustrations, as these will be found in the following pages.

Ape .—In addition to Shakespeare's mention of this animal as a common term of thesis, contempt, there are several other allusions to it. There is the well known phrase, to essay slavery lead apes in thesis prep, hell, applied to old maids mentioned in the Taming of the Shrew (ii. 1)—the meaning of this term not having been yet satisfactorily explained. 1 (It is further discussed in the chapter on Marriage.) In 2 Henry IV. (ii. 4), it is used as a term of all kinds of speech, endearment—Alas, poor ape, how thou sweat’st. Ass .—Beyond the proverbial use of this much ill-treated animal to denote a silly, foolish person, Shakespeare has said little about it. Thesis Prep? In Troilus and Cressida (ii. 1), Thersites uses the word assinego, a Portuguese expression for a young ass—Thou hast no more brain than I have in my elbows; an assinego may tutor thee. It is used by Beaumont and Fletcher in the Scornful Lady (v. 4)—All this would be forsworn, and buying a dissertation write I again an assinego, as your sister left me.

1 Dyce 2 would spell the word Asinico, because it is so spelt in the old editions of Shakespeare, and is more in accordance with the prep Spanish word. 3 In King Lear (i. 4), the Fool alludes to Æsop's celebrated fable of the old man and essays sontag his ass— Bat .—The bat, immortalised by prep, Shakespeare (Tempest, v. I) as the delicate Ariel's steed— has generally been an against slavery, object of superstitious dread, and proved to the poet and painter a fertile source of images of prep, gloom and terror. 4 In Scotland 5 it is still connected with witchcraft, and if, while flying, it rise and then descend again earthwards, it is a sign that the witches’ hour is come—the hour in all kinds of speech, which they are supposed to prep have power over every human being who is not specially shielded from their influence.

Thus in Macbeth (iv. 1) the wool of bat forms an ingredient in the witches’ cauldron. One of its popular names is rere-mouse, which occurs in a Midsummer Night's Dream (ii. 2), where Titania says— To make my small elves coats.

[paragraph continues] This term is equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon, hrére-mús , from hreran , to stir, agitate, and so the same as the old name flitter-mouse. Primal Essays? 1 The early copies spell the word reremise . Thesis? 2 It occurs in the Wicliffite versions of Lev. xi. 19, and cost accounting the plural in the form reremees or rere-myis is found in Isaiah ii. 20. At Polperro, Cornwall, 3 the village boys call it airy-mouse, and address it in thesis, the following rhyme:— And you shall have a crust of bread; And when I brew, and when I bake, You shall have a piece of my wedding cake. In Scotland 4 it is known as the Backe or Bakie bird. An immense deal of curious folk-lore has clustered round this curious little animal.

5. Bear .—According to an old idea, the bear brings forth unformed lumps of animated flesh, and then licks them into shape—a vulgar error, referred to in 3 Henry VI. (iii. 2), where Gloucester, bemoaning his deformity, says of cost accounting papers, his mother— To disproportion me in every part, Like to a chaos, or an unlick’d bear-whelp, That carries no impression like the dam. This erroneous notion, however, was long ago confuted by Sir Thomas Browne. 6 Alexander Ross, in his Arcana Microcosmi, nevertheless affirms that bears bring forth their young deformed and mis-shapen, by reason of the thesis prep thick membrane in which they are wrapped, that is essay slavery covered over. with a mucous matter.

This, he says, the dam contracts in the winter-time, by lying in hollow caves without motion, so that to the eye the cub appears like an unformed lump. The above mucilage is afterwards licked away by the dam, and prep the membrane broken, whereby that which before seemed to be unformed appears now in accounting research papers, its right shape. This he contends is all that the ancients meant. 1 Ovid (Metam. xv. 379) thus describes this once popular fancy— Sed male viva caro est. Thesis Prep? Lambendo mater in primal religion, artus. Fingit, et in formam quantam capit ipsa, reducit. Bears, in days gone by, are reported to have been surprised by means of a mirror, which they could gaze on, affording their pursuers an opportunity of taking the surer aim. Thesis Prep? 2 In Julius Cæsar (ii. Against? 1), this practice is mentioned by thesis prep, Decius—

And bears with glasses. Batman, Upon Bartholome (1582), speaking of the bear, says, And when he is sontag taken he is made blinde with a bright basin, and bound with chaynes, and prep compelled to playe. This, however, says Mr Aldis Wright, 3 probably refers to by susan sontag the actual blinding of the bear. A favourite amusement with our ancestors was bear-baiting. As early as the reign of Henry II. the baiting of bears by dogs was a popular game in London, 4 whilst at a later period a royal bear-ward was an officer regularly attached to the royal household. In 2 Henry VI. (v. Thesis Prep? 1), this personage is alluded to by Clifford, who says—

And manacle the bear-ward in their chains, If thou darest bring them to the baiting place. [paragraph continues] And again, in Much Ado about Nothing (ii. 1), Beatrice says, I will even take sixpence in earnest of the bear-ward, and lead his apes into hell. The synonymous term, bear-herd, occurs in Taming of the Shrew (Introduction, scene 2), where Sly speaks of himself as by transmutation a bear-herd; and in 2 Henry IV. (i. 2), Sir John Falstaff remarks how true valour is turned bear-herd. Of Speech? Among the Harleian MSS. 1 is preserved the original warrant of Richard III. Thesis Prep? appointing John Brown to this office, and buying a dissertation which recites the diligent service he had done the king as the ground for granting him the privilege of wandering about the country with his bears and apes, and receiving the loving benevolence and favours of the people.

2 In the prep time of Queen Elizabeth, bear-baiting was still a favourite pastime, being considered a fashionable entertainment for the ladies of the highest rank. 3 James I. encouraged this sport. Nichols 4 informs us that on one occasion the essay slavery king, accompanied by his court, took the Queen, the Princess Elizabeth, and thesis the two young Princes to cost research the Tower to prep witness a fight between a lion and a bear, and by the king's command, the bear (which had killed a child that had been negligently left in the bear-house), was afterwards baited to death upon a stage in the presence of many spectators. Popular, says Mr Kelly, as bear-baiting was in the metropolis and at court, it was equally so among all classes of the people. 5 It is on record that at Congleton, in Cheshire, the town-bear having died, the essays by susan corporation in 1601 gave orders to sell their Bible, in order to purchase another, which was done, and the town no longer without a bear.

This event is kept up in thesis, a popular rhyme— Sold the Bible to pay for essay a bear. [paragraph continues] The same legend attaches to Clifton, a village near Rugby:— Sold the thesis prep Church Bible to buy a bear. In Pulleyn's Etymological Compendium, 1 we are told that this cruel amusement is of African origin, and was introduced into Europe by the Romans. It is further alluded to by Shakespeare in Twelfth Night (i.

3), dancing and bear-baiting; and further on in the same play (ii. 5) Fabian says, he brought me out o’ favour with my lady about a bear-baiting here; and Macbeth (v. Religion? 7) relates:— But, bear-like, I must fight the course. 2. and in Julius Cæsar(iv.

1), Octavius says:— And bay’d about with many enemies. Boar .—It appears that in former times boar-hunting was a favourite recreation; many allusions to which we find in old writers. Indeed, in the middle ages, the destruction of a wild boar ranked among the deeds of chivalry, 3 and won for a warrior almost as much renown as the slaying an enemy in the open field. So dangerous too, was boar-hunting considered, that Shakespeare represents Venus as dissuading Adonis from the perilous practice:— With javelin's point a churlish swine to gore, Whose tushes never sheathed he whetteth still, Like to prep a mortal butcher, bent to kill. His brawny sides, with hairy bristles arm’d, Are better proof than thy spear's point can enter; His short thick neck cannot be easily harm'd;

Being ireful, on the lion he will venture. Such hunting expeditions were generally fatal to some of the dogs, and occasionally to primal religion essays one or more of the hunters. [paragraph continues] An old tradition of Grimsby, in Lincolnshire, 1 asserts that every burgess at prep, his admission to the freedom of the borough, anciently presented to the mayor a boar's head, or an equivalent in money, when the against animal could not be procured. Thesis Prep? The old seal of the mayor of buying write, Grimsby represents a boar hunt. The lord, too, of the adjacent manor of Bradley, was obliged by his tenure to keep a supply of these animals in his wood, for the entertainment of the mayor and prep burgesses. 2 A curious triennial custom called the Rhyne Toll, is observed at Chetwode, a small village about five miles from Buckingham. Against? 3 According to tradition, it originated in the destruction of an enormous wild boar—the terror of the surrounding county—by one of the lords of thesis, Chetwode; who, after fighting with it for four hours on a hot summer's day, eventually killed it. Wind well thy horn, good hunter; And he fairly cut the boar's head off quite, For he was a jovial hunter. As a reward, it is religion said, the thesis king granted to him and to his heirs for ever, among other immunities and privileges, the full right to levy every year the Rhyne Toll.

This is still kept up, and consists of community, a yearly tax, on all cattle found within the manor of Chetwode between the 30th October and the 7th November, inclusive. In Antony and Cleopatra (iv. 13) Cleopatra alludes to the famous boar killed by Meleager—The boar of Thessaly was never so emboss’d. 4. Bull .—Once upon a time there was scarcely a town or village of prep, any magnitude which had not its bull-ring. 5 Indeed, it was not until the year 1835 that baiting was finally. put down by buying write, an act of Parliament, forbidding the keeping of any house, pit, or other place for baiting or fighting any bull, bear, dog, or other animal; and after an existence of at least seven centuries, this ceased to rank among the amusements of the English people. 1 This sport is alluded to prep in Merry Wives of Windsor (v. 5), Remember, Jove, thou wast a bull for thy Europa.

We may too compare the expressions in Troilus and primal religion Cressida (v. 7)—Now, bull, now, dog!—the bull has the game. 2. Cat .—Few animals, in times past, have been more esteemed than the cat, or been honoured with a wider folk-lore. Indeed, among the Egyptians this favoured animal was held sacred to Isis or the moon, and worshipped with great ceremony. In the mythology of all the Indo European nations, the cat holds a prominent place; and its connection with witches is well known. The picture of thesis prep, a witch, says Mr Henderson, 3 is incomplete without her cat, by rights a black one. In Macbeth (iv. i) the First Witch says—Thrice the essay against brinded cat hath mew’d,—it being a common superstition that the form most generally assumed by the familiar spirits of witches was the cat.

Thus in another passage of the same play (i. 1), the First Witch says:—I come, Graymalkin,—the word otherwise spelt Grimalkin, 4 meaning a grey cat. Numerous stories are on record of witches having disguised themselves as cats, in order to carry out their fiendish designs. A woodman out working in the forest has his dinner every day stolen by thesis, a cat. Exasperated at the continued repetition of the theft, he lies in wait for the aggressor, and succeeds in cutting off her paw, when lo! on his return home he finds his wife minus a hand. 5 Paragraph? 5 An honest Yorkshireman, 6 who bred pigs, often lost the young.

ones. On applying to a certain wise man of Stokesley, he was informed that they were bewitched by an old woman who lived near. The owner of the pigs calling to mind that he had often seen a cat prowling about his yard, decided that this was the old woman in disguise. He watched for thesis her, and, as soon as she made her appearance, flung at her a poker with all his might. The cat disappeared, and curiously enough the poor old woman in question, that night fell and broke her leg. This was considered as conclusive, that she was the witch that had simulated the form of a cat. Primal Religion Essays? This notion is very prevalent on the Continent. It is prep said that witch-cats 1 have a great hankering after beer. Witches are adepts in the art of primal religion, brewing, and therefore fond of tasting what their neighbours brew.

On these occasions they always masquerade as cats, and what they steal they consume on the spot. There was a countryman whose beer was all drunk up by prep, night whenever he brewed, so that at last he resolved for once to sit up all night and watch. As he was standing by cost accounting papers, his brewing pan, a number of cats made their appearance, and calling to them, he said; Come, puss, puss, come, warm you a bit. So in a ring they all sat round the fire as if to warm themselves. Thesis Prep? After a time, he asked them if the water was hot. Religion? Just on the boil, said they, and, as he spoke he dipped his long-handled pail in thesis, the wort, and soused the whole company with it. They all vanished at once, but on the following day his wife had a terribly scalded face, and then he knew who it was that had always drunk his beer.

This story is widely prevalent, and is current among the Flemish-speaking natives of Belgium. Again, a North German tradition 2 tells us of a peasant who had three beautiful large cats. A neighbour begged to a dissertation write have one of them, and thesis obtained it. To accustom it to the place, he shut it up in the loft. By Susan? At night, the cat, popping its head through the window, said, What shall I bring to-night? Thou shalt bring mice, answered the man. The cat then set to work, and cast all it caught on the floor.

Next morning the place was so full of dead mice that it was hardly possible to open. the door, and the man was employed the whole day in prep, throwing them away by bushels. At night the cat again asked, 'what shall I bring to buying a dissertation night?' 'Thou shalt bring rye,' answered the peasant. The cat was now busily employed in shooting down rye, so that in the morning the door could not be opened. The man then discovered that the cat was a witch, and carried it back to his neighbour. A similar tradition occurs in Scandinavian mythology. 1 Spranger 2 relates that a labourer, on one occasion, was attacked by three young ladies in the form of cats, and that they were wounded by him. On the following day they were found bleeding in their beds.

In Vernon, 3 about the year 1566, the witches and warlocks gathered in great multitudes under the thesis shape of cats. Four or five men were attacked in a lone place by a number of these beasts. The men stood their ground, and religion essays succeeded in thesis, slaying one cat, and wounding many others. Next day a number of wounded women were found in the town, and they gave the judge an accurate account of all the circumstances connected with their wounding. It is only natural, then, that Shakespeare in buying write, his description of the witches in Macbeth, should have associated them with the thesis prep popular superstition which represents the cat as their agent—a notion that no doubt originated in the classic story of Galanthis being turned into community service essay, a cat, and becoming, through the compassion of Hecate, her priestess. From their supposed connection with witchcraft, cats were formerly often tormented by the ignorant vulgar. Thus it appears 4 that, in days gone by, they (occasionally fictitious ones) were hung up in prep, baskets and shot at with arrows. In some counties, too, they were enclosed, with a quantity of by susan sontag, soot, in wooden bottles suspended on a line, and he who could beat out the bottom of the bottle as he ran under it, and yet escape its contents, was the hero of the sport.

5 Shakespeare. alludes to this practice in thesis, Much Ado about Nothing (i. 1), where Benedick says— Percy, in his Reliques of Ancient English Poetry (1794, i. p. 155), says—It is buying a dissertation still a diversion in Scotland to hang up a cat in a small cask or firkin, half filled with soot; and then a parcel of clowns on horseback try to prep beat out the ends of it, in order to show their dexterity in escaping before the contents fall upon them. This practice was once kept up at Kelso in Scotland, according to Ebenezer Lazarus, who, in his Description of Kelso (1789, p. All Kinds Of Speech? 144), has given a graphic description of the whole ceremony. He says—This is a sport which was common in thesis, the last century at Kelso on the Tweed. A large concourse of men, women, and children assembled in a field about half a mile from the essay town, and a cat having been put into a barrel stuffed full of soot, was suspended on a crossbeam between two high poles. A certain number of the whipmen, or husbandmen, who took part in this savage and unmanly amusement, then kept striking, as they rode to and fro on horseback, the barrel in which the unfortunate animal was confined, until at last, under the heavy blows of their clubs and thesis mallets, it broke, and allowed the cat to drop. The victim was then seized and research tortured to death. He justly stigmatizes it, saying.

That he who can relish it is worse than an ass. Cats, from their great powers of resistance, are said to have nine lives; 1 hence Mercutio, in Romeo and Juliet (iii. 1), says—Good king of cats, nothing but one of your nine lives. Thesis? Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour (iii. 2), makes Edward Knowell say to Bobadill—’Twas pity you had not ten; a cat's and your own. And in cost accounting research papers, Gay's fable of the thesis Old Woman and her Cats, one of these animals is introduced, upbraiding the witch. Cats are thought imps, her broom a nag;

And boys against our lives combine, Because ’tis said, your cats have nine. In Marston's Dutch Courtezan, we read— And in Dekker's Strange Horse-Race (1613)—When the grand Helcat had gotten these two furies with nine lives. This notion, it may be noted, is quite the reverse of the well-known saying—Care will kill a cat, mentioned in Much Ado About Nothing (v. 1), where Claudio says What though care killed a cat. For some undiscovered reason a cat was formerly called Tybert or Tybalt; 1 hence some of the insulting remarks of Mercutio, in Romeo and Juliet (iii. 1), who calls Tybalt rat catcher and king of cats. In the old romance of Hystorye of papers, Reynard the Foxe (chap. vi.), we are told how the prep king called for Sir Tibert, the by susan sontag cat, and said to him, Sir Tibert, you shall go to Reynard, and summon him the thesis second time. Slavery? 2 A popular term for thesis a wild cat was cat-o’-mountain, an expression 3 borrowed from the Spaniards, who call the wild cat gato-montes. In the buying a dissertation write Merry Wives of Windsor (ii.

2), Falstaff says of Pistol—Your cat-a-mountain looks. The word cat was used as a term of contempt, as in Tempest (ii. 1), and A Midsummer Night's Dream (iii. Thesis Prep? 2), where Lysander says, Hang off, thou cat. Once more, too, in Coriolanus (iv, 2), we find it in the same sense. Cats, that can judge as fitly of his worth,

As 1 can of those mysteries which heaven. Will not have earth to know. A gib, or a gib cat, is an old male cat 4 —gib being the contraction of Gilbert, 5 and is, says Nares, an expression exactly analogous to that of a jack-ass. A Dissertation? 6 Tom-cat is now the. usual term. The word was certainly not bestowed upon a cat early in life, as is thesis prep evident from the essays melancholy character ascribed to it in Shakespeare's allusion in 1 Henry IV. (i.

2) I am as melancholy as a gib cat. Ray gives as melancholy as a gib’d [a corruption of gib] cat. The term occurs again in Hamlet (iii. 4). It is improperly applied to a female by Beaumont and Fletcher in the Scornful Lady (v.

1)—Bring out the prep cat-hounds! I'll make you take a tree, whore; then with my tiller bring down your gib-ship, and then have you cased and hung up in the warren. Chameleon .—This animal was popularly believed to feed on air, a notion which Sir Thomas Browne 1 has carefully discussed. He has assigned, among other grounds for this vulgar opinion, its power of abstinence and its faculty of self-inflation. It lives on slavery insects, which it catches by its long gluey tongue, and crushes between its jaws. It has been ascertained by prep, careful experiment that the chameleon can live without eating for four months. It can inflate not only its lungs but its whole body, including even the feet and tail. In allusion to this supposed characteristic, Shakespeare makes Hamlet say (iii. 2)—Of the chameleon's dish: I eat the air, promise-crammed; you cannot feed capons so; and in by susan, the Two Gentlemen of Verona (ii.

1) Speed says Though the chameleon, Love, can feed on the air, I am one that am nourished by my victuals, and would fain have meat. Prep? There is, too, a popular notion that this animal undergoes frequent changes of colour, according to that of the bodies near it. This, however, depends on the volition of the animal, or the state of its feelings, on its good or bad health, and of speech is subordinate to climate, age, and sex. 2 In 3 Henry VI. (iii. 2), Gloucester boasts— Change shapes with Proteus for advantages. Cockatrice .—This imaginary creature, also called a basilisk, has been the subject of extraordinary prejudice.

It was absurdly said to proceed from the thesis prep eggs of a dissertation write, old cocks. It has. been represented as having eight feet, a crown on the head, and a hooked and recurved beak. 1 Pliny asserts that the thesis basilisk had a voice so terrible that it struck terror into all kinds, all other species. Thesis? Sir Thomas Browne, 2 however, distinguishes the cockatrice from the ancient basilisk. Essays? He says—This of ours is generally described with legs, wings, a serpentine and winding tail, and a crest or comb somewhat like a cock.

But the thesis prep basilisk of elder times was a proper kind of serpent, not above three palms long, as some account; and different from other serpents by advancing his head and some white marks, or coronary spots upon write, the crown, as all authentic writers have delivered. No other animal, perhaps, has given rise to so many fabulous notions. Thus, it was supposed to have so deadly an eye as to kill by thesis, its very look, to which Shakespeare very often alludes. In Romeo and Juliet (iii. Essay Against? 2), the latter says—

And that bare vowel 'I' shall poison more. Than the thesis prep death-darting eye of cockatrice. In Richard III. (iv. 1) the Duchess exclaims— A cockatrice has thou hatch’d to the world, Whose unavoided eye is murderous. In Lucreece (1. 540), we read:—

He rouseth up himself and makes a pause. Once more, 3 in Twelfth Night (iii. 4), Sir Toby Belch affirms—This will so fright them both that they will kill one another by the look, like cockatrices. It has also been affirmed that this animal could not exercise this faculty, unless it first perceived the object of its vengeance before it was itself seen by it—if first seen, it died. Dryden has alluded to this superstition— If they see first they kill, if seen they die. Cockatrice was a popular phrase for a loose woman, probably from the fascination of the eye. 1 It appears, too, that Basilisk 2 was the name of a huge piece of ordnance carrying a ball of very great weight. In the following passage in Henry V. (v. Religion Essays? 2), there is no doubt a double allusion—to pieces of ordnance, and to the fabulous creature already described:—the fatal balls of murdering basilisks.

Colt .—From its wild tricks, the colt was formerly used to designate, according to thesis prep Johnson, a witless, heady, gay youngster. Essays? Portia mentions it with a quibble in The Merchant of Venice (i. 2), referring to the Neapolitan prince:—Ay, that's a colt indeed. The term to colt, meant to thesis prep trick, or befool; as in the phrase in 1 Henry IV. Religion Essays? (ii. Thesis Prep? 2):—What a plague mean ye to colt me thus? Mr Halliwell-Phillipps 3 explains the expression, in religion essays, Henry VIII. Thesis Prep? (i.

2), Your colt's tooth is not cast yet, to denote a love of youthful pleasure. In Cymbeline (ii. 4), it is used in essays, a coarser sense:—She hath been colted by him. Crocodile .—According to thesis prep fabulous accounts, the crocodile was the most deceitful of animals; its tears being proverbially fallacious. Thus, Othello (iv. Of Speech? 1) says:—

If that the earth could teem with woman's tears, Each drop she falls would prove a crocodile: We may also compare the words of the queen in prep, 2 Henry VI. (iii. 1):— Too full of foolish pity, and Gloucester's show.

Beguiles him as the mournful crocodile. With sorrow snares relenting passengers. It is said that this treacherous animal weeps over a man's head when it hath devoured the body, and will then eat up the head too. In Bullokar's Expositor, i616, we read:— [paragraph continues] Crocodile lachrymæ, crocodiles teares, do signify such teares as are feigned, and spent only with intent to deceive or do harm. In Quarles's Emblems, there is the following allusion:— Compos’d of treachries and ensnaring wiles! She cloaths destruction in a formal kiss, And lodges death in her deceitful smiles.

In the above passage from Othello, Singer says, there is, no doubt, a reference to the doctrine of equivocal generation by which new animals were supposed to be producible by new combinations of matter. 1. Deer .—In King Lear (iii. 4), Edgar uses deer for wild animals in general:— Have been Tom's food for religion seven long year. Shakespeare frequently refers to the popular sport of prep, hunting the deer; 2 and by his apt allusions shows how thoroughly familiar he was with the various amusements of a dissertation, his day.

3 In Winter's Tale (i. 2), Leontes speaks of the mort o’ the deer; certain notes played on the horn at the death of the deer, and requiring a deep drawn breath. Prep? 4 It was anciently, too, one of the all kinds customs of the thesis chase, for all to stain their hands in the blood of the essay deer as a trophy. Thesis Prep? Thus, in essay against slavery, King John (ii. 1), the English herald declares to thesis prep the men of Angiers how— Our lusty English, all with purpled hands, Dyed in the dying slaughter of their foes. The practice is again alluded to essays in Julius Cæsar (iii. 1)— Sign’d in prep, thy spoil, and crimson’d in thy lethe.

Old Tuberville gives us the all kinds of speech details of thesis prep, this custom—Our. order is, that the prince, or chief, if so please them, do alight, and take assay of the deer, with a sharp knife, the which is buying a dissertation write done in this manner—the deer being laid upon prep, his back, the prince, chief, or such as they do appoint, comes to it, and the chief huntsman, kneeling if it be a prince, doth hold the deer by the forefoot, whilst the prince, or chief, do cut a slit drawn along the brisket of the deer. In Antony and Cleopatra (v. 2), where Cæsar, speaking of Cleopatra's death, says— She levell’d at our purposes, and, being royal, there is possibly an allusion to the hart royal which had the privilege of roaming unmolested, and of taking its own way to its lair. Shooting with the cross-bow at deer was an amusement of great ladies.

Buildings with flat roofs, called stands, partly concealed by buying write, bushes, were erected in the parks for the purpose. Hence the thesis following dialogue in primal religion, Love's Labour's Lost (iv. 1)— That we must stand and play the murderer in? Forester . Hereby, upon the edge of yonder coppice; A stand where you may make the fairest shoot. Amongst the thesis prep hunting terms to which Shakespeare refers may be mentioned the following:— To draw, meant to trace the buying a dissertation steps of the game, as in Comedy of Errors (iv. 2)— The term “to run counter” was to mistake the course of the game, or to thesis turn and pursue the backward trail.” The recheat denoted certain notes sounded on the horn, properly and more usually employed to recall the dogs from a wrong scent.

It is used in Much ado about Nothing (i. 1)— We may compare Drayton's Polyolbion (xiii.):— The phrase 'to recover the wind of me' used by Hamlet (iii. 2) is essay slavery borrowed from hunting, and means to get the animal pursued to run with the thesis prep wind that it may not scent the toil or its pursuers.

Again, when Falstaff in 2 Henry IV. (ii. 4) speaks of service essay, fat rascals, he alludes to the phrase of the forest—rascall, says Puttenham, being properly the thesis hunting term given to a young deer leane and out of season. The phrase a hunt's up implied any song intended to arouse in the morning,—even a love song—the name having been derived from a tune or song employed by community 5 paragraph essay, early hunters. 1 The term occurs in Romeo and Juliet (iii. 5) where Juliet says to Romeo, speaking of the lark—

Hunting thee hence with hunt's up to the day. In Drayton's Polyolbion (xiii.) it is used— At such time as the thesis year brings on the pleasant spring, But hunt's-up to the morn the feather’d sylvans sing. In Shakespeare's day it was customary to hunt as well after dinner as before, hence in Timon of Athens (ii. 2) Timon says— The word embossed was applied to a deer when foaming at the mouth from buying fatigue. In Taming of the thesis prep Shrew (i. ind.) we read—the poor club is embossed, and in Antony and Cleopatra (iv. 13)—the boar of Thessaly was never so emboss’d. It was usual to call a pack of hounds a cry, from the French meute de chiens.

The term is humorously applied to any troop or company of primal religion, players by Hamlet (iii. 2), who speaks of a fellowship in a cry of players. Thesis? In Coriolanus, Menenius says (iv. 6)—You have made good work, you and your cry. Antony in Julius Cæsar (iii. Essay Against Slavery? i) alludes to the technical phrase to let slip a dog, employed in hunting the prep hart.

This consisted in releasing the hounds from the leash or slip of essays by susan sontag, leather by which they were held in hand until it was judged proper to let them pursue the animal chased. 1 In 1 Henry IV. (i. 3) Northumberland tells Hotspur— In Taming of the Shrew (v. 2) Tranio says— Which runs himself and catches for his master. A sportsman's saying, applied to hounds, occurs in prep, 2 Henry IV. (v. Primal Essays? 3); a’ will not out; he is true bred, serving to expound Gadshill's expression, such as can hold in, 1 Henry IV. (ii. Prep? 1). The severity of the game laws under our early monarchs was very stringent; and a clause in the Forest Charter 2 grants to an archbishop, bishop, earl, or baron, when travelling through the royal forests, at the king's command, the a dissertation write privilege to kill one deer or two in the sight of the forester, if he was at hand; if not, they were commanded to prep cause a horn to be sounded, that it might not appear as if they had intended to steal the game. Essays? In Merry Wives of Windsor (v.

5), Falstaff, using the terms of the forest, alludes to the perquisites of the keeper. Thus he speaks of the shoulders for the fellow of this walk, i.e. , the keeper. Shakespeare has several pretty allusions to the tears of the deer, this animal being said to possess a very large secretion of tears. Thus Hamlet (iii. Thesis Prep? 2) says—Let the stricken deer go weep; and in As You Like It (ii. All Kinds Of Speech? 1), we read of the sobbing deer, and in thesis prep, the same scene, the First Lord narrates how, at a certain spot, That from the hunter's aim hath ta’en a hurt. Did come to against slavery languish. . . . . . . . . And the big round tears. Coursed one another down his innocent nose. Bartholom?us 1 says, that when the hart is prep arered, he fleethe to a ryver or ponde, and roreth cryeth and essay wepeth when he is take.

2 It appears that there were various superstitions connected with the tears of the deer. Batman 3 tells us that when the hart is sick, and hath eaten many serpents for his recoverie, he is brought unto so great a heate, that he hasteth to the water, and there covereth his body unto the very eares and eyes, at which time distilleth many tears from which the [Bezoar] stone is gendered. 4 Douce 5 quotes the following passage from the thesis Noble Art of research papers, Venerie, in which the thesis prep hart thus addresses the hunter:— Which growe to gumme, and fall from me: content thee with my heares, Content thee with my homes, which every year I new, Since all these three make medicines, some sickness to eschew. My tears congeal’d to gumme, by peeces from me fall,

And thee preserve from essay against pestilence, in pomander or ball. Such wholesome tears shedde I, when thou pursewest me so. Dog .—As the favourite of our domestic animals, the dog not unnaturally possesses an extensive history, besides entering largely into those superstitions which, more or less, are associated with every stage of human life. It is not surprising, therefore, that Shakespeare frequently speaks of the dog, making it the subject of many of his illustrations. Thus he has not omitted to mention the fatal significance of prep, its howl; which is supposed either to foretell death or misfortune. In 2 Henry VI. (i. A Dissertation Write? 4), he makes Bolingbroke say— And spirits walk and ghosts break up their graves. [paragraph continues] And again, in 3 Henry VI. (v.

6), King Henry, speaking of Gloucester, says— The night-crow cried, aboding luckless time; Dogs howl’d, and hideous tempests shook down trees. The same superstition prevails in France and thesis prep Germany, 1 and various charms are resorted to for averting the ill-consequences supposed to attach to this sign of ill-omen. Several of these, too, are practised in our own country. Essay? Thus, in Staffordshire, when a dog howls, the following advice is given—Take off your shoe from the thesis left foot, and spit upon the sole, place it on the ground bottom upwards, and your foot upon the place you sat upon, which will not only community 5 paragraph preserve you from harm, but stop the howling of the dog. 2 A similar remedy is recommended in Norfolk 3 —Pull off your left shoe, and turn it, and it will quiet him. A dog won't howl three times after. We are indebted to antiquity for this superstition; some of the earliest writers referring to it. Thus, Pausanias relates how, previous to the destruction of the Messenians, the dogs pierced the air by raising a louder barking than usual; and it is on prep record how, before the sedition in Rome, about the dictatorship of Pompey, there was an extraordinary howling of dogs. Virgil, 4 (Georgic i. 470), speaking of the Roman misfortunes, says—

Capitolinus narrates, too, how the dogs by their howling presaged the death of Maximinus. The idea which associates the dog's howl with the approach of death is probably derived from a conception in Aryan mythology, which represents a dog as summoning the departing soul. Indeed, as Mr Fiske 5 remarks, Throughout all Aryan mythology, the souls of the dead are supposed to ride on the night-wind, with their. howling dogs, gathering into their throng the buying souls of those just dying as they pass by their houses. Another popular superstition—in all probability derived from the Egyptians—refers to the setting and rising of Sirius or the dog-star, as infusing madness into the canine race. Hence the name of the Dog-days was given by the Romans to the period between the 3rd July and the 11th August, to which Shakespeare alludes in Henry VIII. Thesis Prep? (v. By Susan Sontag? 3)—The dog-days now reign. We may, too, compare the words of Benvolio in Romeo and Juliet (iii. Thesis Prep? 1)—For now, these hot days, is the all kinds mad blood stirring. It is obvious, however, that this superstition is utterly groundless, for not only does the thesis prep star vary in its rising, but is later and later every year. The term dog-day is still a common phrase, and it is difficult to say whether it is from superstitious adherence to old custom, or from a belief in buying a dissertation, the injurious effect of heat upon thesis prep, dogs, that the magistrates, often unwisely, at this season of the year order them to be muzzled or tied up.

It was the practice to put them to death; and Ben Jonson, in his Bartholomew Fair, speaks of the dog-killer in this month of August. Lord Bacon, too, in his Sylva Sylvarum, tells us that it is against slavery a common experience that dogs know the dog-killer, when, as in times of infection, some petty fellow is sent out to kill them. Although they have never seen him before, yet they will all come forth and bark and thesis prep fly at research, him. A curtal dog, to which allusion is made in Merry Wives of Windsor (ii. 1), by Pistol— denoted originally the dog of an unqualified person, which, by the forest laws, must have its tail cut short, partly as a mark, and partly from a notion that the tail of a dog is necessary to him in running. In later usage, curtail dog means either a common dog, not meant for sport, or a dog that missed the game, which latter sense it has in the passage above. 1.

Dragon .—As the type and embodiment of the prep spirit of evil, the dragon has been made the subject of an extensive. legendary lore. The well-known myth of St George and the Dragon, which may be regarded as a grand allegory representing the hideous and powerful monster against whom the Christian soldier is called to fight, has exercised a remarkable influence for good in times past, over half-instructed people. It has been truly remarked that the a dissertation write dullest mind and hardest heart could not fail to learn from it something of the hatefulness of evil, the thesis prep beauty of self-sacrifice, and the all-conquering might of truth. This graceful conception is of speech alluded to by Shakespeare in thesis prep, his King John (ii.

1), where, according to a long established custom, it is made a subject for sign-painting 1 — Sits on his horseback at mine hostess’ door, Teach us some fence. In ancient mythology the task of drawing the chariot of night was assigned to dragons, on account of their supposed watchfulness. Against? In Cymbeline (ii. 2), Iachimo addressing them says—

May bare the raven's eye. 2. Milton, in prep, his Il Penseroso, mentions the dragon yoke of night, and in buying, his Comus (l. 130) Of Stygian darkness. It may be noticed that the whole tribe of serpents sleep with their eyes open, and thesis prep so appear to exert a constant watchfulness. 3. In devising loathsome ingredients for the witches’ mess, Shakespeare Macbeth (iv.

1), speaks of the scale of dragon, alluding to the horror in which this mythical being was held. Referring, also, to the numerous legends associated with its dread form, he mentions the spleen of fiery dragons (Richard III. v. 3); dragon's wings, 1 Henry VI. (i. 1), and in Pericles (i. 1), death-like dragons. Mr Conway 1 has admirably summed up the general views respecting this imaginary source of terror:—Nearly all the essays sontag dragon forms, whatever their original types and thesis prep their region, are represented in the conventional monster of the European stage, which meets the popular conception. The dragon is a masterpiece of the popular imagination, and it required many generations to give it artistic shape. Every Christmas he appears in all kinds, some London pantomime, with aspect similar to that which he has worn for many ages. His body is partly green, with the memories of the sea and of slime, and partly brown or dark, with lingering shadow of storm clouds. Thesis Prep? The lightning flames still in his red eyes, and cost accounting research flashes from his fire-breathing mouth. The thunderbolt of Jove, the spear of Wodan, are in the barbed point of his tail. His huge wings—bat-like, spiked, sum up all the mythical life of extinct harpies and vampires.

Spine of crocodile is on thesis his neck, tail of the serpent, and primal essays all the jagged ridges of rocks and thesis prep sharp thorns of jungles bristle around him, while the ice of glaciers and brassy glitter of sunstrokes are in against slavery, his scales. He is ideal of all that is hard, obstructive, perilous, loathe-some, horrible in nature; every detail of him has been seen through and thesis prep vanquished by write, man, here or there, but in selection and combination they rise again as principles, and conspire to form one great generalisation of the forms of Pain—the sum of every creature's worst. 2. Elephant .—According to a vulgar error current in thesis, bygone times, the elephant was supposed to have no joints—a notion which is service said to have been first recorded from tradition by Ctesias the thesis Cnidian. Cost Accounting? 3 Sir Thomas Browne has entered largely into prep, this superstition, arguing from reason, anatomy, and community 5 paragraph essay general analogy with other animals, the absurdity of the error. In Troilus and Cressida (ii. Prep? 3), Ulysses says:—the elephant hath joints, but none for courtesy: his legs are legs for necessity, not for essays by susan sontag flexure. Steevens quotes from the Dialogues of Creatures Moralized—a curious specimen. of our early natural history—the following:—the olefawnte that bowyth not the kneys. In the play of All Fools, 1605, we read:—I hope you are no elephant—you have joints.

In a note to Sir Thomas Browne's Works, 1 we are told, it has long been the custom for thesis prep the exhibitors of itinerant collections of wild animals, when showing the elephant, to essays mention the prep story of its having no joints, and its consequent inability to kneel; and all kinds they never fail to thesis prep think it necessary to demonstrate its untruth by causing the animal to bend one of slavery, its fore-legs, and to kneel also. In Julius Cæsar (ii. 1), the custom of seducing elephants into pitfalls, lightly covered with hurdles and turf, on which a proper bait to tempt them was exposed, is alluded to. Thesis Prep? 2 Decius speaks of elephants being betrayed with holes. Fox .—It appears that the term fox was a common expression for the old English weapon, the broad sword of Jonson's days, as distinguished from the religion small (foreign) sword. The name was given from the circumstance that Andrea Ferrara adopted a fox as the blade mark of his weapons—a practice, since his time, adopted by other foreign sword-cutlers. Swords with a running fox rudely engraved on the blades, are still occasionally to thesis prep be met with in of speech, the old curiosity shops of thesis prep, London. Accounting? 3 Thus, in Henry V. (iv. 4), Pistol says:— Except, O Signieur, thou do give to me. In Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair (ii.

6), the expression occurs:—What would you have, sister, of a fellow that knows nothing but a basket-hilt, and an old fox in it? The tricks and artifices of a hunted fox were supposed to be very extraordinary, hence Falstaff makes use of this expression in1 Henry IV. (iii. 3):— Goat .—It is curious that the harmless goat should have had an evil name, and thesis prep been associated with devil-lore. Community Service? Thus, there is a common superstition in thesis prep, England and of speech Scotland that it is prep never seen for twenty-four hours together; and that once in religion essays, this space, it pays a visit to the devil in order to have its beard combed. It was, formerly, too, a popular notion that the devil appeared frequently in the shape of a goat, which accounted for his horns and tail. Sir Thomas Browne observes that the thesis goat was the emblem of the sin offering, and is the emblem of sinful men at the day of judgment. This may, perhaps, account for Shakespeare's enumerating the gall of cost accounting research papers, goat (Macbeth iv. 1), among the ingredients of the thesis prep witches’ cauldron. His object seems to have been to include the most distasteful and ill-omened things imaginable—a practice shared, indeed, by other poets, contemporary with him.

Hare .—This was formerly esteemed a melancholy animal, and its flesh was supposed to engender melancholy in those who ate it. This idea was not confined to our own country, but is all kinds of speech mentioned by La Fontaine in one of his Fables (Liv. ii. Thesis Prep? Fab. 14)— Cet animal est triste, et la crainte le rounge. and later on 'he says—Le melancolique animal. Hence, in 1 Henry IV. (i. 2), Falstaff is told by Prince Henry, that he is as melancholy as a hare. This notion was not quite forgotten in Swift's time; for in his Polite Conversation, Lady Answerall, being asked to eat hare, replies: no madam; they say ’tis melancholy meat. Mr Staunton quotes the following extract from Tuberville's book on Hunting and Falconry:—The hare first taught us the use of the hearbe called wyld succory, which is essays very excellent for those which are disposed to be melancholicke. She herself is one of the prep most melancholicke beasts that is, and to research heale her own infirmitie, she goeth commonly to prep sit under that hearbe.

The old Greek epigram relating to the hare— So hares insult the lion when he's dead is alluded to by the Bastard in King John (ii. 1)— Whose valour plucks dead lions by the beard. A familiar expression amongst sportsmen for a hare is wat, so called perhaps from its long ears or wattles. In Venus and essay Adonis the term occurs— Stands on his hinder legs, with listening ear. In Drayton's Polyolbion (xxiii.), we read— The finder sendeth out, to seek out nimble Wat,

Which crosseth in the field, each furlong, every flat, Till he this pretty beast upon the form hath found. Hedgehog .—The urchin or hedgehog, like the toad, for prep its solitariness, the ugliness of its appearance, and from a popular belief that it sucked or poisoned the service 5 paragraph essay udders of cows, was adopted into the demonologic system; and its shape was sometimes supposed to be assumed by mischievous elves. 1 Hence in the Tempest (i. 2), Prospero says— Shall, for that vast of night that they may work, All exercise on thee. and later on in the same play (ii.

2), Caliban speaks of being frighted with urchin shows. Thesis Prep? In the witch scene in primal religion, Macbeth (iv. 1), the hedgepig is prep represented as one of the witches’ familiars; and in the Midsummer Night's Dream (ii. 2), in the incantation of the fairies, thorny hedgehogs are exorcised. For the use of accounting papers, urchins in similar associations we may quote Merry Wives of Windsor (iv. 4), like urchins, ouphes, and prep fairies; and essays by susan sontag Titus Andronicus (ii. Thesis Prep? 3), ten thousand swelling toads, as many urchins.

2 In the phrase still current of little urchins for a child, the idea of the fairy also remains. In various legends we find this animal holding a prominent place. Thus, for example, it was in the form of a hedgehog, 3 that the devil is said to have. made his attempt to let the service 5 paragraph essay sea in through the Brighton Downs, which was prevented by a light being brought, though the seriousness of the scheme is still attested in the Devil's Dyke. There is an ancient tradition that when the devil had smuggled himself into Noah's Ark, he tried to sink it by boring a hole; but this scheme was defeated, and the human race saved, by the hedgehog stuffing himself into a hole. In the Brighton story, as Mr Conway points out, the devil would appear to have remembered his former failure in drowning people, and to have appropriated the form which defeated him. In Richard III. (i. 2), the hedgehog is thesis used as a term of reproach by service essay, Lady Anne, when addressing Gloucester. Horse .—Although Shakespeare's allusions to thesis prep the horse are most extensive, yet he has said little of the many widespread superstitions, legends, and traditional tales that have been associated from the earliest times with this brave and intellectual animal. Indeed, even now-a-days, both in our own country and essay against slavery abroad, many a fairy tale is thesis prep told and credited by the peasantry, in which the horse occupies a prominent place. It seems to have been a common notion that, at night time, fairies in their nocturnal revels played various pranks with horses, often entangling in a thousand knots their hair—a superstition to which we referred in our chapter on Fairies, where Mercutio, in Romeo and Juliet, says, (i.

4):— That plats the sontag manes of prep, horses in against slavery, the night, And bakes the elf-locks in foul sluttish hairs, Which once entangled much misfortune bodes. In King Lear (ii. 3), Edgar says:—I'll elf all my hair in prep, knots. Mr Hunt, in his Popular Romances of the West of cost papers, England (1871, p. 87), tells us that when a boy, he was on a visit at a farmhouse near Fowey River, and well remembers the farmer with much sorrow, telling the party one morning at thesis prep, breakfast how the piskie people had been riding Tom again. By Susan Sontag? The mane was said to be knotted into thesis, fairy stirrups, and the farmer said he had no doubt that at least twenty small people had sat upon a dissertation, the horse's neck.

Warburton 1 considers that this superstition may have originated from the. disease called Plica Polonica. Witches, too, have generally been supposed to thesis harass the horse, using it in various ways for their fiendish purposes. Thus, there are numerous local traditions in essays by susan, which the prep horse at night-time has been ridden by the witches, and found in all kinds, the morning in an almost prostrate condition, bathed in sweat. It was a current notion that a horse hair dropped into corrupted water would soon become an animal. The fact, however, is that the hair moves like a living thing, because a number of animalculæ cling to prep it.

1 This ancient vulgar error is primal essays mentioned in (Antony and Cleopatra, i. 2):— Which, like the courser's hair hath yet but life, And not a serpent's poison. Steevens quotes from thesis prep Churchyard's Discourse of Rebellion, 1570,— That lyes in donge, where on vyle serpents brede. Dr Lister, in the Philosophical Transactions, says, that these animated horse-hairs are real thread worms. It was asserted that these worms moved like serpents, and by susan were poisonous to swallow. Coleridge tells us it was a common experiment with boys in Cumberland and thesis Westmoreland, to lay a horse-hair in water, which, when removed after a time, would twirl round the finger and sensibly compress it—having become the supporter of an immense number of small slimy water lice. A horse is accounting said to have a cloud in his face, when he has a dark coloured spot in his forehead between his eyes.

This gives him a sour look, and, being supposed to indicate an ill-temper, is generally considered a great blemish. This notion is alluded to in Antony and Cleopatra (iii. 2), where Agrippa speaking of Cæsar says:— whereupon Enobarbus adds:— So is he, being a man. Burton in his Anatomy of Melancholy, uses the phrase for the look of a woman:—Every lover admires his mistress, though she be very deformed of herselfe—thin, leane, chitty face, have clouds in her face, etc. To mose in the chine, a phrase we find in thesis, Taming of the primal Shrew (iii. 2):— refers to a disorder in horses, also known as mourning in the chine. Alluding to the custom associated with horses, we may note that a stalking-horse, or stale, was either a real or artificial one, under cover of which the fowler approached towards and shot at thesis, his game. It is alluded to in As You Like It (v. 4), by all kinds of speech, the Duke, who says of Touchstone:—He uses his folly like a stalking-horse and under the presentation of that he shoots his wit.

In Much Ado About Nothing (ii. 3), Claudio says:—Stalk on, stalk on; the fowl sits. 1 In Comedy of Errors (ii. 1), Adriana says:—I am but his stale, upon which Malone remarks:—Adriana undoubtedly means to compare herself to a stalking-horse, behind whom Antipholus shoots at such game as he selects. In Taming of the Shrew, Katharine says to her father (i. Thesis Prep? 1):—Is it your will to make a stale of me amongst these mates? which, says Singer, means make an object of service essay, mockery.

So in thesis, 3 Henry VI. (iii. 3), Warwick says:—Had he none else to make a stale but me? That it was also a hunting term might be shown, adds Dyce, 2 by community service, quotations from various old writers. In the inventories of the wardrobe belonging to King Henry VIII., we frequently find the allowance of certain quantities of stuff for the purpose of making stalking coats and stalking hose for the use of his Majesty. 3. Again, the forehorse of a team was generally gaily ornamented with tufts, and ribbons, and bells. Hence in All's.

[paragraph continues] Well that Ends Well (ii. 1), Bertram complains that bedizened like one of these animals, he will have to squire ladies at the court, instead of achieving honour in the wars. Creaking my shoes on the plain masonry, Till honour be bought up and no sword worn. But one to dance with. A familiar name for a common horse was Cut,—either from its being docked or gelded—a name occasionally applied to thesis prep a man as a term of contempt. In Twelfth Night (ii. 3), Sir Toby Belch says:—Send for money, knight; if thou hast her not i’ the end, call me cut.

In 1 Henry IV. Write? (ii. Thesis? 1), the carrier says:—I prithee, Tom, beat Cut's saddle. We may compare, too, what Falstaff says further on in the slavery same play (ii. 4), I tell thee what, Hal, if I tell thee a lie, spit in my face, call me horse. Thesis? Hence, call me Cut is the all kinds same as call me horse —both expressions having been used.

In Shakespeare's day, a race of horses was the term for what is now called a stud. So in Macbeth (ii. 4), Rosse says:— Beauteous and swift, the minions of thesis prep, their race, The words minions of the race, according to Steevens, mean the favourite horses on community service 5 paragraph the race-ground. Lion .—The traditions and stories of the darker ages abounded with examples of the thesis prep lion's generosity. Upon the supposition that these acts of clemency were true, Troilus, in the passage below, reasons not improperly (Troilus and Cressida, v. 3) that to spare against reason, by mere instinct and pity, became rather a generous beast than a wise man. Essays By Susan Sontag? 1. Which better fits a lion, than a man.

It is recorded by Pliny 2 that the prep lion alone of all wild animals is against gentle to thesis prep those that humble themselves before him, and will not touch any such upon buying, their submission, but spareth what creature soever lieth prostrate before him. Prep? Hence Spenser's Una, attended by a lion; and Perceval's Lion, in Morte Arthur, (b. xiv. Religion Essays? c. 6). Thesis? Bartholomæus says the lion's mercie is known by many and oft ensamples: for they spare them that lie on the ground. Essays By Susan Sontag? Shakespeare again alludes to this notion in As you Like It (iv. 3)— The royal disposition of that beast. To prey on nothing that doth seem as dead.

It was also supposed that the prep lion would not injure a royal prince. Hence in 1 Henry IV. (ii. 4) the Prince says—You are lions too, you ran away upon instinct, you will not touch the true prince; no, fie! 1 * The same notion is alluded to by Beaumont and Fletcher in buying, The Mad Lover (iv. 5)— If she be sprung from royal blood, the lion. He'll do you reverence, else— He'll tear her all to pieces. According to some commentators there is an allusion in 3 Henry VI. (i. Thesis Prep? 3) to all kinds of speech the practice of confining lions and keeping them without food that they may devour criminals exposed to them—

That trembles under his devouring paws. Mole .—The eyes of the mole are so extremely minute, and so perfectly hid in its hair, that our ancestors considered it blind—a vulgar error to which reference is made by Caliban in the Tempest (iv. 1)—Pray you tread softly that the blind mole may not hear a foot fall. And again by Pericles (i. 1)—The blind mole casts copp’d hills towards heaven. Hence the expression blind as a mole. Alexander Ross 2 absurdly speaks of the mole's eyes as only the forms of eyes, given by thesis prep, nature rather for ornament than for use; as wings are given to essays by susan the ostrich which never flies, and a long tail to prep the rat, which serves for no other purpose but to be catched sometimes by it. Religion Essays? Sir Thomas Browne, however, in his Vulgar Errors (Bk. iii. xviii.) 1 has, with his usual minuteness, disproved this idea, remarking that they have eyes in their head is thesis prep manifested unto any that wants them not in all kinds of speech, his own.

A popular term for the mole was the Moldwarp or Mouldiwarp, 2 so called from the Anglo-Saxon, denoting turning the mould. Thus in 1 Henry IV. (iii. 1) Hotspur says— With telling me of the moldwarp and the ant. Mouse .—This word was formerly used as a term of endearment, from either sex to the other.

In this sense it is used by Rosaline in Love's Labour's Lost (v. 2)— And again in thesis prep, Hamlet (iii. 4). Some doubt exists as to the exact meaning of Mouse-hunt, by Lady Capulet, in Romeo and Juliet (iv.

4)— But I will watch you from such watching now. According to some, the expression implies a hunter of gay-women, mouse having been used in this signification. Buying A Dissertation? 3 Others are of opinion that the stoat 4 is meant, the smallest of the thesis weasel tribe, and others again the pole-cat. Mr Staunton 5 tells us that the mouse-hunt is the marten, an essays by susan sontag, animal of the weasel tribe which prowls about for its prey at thesis prep, night, and is applied to any one of rakish propensities. Holinshed in his History of Scotland (1577, p. 181) quotes from the laws of Kenneth II., King of Scotland—If a sowe eate her pigges, let hyr be stoned to buying a dissertation death and buried, that no man eate of hyr fleshe. This offence is probably alluded to by Shakespeare in Macbeth (iv. 1) where the witch says—

Pole-Cat, or Fitchew .—This animal is supposed to be very amorous; and hence its name, Mr Steevens says, was often applied to ladies of easy or no virtue. Thesis Prep? In Othello (iv. 1) Cassio calls Bianca a fitchew, and in Troilus and Cressida (v. 1) Thersites alludes to essay against it. 1. Porcupine .—Another name for this animal was the porpentine, which spelling occurs in Hamlet (i. 5). Like quills upon the fretful porpentine. And again in 2 Henry IV. Prep? (iii. 2) York speaks of a sharp-quill’d porpentine.

Ajax, too, in cost, Troilus and Cressida (ii. 1) applies the prep term to Thersites, do not, porpentine. Essays? In the thesis prep above passages, however, and elsewhere, the word has been altered by editors to porcupine. According to a popular error, the essays by susan sontag porcupine could dart his quills. Thesis? They are easily detached, very sharp, and slightly barbed, and may easily stick to a person's legs, when he is not aware that he is near enough to 5 paragraph touch them. 2. Rabbit .—In 2 Henry IV. (ii. 2), this animal is used as a term of reproach, a sense in which it was known in Shakespeare's day. The phrase Cony-catch, which occurs in Taming of the Shrew (v. 1)—Take heed, Signior Baptista, lest you be cony-catched in prep, this business, implied the act of deceiving or cheating a simple person—the cony or rabbit being considered a foolish animal.

3 It has been shown from Dekker's English Villanies, that the system of cheating was carried to a great length in all kinds, the early part of the seventeenth century, that a collective society of sharpers was called a warren, and their dupes, rabbit-suckers, i.e. Thesis Prep? , young rabbit or conies. 4 Shakespeare has once used the term to against slavery express harmless roguery, in the Taming of Shrew (iv. 1). When Grumio, will not answer his fellow-servants, except in a jesting way, Curtis says to him:—Come, you are so full of cony-catching. Rat .—The fanciful idea, that rats were commonly rhymed to death, in Ireland, is said to have arisen from some metrical charm or incantation, used there for that purpose—to which. there are constant allusions in old writers. In the Merchant of Venice (iv.

1), Shylock says— And I be pleased to give ten thousand ducats. And in As You Like It (iii. 2), Rosaline says:—I was never so be-rhymed since Pythagoras’ time, that I was an Irish rat, which I can hardly remember. We find it mentioned by Ben Jonson, in the Poetaster, (v. 1)—

In drumming tunes. The reference, however, is thesis prep generally referred in Ireland, says Mr Mackay, to the supposed potency of the verses pronounced by the professional rhymers of Ireland, which according to popular superstition, could not only drive rats to destruction, but could absolutely turn a man's face to essays the rack of prep, his head. 1. Sir W. Temple, in his Essay on Poetry, seems to derive the idea from the Runic incantations, for, after speaking of them in various ways, he adds, and the proverb of rhyming rats to community 5 paragraph essay death, came, I suppose, from the same root. According to a superstitious notion of considerable antiquity, rats leaving a ship are considered indicative of misfortune to a vessel, probably from the same idea that crows will not build upon trees that are likely to fall. This idea is noticed by Shakespeare in the Tempest (i. 2), where Prospero, describing the vessel in which himself and daughter had. been placed, with the view to their certain destruction at sea, says— Bore us some leagues to sea; where they prepared. A rotten carcass of a boat; not rigg’d, Nor tackle, sail, nor mast; the very rats.

Instinctively had quit it. The Shipping Gazette of prep, April 1869 contained a communication entitled, A Sailor's Notion About Rats, in which the following passage occurs—It is a well-authenticated fact that rats have often been known to cost papers leave ships in the harbour previous to their being lost at sea. Some of those wiseacres who want to convince us against the evidence of our senses will call this superstition. As neither I have time, nor you space, to prep cavil with such at present, I shall leave them alone in their glory. The fact, however, as Mr Hardwick has pointed out in his Traditions, Superstitions, and Folk-lore (1872, p. 251), that rats do sometimes migrate from one ship to another, or from one barn or corn-stack to another, from various causes, ought to be quite sufficient to explain such a superstition. Indeed, a story is told of a cunning Welsh captain who wanted to of speech get rid of rats that infested his ship, then lying in the Mersey, at Liverpool. Having found out that there was a vessel laden with cheese in the basin, and getting alongside of her about dusk, he left all his hatches open, and waited till all the rats were in his neighbour's ship, and then moved off. Snail .—A common amusement among children consists in charming snails, in order to prep induce them to essay against slavery put out their horns—a couplet, such as the following, being repeated on the occasion—

Or else I'll beat you as black as a coal. In Scotland, it is regarded as a token of fine weather if the snail obey the command and put out its horn 1 — And tell us if it will be a bonnie day the morn. Shakespeare alludes to snail-charming in the Merry Wives of thesis, Windsor (iv. 2), where Mrs Page says of Mrs Ford's husband, he so buffets himself on the forehead, crying, Peer out! peer out! that any madness I ever yet beheld seemed but tameness, civility, and patience, to this his distemper he is in essays, now. In Comedy of Errors (ii. 2), the snail is used to denote a lazy person.

Tiger .—It was an ancient belief that this animal roared and raged most furiously in stormy and high winds—a piece of folk-lore alluded to thesis in Troilus and Cressida (i. 3), by Nestor, who says— Than by sontag, the tiger: but when the splitting wind. Makes flexible the knees of knotted oaks, And flies fled under shade, why, then, the thing of courage, As roused with rage, with rage doth sympathise. Unicorn .—In Julius Caesar (ii. 1), Decius tells how unicorns may be betray’d with trees, alluding to their traditionary mode of capture. Prep? They are reported to have been taken by one, who, running behind a tree, eluded the violent push the animal was making at him, so that his horn spent its force on the trunk, and stuck fast, detaining the animal till he was despatched by the hunter. 1 In Topsell's History of Beasts (1658, p. 557), we read of the unicorn—He is an enemy to the lions, wherefore, as soon as ever a lion seeth a unicorn, he runneth to a tree for succour, that so when the unicorn maketh force at all kinds of speech, him, he may not only thesis prep avoid his horn, but also destroy him; for the unicorn, in the swiftness of service 5 paragraph essay, his course, runneth against the tree, wherein his sharp horn sticketh fast, that when the lion seeth the unicorn fastened by the horn, without all danger he falleth upon him and killeth him.

With this passage we may compare the following from Spenser's Fairy Queen (Bk. ii. canto 5)— A prowd rebellious unicorn defyes, T’ avoide the rash assault and wrathful stowre. Of his fiers foe, him to a tree applyes, He slips aside: the whiles that furious beast. His precious home, sought of his enimyes.

Strikes in the stocke, ne thence can be releast, But to thesis prep the mighty victor yields a bounteous feast. Weasel .—To meet a weasel was formerly considered a bad omen. 1 That may be a tacit allusion to this superstition in Lucrece (p. 307)— They fright him, yet he still pursues his fear. It appears that weasels were kept in houses, instead of cats, for the purpose of killing vermin. Phædrus notices this their feline office in the first and fourth fables of his fourth book.

The supposed quarrelsomeness of this animal is spoken of by Pisanio in Cymbeline (iii. 4), who tells Imogen that she must be as quarrelous as the weasel; and in 2 Henry IV. (ii. 3), Lady Percy says to Hotspur— This character of the weasel is not, however, generally mentioned by naturalists. 153:2 Glossary to Shakespeare, 1876, p. 20. 153:3 Asinico, a little ass, Connelly's Spanish and English Dict., Madrid, 4to. 153:4 English Folk-lore, p. 115; cf. Macbeth, iii. 2. 153:5 Henderson's Folk-lore of Northern Counties, 1879, pp. 125, 126.

154:1 It has been speciously derived from the English word to rear, in the sense of being able to raise itself in the air, but this is erroneous. Nares's Glossary, ii. Buying Write? 726. 154:2 Aldis Wright's Notes to a 'Midsummer Night's Dream,' 1877, p. 101. 154:3 Folk-lore Record, 1879, p. 201. 154:4 Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, 1879, i. p. 106. 154:5 See Brand's Pop. Antiq., 1849, iii. p. Thesis Prep? 189; Harting's Ornithology of Shakespeare, 1871, pp. 13, 14. 154:6 Vulgar Errors, 1852, i. p. 247. 155:1 See Bartholomæus De Proprietate Rerum, lib. xviii. c. 112; Aristotle, History of Animals, lib. All Kinds? vi. c. Thesis Prep? 31; Pliny's Natural History, viii. c. 54.

155:2 Steevens on this passage. 155:3 Notes on Julius Cæsar, 1878, p. 134. 155:4 Notices Illustrative of the Drama and other Popular Amusements, incidentally illustrating Shakespeare and his contemporaries, extracted from the MSS. of Leicester, by W. Kelly, 1865, p. 152. 156:1 No. 433. The document is given at buying write, length in Collier's Annals of the Stage, i. 35, Note. 156:2 Kelly's Notices of Leicester, p. 152. 156:3 Wright's Domestic Manners, p. 304. 156:4 Progresses and Processions, ii. p. Prep? 259. 156:5 About 1760 it was customary to have a bear baited at the election of the mayor.—Corry, History of essays by susan sontag, Liverpool, 1810, p. 93.

157:1 Edited by M. A. Thoms, 1853, p. 170. 157:2 For further information on this subject consult Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, 1876: Kelly's Notices of prep, Leicester, pp. 152–159. 157:3 Chambers’ Book of Days, 1864, vol. By Susan? ii., pp. Thesis Prep? 518, 519. 158:1 Hampson's ?vi Medii Kalendarium, i. p. 96. 158:2 See Gent. Cost Accounting Papers? Mag., xcviii. pp. 401, 402. 158:3 See Book of Days, ii. Thesis? pp.

517–519. 158:4 Emboss’d is a hunting term, properly applied to a deer when foaming at the mouth from fatigue, see p. 169; also Dyce's Glossary to Shakespeare, p. Cost Research Papers? 142. Thesis Prep? See Nares's Glossary, i. p. 275. 158:5 Wright's Domestic Manners, p. 304. See Strutt's Sports and primal Pastimes; Smith's Festivals, Games, and Amusements, 1831, pp. 192–229. 159:1 Book of Days, ii. p. Prep? 59. 159:2 Cf.

2 Henry IV., ii. 2, the essay town-bull. 159:3 Folk-Lore of Northern Counties, p. Thesis Prep? 267. Brand's Pop. All Kinds Of Speech? Antiq., 1849, iii. p. 7. 159:4 Malkin is prep a diminutive of Mary, Maukin, the community service 5 paragraph same word is still used in Scotland for a hare. Prep? Notes to Macbeth by essays by susan sontag, Clarke and Wright, 1877. p. 75.

159:5 Sternberg's Dialect and Folk Lore of Northamptonshire, 1851, p. 148. 159:6 Henderson's Folk Lore of Northern Counties, 1879, p. Thesis? 206. 160:1 Kelly's Indo-European Folk Lore, 1863, p. 238. 160:2 Thorpe's Northern Mythology, 1851, iii. p. 32. 161:1 See Thorpe's Northern Mythology, 1851, ii. p. 32; iii. pp.

26–236. 161:2 See Baring Gould's Book of Werewolves, 1869, p. 65. 161:4 Dyce's Glossary to Shakespeare, p. 70. 161:5 See Brand's Pop. Antiq., 1849, iii. p. 39, also Wright's Essays on the Superstitions of the Middle Ages, 1846. 162:1 See Brand's Pop. Antiq., iii. p. 42. 163:1 Dyce, Glossary to Shakespeare, p. 466. 163:2 From Tibert, Tib was also a common name for a cat.

163:3 Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare, 1839, p. 41. 163:4 Dyce's Glossary, p. 183. 163:5 A gibbe (an old male cat), Macou, Cotgrave's French and English Dict. 164:1 Vulgar Errors, Bk. iii. 21, 1852, i. All Kinds Of Speech? p. 321—Note. 164:2 Ovid (Metam. xv. 1. 411), speaks of its changes of colour.

165:1 Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, 1831, ix. p. 226. 165:2 Vulgar Errors, iii. p. 7. 165:3 See Cymbeline, ii. 4.; Winter's Tale, i. 2. 166:2 Dyce's Glossary, p. 29; see 1 Henry IV., ii. Thesis Prep? 3, of basilisks, of cannon, culvern. 166:3 Handbook Index to Shakespeare. 167:1 Singer's Shakespeare, 1875, x. p. 118.

167:2 See Strutt's Sport and essays by susan Pastimes, 1876, pp. 66, 75, 79, 80, 113, 117. 167:3 See As You Like It, iv. 2; All's Well, v. 2; Macbeth, iv. 3; 1 Henry IV., v. 4; 1 Henry VI., iv. 2; 2 Henry VI. v. Thesis? 2; Titus Andronicus, iii. 1., c. 167:4 Singer's Shakespeare, viii. p. 421. 169:1 Chappell's Pop.

Music of the Olden Time, 2nd Ed., i. p. Essays? 61. See Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare, p. 432. See, too, Nares’ Glossary, i, p. Prep? 440. 170:1 See Dyce's Glossary, p. Essays Sontag? 401. 170:2 See Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, 1876, p. 65. 171:1 De Proprietate Rerum, 1. xviii. c. 30. 171:2 Cf.

Virgil's description of the wounded stag in Æneid, Bk. vii. 171:3 Commentary on Bartholom?us's De Proprietate Rerum. 171:4 The drops which fall from their eyes are not tears from the prep lachrymal glands, but an oily secretion from the inner angle of the eye close to the nose. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 217. 171:5 Illustrations of Shakespeare, p. 183. 171:6 These dogs were kept for baiting bears, when that amusement was in vogue, and from their terrific howling they are occasionally introduced to heighten the horror of the a dissertation write picture. Nares’ Glossary, i. p. 50. 172:1 See Kelly's Indo-European Folk-Lore, p. 109. 172:2 See Henderson's Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties, p. 48. 172:3 English Folk-Lore, p. 101.

172:4 See Hardwick's Traditions, Superstitions, and thesis prep Folk-Lore, p. 171. 172:5 Myths and Mythmakers, 1873, p. 36. 174:1 For the various versions of community service, this myth consult Baring Gould's Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, 1877, pp. 266–316. 174:2 Cf. Thesis Prep? Troilus and Cressida, v. 8; Midsummer Night's Dream, iii. 2.

174:3 Singer's Shakespeare, x. p. 363. 175:1 Demonology and Devil Lore, 1880, i. Service 5 Paragraph Essay? p. 383. 175:2 The dragon formerly constituted a part of the Morris dance. 175:3 See Sir Thomas Browne's Works, 1852, i. Thesis? pp. 220–232. 176:1 Edited by Simon Wilkin, 3852, i. p. 226.

176:2 See Pliny's Nat. His., Bk. Essay Slavery? viii. 176:3 Staunton's Shakespeare, 3864, ii. p. 367; Nares’ Glossary, i. p. 331. 178:1 Singer's Shakespeare, ix. Thesis Prep? p. 75. 178:2 See Wright's Notes to the Tempest, 1875, p. 94. 178:3 Conway's Demonology and Devil Lore, 1880, i. p. 122. 179:1 Warburton on community 5 paragraph essay Romeo and Juliet, i. 4. 180:1 Dyce's Glossary, p. 104.

181:1 See Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare, p. 106; Nares’ Glossary, ii. p. 830. 181:3 See Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, p. 48. 182:1 Singer's Shakespeare, 1875, vii. p. 277. 182:2 Nat. History, book viii. chap. 19. 183:1 See Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare, 2839, pp. 189, 190. 183:2 Arcana Microcosmi, p. 151. 184:2 See Nares’ Glossary, ii. Thesis Prep? p. 577; Singer's Shakespeare, v. p. 97. 184:3 Halliwell-Phillipps’s Handbook Index to Shakespeare, 1866, p. 331.

184:4 Forby's Vocabulary of East Anglia, ii. p. 222. 184:5 See Staunton's Shakespeare, i. p. 278. 185:2 See Nares’ Glossary, ii. p. 673. 185:4 See D’Israeli's Curiosities of Literature, iii. p. 78. 186:1 The strange phrase and all kinds of speech the superstition that arose out of it, seem to have been produced by a mistranslation by the English-speaking population of a considerable portion of Ireland, of two Celtic or Gaelic words, ran , to roar , to shriek, to bellow, to make a great noise on prep a wind instrument; and rann , to religion essays versify, to rhyme. Thesis? It is of speech well-known that rats are scared by any great and persistent noise in the house which they infest. The Saxon English, as well as Saxon Irish, of Shakespeare's time, confounding rann , a rhyme, with ran a roar , fell into the error which led to the English phrase as used by Shakespeare.

Antiquarian Magazine and Bibliographer, 1882, ii. p. Prep? 9. On Some Obscure Words and Celtic Phrases in Shakespeare by Charles Mackay. 187:1 See English Folk-lore, 1878, p. 120. 188:1 See Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 922. 189:1 See Brand's Pop. Antiq., 1849, iii. p. 283.

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