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Essays about a process

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boullee essay on art ÉTIENNE-LOUIS BOULLÉ, Newton’s Cenotaph, 1780-93. Francisco Martínez Mindeguía, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Étienne-Louis Boullée, Newton’s Cenotaph, 1780-93. This is the façade of Newton's cenotaph, possibly Boullée’s most emblematic project. A project that allows us to understand what he meant by a process, saying that the architect should aim at the sublime. A concept that we should not relate exclusively to the greatness . Étienne-Louis Boullée (1728-1799) wanted to a woman and colored essay be a painter and ended up studying architecture at Jacques-François Blondel’s school, owing to essays about parental pressure. How To Essays. At the age of 19 he became a teacher at the École des Ponts et Chausées, at 34 was admitted as a second class member at the Académie d'Architecture and at essays a process 52 as a first class member, until the National Convention abolished the Academy in 1793. He was one of the coursework founders of the Institut National des Sciences et des Arts in 1795.

At 52 he began writing Architecture, Essai sur l'art , which he finished between 1790 and 1793, although it was not published until 1953. His book is illustrated with drawings of projects for public buildings he designed between 1778 and 1788: churches, palaces, courts, assemblies, theaters, libraries, museums, city gates, memorial arches, bridges, lighthouses, cemeteries, cenotaphsAfter his death, his figure was forgotten, hidden behind the published work of a process Ledoux and Durand; he was despised by the classics, who saw him as an eccentric seeking to overthrow traditions, and by the moderns who made him responsible for the neoclassical deviations towards historicism and plagiarism. How To And Concise Essays. His book contains the about key to the understanding of architecture drawing, namely Newton's cenotaph. Blondel said that the building is to find greatness. He particularly said: I tried to apply all the models the nature and art offered me in order to present the image of the great (Architecture. Clinical Research. Essay on art. GG, pg. 70). Then follows: The picture of the a process great has such sway over our senses that, even if we consider it horrible, it always provokes us a feeling of admiration. A volcano spewing lava and death is a terribly beautiful image! . Coursework. Greatness is directly related to beauty and, under different meanings, it is the essays same whether objects are pleasant or horrifying. Looking grand in essay, anything means revealing superior qualities (Essay, p. 76).

It is an about a process argument that matches the essays by burman concept of the sublime expounded by Edmund Burke. He also said: the image of greatness satisfies us in every aspect because our soul, eager to extend its joys, seems ready to embrace the Universe ( Essay . p. 59). Besides from large size, the sublime is achieved by simple forms. He said : Why does the regular shaped figure emphasized at first sight? Because its faces are regular and essays a process, recurrent and because its form is essays by burman, simple. We distinguish them thanks to the image of order that their regularity and symmetry suggest. The regularity sets the essays a process beauty of form; symmetry, order, and overall beauty; variety produces various levels by admission essay 5 page, means of which they are diversified to essays about a process us . Proportion is an effect that arises from regularity, symmetry and varietyThe harmony of the bodies is born from the combination and the perfect conjunction of all its proportions (Essay. p. 56). Clinical Research Studies. Such assessments are those that justify this building’s form. Basically, the building is essays a process, a large sphere that represents both the land and Newton’s discoveries.

Its access can be gained through the base and, despite its size, only a small area of such base can be occupied. Its surface is skilfully perforated, so that sunlight can enter during the day and create the picture of the night sky. At night a great source of artificial light in the centre portrays the daytime image . Light represents Newton, lighting the knowledge of mankind. From the outside, one can only see half the sphere, supported by how to clear and concise, two cylinders. About A Process. Around this sphere, along its perimeter, Boullée places rows of resistance trees.

This image recalls Roman tradition in the great mausoleums of Augustus and Hadrian, even though they are different building types, since a mausoleum is a grave and a cenotaph is a monument dedicated to the memory of someone, but inside which no body is preserved. Boullée’s idea coincides with the epitaph written by Alexander Pope in about, 1732: Nature and the laws of nature were hidden at night. God said, “Let Newton be born!” and all was light. Following the text of his Essai sur l'art : “To produce sad and dark images it is necessary to clinical studies paper-based present architecture by means of essays about a process a completely bare wall, as I intendedin some funerary buildings, showing a picture of sunken architecture by means of low proportions and buried into the ground; in short, give shape, by means of light absorbing materials, to the dark image of an architecture defined by young, the shadow effect. This type of shadow-in tegrated architecture is an essays about artistic discovery that belongs to me . (Essay , p.71) Boullée and the architecture of shadows . For Boullée, however, this shadow is inseparable from light. In other words, it is a shadow the purpose of which is the sublime perception of light. Young A Woman Essay. It is not for a light that shines, but for one that could dazzle, overtake and paralyze.

And he applies this concept in public places: museums, libraries, theaters, churches, palaces. One of such buildings is the basilica. Boullée describes it as the basilica or metropolitan church of a process Corpus Christi Day, as he says : a house of holiness inhabited by the most worthy ministers of religion. The scenic effect is obvious in the interior perspective drawing: the paper-based light on the altar, around the cross, the priest in ecstasy, the faithful ascending the stairs and kneeling in the contemplation of the miracle of the Eucharist. Boullée describes it as the basilica or metropolitan church of Corpus Christi Day, as he says : a house of holiness inhabited by essays about, the worthiest ministers of religion. The scenic effect is obvious in the interior perspective drawing: the light at the altar, around the cross, the how to clear and concise essays priest in ecstasy, the essays about faithful ascending the stairs and kneeling in contemplation of the miracle of the Eucharist.

Some drawings show a sublime experience. As he says, the objective is to arouse in us a deep worship: this is the goal of religious ceremonies. It is clinical research studies, therefore necessary to use all appropriate means to give a character of grandeur and majesty (Essay, p. 62) . This place . would also make our soul experience a feeling of joy and would be our truly earthly paradise (Essay, p. 64) . Essays About. . here's what would make this event not only something august/magnificent and exciting, but also truly celestial (Essay, p.64) Boullée begins his book by asking “what is architecture?” and denies that it is the art of building , to quote Vitruvius. Architecture is a product of the mind, the fruit of spiritual and intellectual activity and precedes construction. He clarifies that the art of architecture is clinical, different from the construction technique. Art is generated by essays about, a creative inspiration, while technique is only a mechanical process. He thus confronts the vitruvian approach. But Boullée goes farther: the first issue in architecture is neither technical nor aesthetic, but philosophical and ethical.

Origin of the images: All the images are from Étienne-Louis Boullée, Arquitectura, ensayo sobre el arte , Barcelona, Gustavo Gili, 1985. Clinical Research Studies Paper-based. - Étienne-Louis Boullée, Architecture, Essai sur l'art , 1793. The quoted translations correspond to the Gustavo Gili Spanish Editing. - Emil Kaufmann, Étienne-Louis Boullée, The Art Bulletin , vol. 21, nº 3, 1939, pp. 213-227. - Emil Kaufmann, Tres arquitectos revolucionarios: Boullée, Ledoux y Lequeu , 1952, 1978.

Francisco Martínez Mindeguía is Profesor Agregado at the Superior Technical Architecture School of Vallès (Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura del Vallès), UPC.

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oedipus essay high As of July 14, 2008, the content from this page migrated to AP English Connections, a blog for essays about, teachers to connect. Jim, I want to suggest that AP really does mean teach to the test. There was some discussion in our high school last year about this very topic--college prep or get ready for the test. I think it's both, but the test must take priority. AP students enroll in an AP class expecting the teacher to help them be ready to do well on that test. Students who do well in AP will be ready for college by default. We've also, in essays the past, had discussions about which texts to use. Essays A Process? As I told Carrie (see below), any text of essays by burman literary merit will suffice for essays a process, AP. But it is nice to clinical research paper-based have read some of the common works that generally appear on their list for the open ended essay question.

One last thing, the only way to essays about get good at resistance teaching AP English is to teach AP English. Please read some of my other letters here, which address concerns of new teachers. My advice hasn't changed. Go to a conference. Join an AP list serv. Essays? Then, just do your best.

AP is rigorous, but that doesn't mean it can't be fun. What were some of your college lit classes like? Model some aspects of your new AP class after them. My class is essays, mostly comprised of three things: read, discuss, and write. It is as simple and as difficult as that.

Good luck. Carrie writes: I am a 6th year English teacher, and I'm assigned to teach AP literature next year at The Dalles High School in The Dalles, Oregon. I've taught AP language for about, one year (a few years ago) with another school district, but I have never taught AP literature. Clinical Research Studies? I saw your wonderfully informative website, and I was hoping you could give me some advice on how to prepare to teach AP literature . I took two courses on about a process, AP teaching, but I still don't have an up narrative, AP syllabus to work from. The district doesn't offer a syllabus either; each teacher just did whatever they wanted. About A Process? So, I'm searching the net and talking to friends about where to start/what books to grow up narrative essay teach, etc. could you give me some advice? Also, do you recommend any books for about, me to how to admission read that would help me teach the course?

Carrie, I wish someone would have answered these questions for me way back when. The texts used for AP Lit will vary from about, teacher to teacher, but mostly what I see fit the classical world lit category. Any work of significant literary quality can be used in coursework an AP lit class. If your school is like mine, you won't have money for about a process, all new books, so some of what you choose for your class will come from the current stacks. Unless, of research studies paper-based course, you are starting from about a process, scratch, and then you are in an enviable state (except, what to choose is the hard question). Our tendency is to choose books for our students that we have studied.

The benefit of on being a woman essay this is that we can prepare more in-depth units for these books. But it might be a worthwhile risk to try something new. About? As a new teacher, I had not read most of the books I taught, and I found that reading and on being learning along with my students was a great experience. There should be a mix of old and new, and the texts should be challenging but not impossible. I think the books should be thematically significant. In other words, we should choose books that allow for discussion of the key questions in essays about a process life. How To Start A College? Who are we? and essays about why are we here? and how ought we to live? are several that I think are worth exploring.

It's not a bad idea to read from a variety of write and concise cultures, but we can only accomplish so much in a year, so for me, this priority is low. Therefore, if you know your community culture, your department's curriculum (can't overlap, you know), and essays about a process your students, choose books that will fit you and your school. Check out the booklists page for ideas. Now, about a syllabus specifically--in designing your syllabus, you need to create a balance between reading and writing. How To Start A College 5 Page? The exam tests students' ability to read, think and write critically about literature.

We must ask our students to not only comprehend what they read as readers but also as writers. I like to incorporate critical essays into the syllabus, and a process we begin in the 11th grade year with this. We ask students to read, understand, and deconstruct an argument. My hope is that by doing this they will see how one can analyze literature. All essay writing should be done in 40 minutes, which I am sure you will agree is a natural amount of time for an intelligent person to consider a prompt, read a passage, and write something not only coherent but also insightful.

Sarcasm aside, this is what our students are going to be expected to do, not only once, but three times. How To Start A College Admission Essay 5 Page? So why even harbor the illusion that writing is a process? Build all essay experiences into your syllabus as in-class writing: 40 minutes. I try to about a process make all my essays as AP-like as possible and I do use three former test prompts. Students do write in the 40 minute time slot, but then I ask them to take the essay home and type it, making only minimal revisions. This way, both of us can read the essay and it is easier to give feedback. The syllabus should be rigorous but reasonable. I think it's important to remember that many of our students also take other AP courses, they are involved in sports or other co-curriculars, and most of them have jobs. They are busy people. But from research, my experience, they are also curious people who want to know about life and will be fully engaged when we present them with great books and great ideas and interesting ways to respond to both. And it goes without saying that your syllabus should contain information on assessment and grading.

Perhaps your school district has other requirements as well. My syllabus is only one example. Essays? I am compiling a list of others and will add yours when it's finished. Good luck!! What is the best way to adapt others' course materials for our own use? The most ethical approach is to email the instructor first and ask permission to use his or her resources. Explain what your goals are. Reassure the author (for even though their work is published free on the Web, they have written it) that you will cite him or her as your source. Clinical? This is good practice even if the essays a process author has not declared copyright of essay his or her materials.

Since none of us have identical teaching situations, we will all create, eventually, our own course guide, syllabus, and assignments. Taking the germ of an idea from someone else and making it our own still requires our recognition of the source. When people ask to use material from my web site, I gladly consent, asking them to make links to what they want to use. I have created a usage statement that makes my wishes known. In addition, the process of creating a network of essays about a process links seems to me to be the power of the Web. Paper-based? In linking to a process others' sites, we not only on being young a woman provide our students and ourselves with great resources, we also are recognizing the fine work of essays a process our colleagues. Web sharing creates connections between us and makes us an Internet community.

None of us would wish to see our work published on someone else's site as their own work. Grow? We hammer the evils of plagiarism into essays about a process, the heads of our students; as teachers, we must respect the same principle. Simply because something is on the Web, and therefore free, does not mean that we can take it for our own. Valerie writes: I have been teaching 10th grade English for the past 4 years. I will be teaching one section of AP English Lit and Comp for the first time this year. How To Start Admission Essay 5 Page? I have no idea where to begin!! Do you have any tips on getting organized and/or ways I can challenge my regular 10th graders by incorporating some of the ideas I use in essays about my upper level class? Getting started is an overwhelming proposition it seems. I think because our students look to us to teach them what they need to know to studies paper-based do well on the AP test, we feel more pressure to do just that. It's not just a passing score they hope for, they have (or their parents have) paid money to essays about a process take this test.

It matters that they do well. I know it isn't helpful to say that the only way to learn how to teach AP English is by teaching AP English. Having said that, I do have some advice for you. Resistance Coursework? Find a syllabus that you like and model yours after it. Or find a couple of them and essays about a process make yours a reflection of both. Look at how to clear and concise essays the section on designing a syllabus and choosing books for essays about, more on how to and concise essays, this. Secondly, get enrolled in essays about a process an AP English Lit seminar or conference. You will learn a lot and you will get some great materials. How To Write Clear Essays? I have been to several, but they were most helpful at the beginning when I didn't know what I was doing. Not only will you hear from experienced AP teachers at a seminar, you will also have the chance to talk to other rookies. Simply talking about your concerns with someone who shares them can be a real help for a process, your state of mind.

Ask your principal or director of instruction for information regarding seminars in your area. Next, get hold of an objective test (old ones are out floating around) and resistance coursework take it. About? Give yourself the same amount of a woman and colored time your students will have (60 minutes) and do your best. I bombed the essays a process first time I tried this. Then I attempted to analyze what I did wrong. This is the best part of the experience. There are some questions that are so easy and we over think them. Others really are very, very difficult. You cannot possibly know how to lead your students toward success if you don't know where you are taking them. If another teacher in your building is how to write clear and concise, teaching AP, ask for about, copies of old tests and answer keys. Students should also take practice tests.

April is a good time for those taking the real test, but our juniors also get a little taste of what's to how to start admission come. The APEX learning site is essays about a process, pretty good for test prep. Young And Colored? We found it to be a little hard to essays navigate, but students found it mostly helpful. Use those old objective tests for up narrative essay, this purpose. Next, read some sample essays and essays a process how they were scored. The College Board used to provide these in their seminar packet. They also used to have them online. On the links page, click on the link for free response questions. Also, become familiar with a good grading rubric.

AP essays are scored on a 9 point rubric. You can look at the rubrics I have posted if they will help. It is on being young a woman and colored essay, helpful to students to see model essays. I try to save good ones from a process, each year from my own students. Assemble a comprehensive list of resistance coursework literary terms (start with those that you find in that objective test you took). Essays About A Process? There are also good resources online. You don't want to overdo it, but you do want good coverage. I have 50 fiction terms and 50 poetry terms (with some overlap). I tell my students that they must know these like they know their name because when they encounter a term on the test, they don't want their cluelessness about something as simple as paradox, for resistance, example, to trip them up.

Then, you must find your way day by essays about a process, day. As for how to enrich the experiences of your 10th graders--I predict you will have a year full of revelation. Ways to connect will come to you as you go through the year. The AP approach is, or at least should be, all about critical thinking. And after all, isn't this what we want for clear and concise, all our students? Good luck and have fun! Scott writes: Your websites and information are very impressive. Essays? I have been teaching high school English for eleven years, but never AP. On Being A Woman Essay? until now! I consider myself a competent teacher, but I am quite worried about the essays a process upcoming school year.

I have been all over your websites and have gathered some valuable resources. If there is one thing that you could highlight over all others to help a new AP teacher , I would love to hear it. The Golden Key, the Holy Grail, the One True Thing? I wish there were such a thing. Up Narrative Essay? However, I do think that attending an AP workshop may be it.

At least in essays a process the beginning, the workshop will help give you a sense of the AP philosophy. You will also get an idea about how others structure successful courses. In addition, you get a lot of great materials that you can use, like old tests to use for practice tests, sample essays and grow up narrative keys to how they were scored, sample rubrics, and more (at least I did when I attended these workshops). To find out how to register for essays about a process, a workshop in your area, go to the College Board site. You will have to resistance register as a new member, but that will give you more access to the site which has more to offer you. About A Process? You can also ask your principal to be on grow, the lookout for flyers for workshops. In the a process past, workshops in our area were in clinical paper-based October.

While it would be nice to find something in the summer, it is also nice to attend a workshop after you've been in your class for a bit and have a foundation to build on and a source of questions. If that doesn't work out, then here's my back up plan for the one true thing: join a discussion list. Being part of an e-community is essays, invaluable. Experienced and inexperienced teachers talk about the nuts and on being young a woman essay bolts of the AP English classroom and what makes it effective. If you have never been a member of a discussion list before, I offer some advice: join, and then lurk for awhile, listening and learning the norms of the about group. pose real questions thank people who offer advice be open minded realize that sometimes the discussion lulls and don't be frustrated by the highs and lows discussion lists can produce a lot of email; simply delete threads that don't pertain to you or that you're not interested in to manage the by burman mail load create a folder in your email program and a rule to send all list messages to essays that folder if you want to keep things organized. So that's two things, not one.

The point is that you don't have to struggle through your first year alone with no help. It's out there for you, so make it happen. Coursework? Good Luck! Greg Ann writes: I appreciate your web site. Thank you. This is my second year to teach AP Literature. What advice would you give to teach basics of the timed write, specifically for an open question? For example, we have just completed The Sound and the Fury . I will be giving a timed write on the AP question regarding the issue of time as it relates to about a process the work as a whole.

I'm not sure there is a way to studies teach timed writing other than by having students do it. The AP exam expects students to about write three essays in two hours time, which essentially breaks down to grow up narrative essay 40 minutes per essays about, essay. Write Essays? This is a tough task. What makes it even tougher is that they must read and understand the passage and the prompt in essays a process that time period, too. My approach is to structure all of research studies paper-based our essays to replicate an essays a process, AP essay. Up Narrative? I limit time. In the beginning of the year, I do guide students prior to a process the essay day. For example, before students write an essay about Oedipus Rex, I have them complete a graphic organizer that helps them closely examine passages where Oedipus is coursework, oblivious to what we all see clearly. Essays About? This gets them to think carefully about ideas that will help them write the essay. Later on, there is no front loading other than the fact that we've read the work on which the essay is based. Toward test time, my students write three actual AP essays (from previous tests).

I wish I had the time to have them attempt all three in essays by burman two hours, but I don't. I strictly limit them to 40 minutes, however. I think this experience is valuable. For all three of these essays, they are seeing the essays about a process prompt and the passage for the first time on the day they write the essay. By open question, I think you mean that students can draw on the entire work instead of essays one passage. A Process? In this case, it is critical that the students understand the work fully. The Sound and The Fury can be a complex text, but I assume you've had class discussions regarding time, especially as you studied Quentin's section. A College Admission Essay? I would advise students to about narrow their focus as appropriately as they can. What I mean is, they don't want a superficial analysis, but they also cannot cram everything about essays by burman, time into a 40 minute essay.

Most of the essays my students write are passage specific essays. However, there is value in essays about a process drawing on young a woman and colored, entire works, for the last essay on the test asks them to recall a major work. As to organizing and essays about developing ideas for a timed essay, I remind my students to resistance coursework make a mini outline in the margin of the essays about prompt page. Using brief phrases that encapsulate clear ideas, the grow up narrative mini outline will keep them focused. Not all students are able to juggle three or four supporting points in their head at essays about one time. And obviously, I remind them to focus on their given task.

If the prompt calls for young a woman, an analysis of diction and tone, they should not be bringing other elements in on their own. They have enough to do if they simply stay with the guidelines given them. While the AP readers say they look for evidence that the writer is developing his or her understanding through the essay, I imagine they still expect a high level of fluency and organization. These things nearly always are easier to a process teach and learn when we allow for a revision stage. While in real life, all writers would reflect on what they've written and revise and tweak, there is no such luxury in May for our students.

So I advise my students to make the most of each minute for each essay because there is no second chance. All in all, the up narrative essay sense of timing comes through repeated practice. If you have a pre-AP class or a feeder class, talk to that teacher about starting timed writes early. This will help your students develop this internal sense. Lori writes: Thank you for such a wonderful website. I am sure your students appreciate the essays a process info that you provide for them. How To A College Admission 5 Page? Eventually, I would like to develop my own site so that my students will have access to my materials whenever they need help. Do you have any suggestions for creating a student accessible site ? Hi Lori. I am not sure what you mean by student accessible. If you mean a site that's easy for them to get to, then what you need is to create links on about a process, your school's main site, your department's site, and any other logical place. You should give the url on a woman essay, your syllabus also.

I think you may mean something else, though. A site that is usable and is meaningful is also important. I started out essays about small, believe it or not. The first incarnation of write and concise essays my web site was really practical. I posted the a process syllabus and the course calendar. I wanted students to know what we were going to research studies paper-based do and when. I also wanted them to know when assignments were due even if they were absent. Next, I realized that more details about unit plans would be good. On these pages I added links to the actual assignment when I could (if I wanted it public).

I also added links to sites that would enrich their experience as well as to those we'd be using for an assignment. My current site is a great tool to keep me organized, but I know from feedback that students also appreciate having it as a resource. A Process? Because there is so much published on the site (literally, much of my file cabinet is now on the web), they feel empowered. And if they happen to misplace an assignment the night before it's due, well, it's not as catastrophic as it might have been before. If you keep your students and their needs in mind when you create your site, you won't go wrong. John writes: You are correct about teachers not sharing the AP English Language and Composition syllabi. I have been looking for two weeks.

Today I looked for six hours. A College Admission? What does this say about our profession? Can you help me? Hi John. About? Unfortunately, I can't. My focus is essays, literature, although I am leaning toward incorporating more of the language aspect into a process, my course as more and more my students are taking both exams. My best advice is to go to the College Board site and get as much past test information as you can. It would be good to how to write clear and concise essays go to essays a process a workshop on teaching AP Language.

As standards are tightening, you would think it would be easier to plan a course. It seems that many teachers are trying to find their way in the dark with a flashlight. My theory is that the start a college 5 page AP track (if that's what you want to call it) is a big money maker, so the more that is kept secret, the more we have to pay for. And yet, more and more students are opting to take AP courses, so more and more teachers are finding themselves in exactly your spot. For the about past three years, I have had several students take both exams.

This year, I polled them about the difference between the two. Their perception was that there was little difference. The structure is identical: objective section and three essays. I tried to get out of them some information about what specific terms were tested, but they were true to their promise not to reveal information about the test. From what I can tell, the how to write clear essays Language test has more questions about about, syntax, more analysis of sentence patterns, more questions about rhetorical devices (especially persuasive techniques). Our students still need to be able to argue their point, to support their argument, to coursework write with command of the language, and to understand what they read. As for about a process, what literature to read, this is probably as open as it is for the Lit test. While the College Board has lists (question three) each year, any work of literary merit is appropriate in an AP course. It is true that the typical Language course has more nonfiction, but it does not exclude fiction entirely. Perhaps the best AP course would be one that covers both.

While that's a lot to admission do in essays a process one year, I think that's where my future efforts lie. Good luck! If you send me an email asking for advice, I may put my response to you here so that others will benefit. If you do not want that, please let me know in your email.

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abilities/accomplishments along your career path. Coursework? A resume gets your foot in the door by. highlighting your strong points. How do I get started? Make a list of your work history, education and. skills Write down a brief job description for each of.

your last 3 or 4 jobs. Common Resume Sections. Personal Heading Objective Summary or Highlights of Qualifications Work History Education. Name, address, phone and email address. Essays A Process? Joe Jobhunter 221 Opportunity Street Appleton, WI 55555 (920) 888-8888. Maybe better left for cover letter Be specific Do not use empty fluff statements like A. challenging position in how to clear, a growing company that. uses my skills and abilities. A good example might be Position as a tax.

accountant with XYZ Corporation. Summary or Highlights of Qualifications. Somehow summarize your best skills Sum-up what youre all about Example Communications professional with 15. years of experience in public relations and. journalism. About? Recognized for and colored award-winning coverage. of breaking news. About A Process? Skills include strong/concise.

writing, research and meeting tight deadlines. Go back 7 to how to and concise 10 years, try to show at least 3. jobs Start with your most recent employment List name of company, your title and a process, dates Explain duties and coursework, accomplishments Begin bullet points with action verbs Supervised and trained staff of 7. List most recent education first For college degrees list majors and minors May want to leave dates off if your date of. graduation shows your age If you have a higher education degree it is not. necessary to list your high school diploma. Resume Writing Tips. Proof read. Essays A Process? Do not have any errors.

Have your resume read like a road map. Use a. consistent format with bolds and underlines. Do not list personal information like hobbies and. interests. Do not list your references. How To Start A College Admission 5 Page? They belong on a.

separate sheet presented at an interview. Resume Writing Tips continued. Do not list addresses and phones numbers Do not list names of supervisors Use resume quality paper cream, white or grey Always send a cover letter with your resume. One size does not fit all. Different professions. require different things.

Whatever format you settle on, make sure your. resume is a reflection of the quality you have to. offer a perspective employer. A Process? You may need to tweak your resume every time you. is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. You can use to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about essays, any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. A Process? Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows – with 2D and essays by burman, 3D transitions, animation, and essays about, your choice of music – that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles.

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presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows – with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music – that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That’s all free as well! For a small fee you can get the about a process, industry’s best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it’s free. We’ll even convert your presentations and resistance, slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and essays, 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides.

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Review Resume Examples. It's always helpful to review resume samples to see what the final version of your resume should look like. Review the examples below that are written especially for high school students. Use a Template. Using a template will make it easier to essays a process create your resume. Not only will it save you time, but it can also reduce formatting errors. Resume Writing Tips for High School Students. Here’s how to a college admission get started and about a process, what to include on your resume in addition to, or instead of, formal work experience.

Make an Outline. Make a quick list or outline of and concise, all possible experiences, paid and unpaid, to include in your resume before you try to essays about find the right language to resistance coursework describe them. About A Process? Here's a list of examples of each part of a resume . Include Informal Work Experience. If you have formal paid work experience, certainly include it. Otherwise, you can include informal work like babysitting, pet sitting, lawn mowing, shoveling snow, or anything else you've done to earn money. Include All Your Activities. Since most high school students haven't held a lot of how to start, jobs, it is important to draw upon all aspects of your life which show you have the essays a process, right character, work ethic, skills, and personality to succeed in up narrative, a job. Mention your extracurricular activities, volunteer work, academics, and athletic pursuits.

If you held any sort of essays, leadership positions in these roles (such as secretary of a club or team captain), be sure to note this. For each item, include a bulleted list of your responsibilities and essay, accomplishments. Promote Your Attitude and Performance. Employers will be most interested in your work habits and attitude. They don't expect you to have a lot of about, experience. Essay? If you have perfect or near perfect attendance and are punctual for school and other commitments, you might include language like Compiled a perfect (or near perfect) record for attendance when describing an experience. If supervisors, teachers, or coaches have recognized you for a positive attitude or outstanding service, mention it in your description of the activity.

Mention Your Achievements. Employers look for staff who have a history of making positive contributions. Review each of about a process, your experiences and ask yourself if there are achievements in class, clubs, sports, or the write and concise essays, workplace that you can include. If so, use verbs like enhanced, reorganized, increased, improved, initiated, upgraded, or expanded to essays show what you accomplished. Paper-based? Include any challenging advanced academic projects since this shows employers that you are intelligent and a hard worker. Include Resume Skills.

It's always a good idea to include skills related to about the jobs for which you are applying. Here are examples of skills to include on your resume. You probably have many skills that you can include that you acquired in school, sports, youth groups, extra-curricular activities, or volunteering. Use Action Verbs. Use active language when describing your experiences so you are portrayed in a dynamic way. Essay? Start the essays about, phrases in your descriptions with action verbs like organized, led, calculated, taught, served, trained, tutored, wrote, researched, inventoried, created, designed, drafted, and edited. Keep it Short. How To Start 5 Page? Your resume doesn't need to be any longer than a page. Include Your Name and about a process, Contact Information. Make sure the employer knows how to get in touch with you. Proofread Your Draft.

Review your draft very carefully before finalizing your document and make sure there are no spelling or grammatical errors. Ask your guidance counselor, parents, or a favorite teacher to resistance critique your resume. Essays About A Process? Here's how to proofread your resume . Where to Print Copies . If you don't have a printer at home, check with your school guidance office or local library to see if they have a printer you can use.

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How to Write a Process or How-To Essay | What Can I Write…

a2 history essays The following outline is intended as to provide one example of how to write an essay. Treat it as food for thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of which you might incorporate into your own method for essays about a process writing essays. It is useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the method of choice for assessment in history. The chief reason is that no other method provides as effective a means of by burman, testing a student's comprehension of a topic. We want you to show us that not only have you acquired a knowledge of the essays a process, topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by it.

Essays test understanding by asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in order to produce your own answer to essays by burman the set question. An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and insights, but it must be the product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Essays which do not answer the question can only be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic. Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the topic. Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process. 2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the texts which discuss these issues).

With most historical problems (certainly the most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions. There are, however, limits to the field of possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'. Essays A Process. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for research each historical question there will be a body of evidence which is recognised as being relevant to it. This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the events and phenomena under discussion.

A good answer will need to harmonise with all of this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem. It follows from all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of essays, possible solutions or which fail to take account of received evidence even though there is no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the grow up narrative, subject of the question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of essays about, information will you need to answer the essays by burman, question, and how will you have to treat it? Circling the key words in the question is essays about sometimes a helpful first step in working out exactly what you need to do. It is clinical useful to note that there is usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of organising an answer which follows naturally from the format of the about, question and which will put the fewest obstacles in the way of the reader: 'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and clinical research illustrated. Essays A Process. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by reasons, explanation and evidence. You must show why your assessment is the best by considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. It might be useful to define and defend the criteria on which your judgement depends. That is, to explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the function of some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system.

Thus, the subject of the question is the up narrative, 'Y' rather than the 'X' element. That is, the question requires a discussion of the essays, system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of start essay, how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of measure. One way of answering the question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the towns, the role of Jewish banking in the agrarian economy, their influence on Christian intellectual life, .. [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in which you pulled together the results of your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the universities but almost none on that of the a process, established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to identify the issue at coursework, stake and to essays produce a reasoned response. You may respond, for example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the best response, why it would be wrong to disagree. You should consider the merits of a variety of responses. If possible you should always examine the book or article from how to write, which the essays, quotation has been taken in order to discover what its author meant by it, to discover how the author has understood the issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the identification of similarities and differences. One method of tackling such an essay would be to a woman essay distinguish five or six areas of similarity and contrast, and to devote a section of the about a process, essay to each area - a section in which you would assess the degree of grow, similarity and reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the various 'sub-conclusions'. It needs to be stressed that none of these types of essays about a process, question calls for a narrative approach . You will never be asked to clinical paper-based produce a narrative of what happened.

In rare circumstances, a few sentences of narrative may form part of the evidence cited in support of a process, a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to a logical structure in which each paragraph functions as a premise in research paper-based the argument. The analytical and essays about expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing. The aim of grow essay, your initial reading should be to essays a process identify an argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the topic falls. Articles in reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the issues. Citing such works will undermine the credibility of your essay.

Do not forget to make notes as you go. Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and research studies paper-based adjust your understanding of the essay question and of the topic it bears upon. Essays. But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to draw up a plan to by burman guide the next stage of your research. It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and essays a process rough notes on supporting examples. It may be useful to begin by thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by young a woman essay looking the about, natural way of answering it.

In order to draw up a plan you will need to evaluate its merits: What points will I need to make in resistance coursework order to sustain this argument? Are there alternative points of a process, view which will have to be considered and refuted in a college 5 page order to essays about make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to support the points which are crucial to my argument? Do I need to know more about the essay, examples I'm planning to use? Perhaps there is about a process another way of start admission 5 page, looking at this piece of evidence which I'll have to essays a process mention or even refute?

Having decided on the line of argument you intend to use, and identified areas where you need more material, search the reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for books and articles which will help you to solve these problems. Go and collect the paper-based, information, making notes and essays about adding notes to your plan as you go along. Do not forget to make careful bibliographical notes for every book and essays by burman article you consult. You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to say about the topic. Do not panic. Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the information I've already begun to essays about a process collect? Much will depend upon how confident you now feel about your argument.

Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for a better one. It is better to start again than to write an essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to '5. Drawing up a Plan'. Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to write your essay. If you've carried out steps one to five properly, it should be possible to write the first draft up in two or three hours. (a) Writing an Introduction. An introduction should show how you intend to answer the clear and concise, question, by (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to take, by (2) giving an overview of the organisation of what follows, and by about a process (3) indicating the sort of material or evidence you will be using. It is an effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to clinical research studies paper-based begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the question as briefly as possible with your first sentence. The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. Essays About. (b) The body of the essay. Intelligent use of paragraphing is crucial to the success of an essay.

Often, it is best to organise the paragraphs so that each makes and defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. (By 'premise' is clinical research studies paper-based meant a point which is part of and essential to the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the topic leaving the marker to join the dots to comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to demonstrate understanding. It is a good idea to essays about a process use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph. Clinical Research Studies. These ought not to essays about be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on a college 5 page, the development of medieval Europe. Essays A Process. It is also possible to on being young a woman essay assess the extent of the catastrophe by looking at essays a process, the level of demand for land in the major urban centres. In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from a high in 1310 of. [several sentences of examples] . Grow Essay. The dramatic fall in the prices of land within urban centres implies an equally sharp fall in the numbers of essays a process, people wanting to grow up narrative essay live in cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in a process the actual number of how to write clear, people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in the topic sentence is developed naturally by the second sentence of the paragraph. It is better to a process avoid trying the explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from one to by burman another are much more effective!

Signposting your evidence will give the essay that all important sense of critical depth and originality: Seapower was a crucial to European expansion. This much is illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and essays sixteenth centuries. Southwards and eastwards expansion in the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of effective fleets of essays, warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in essays about a process the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and Sardinia, when. [and so on.] You need to start a college admission essay 5 page give the marker a sense of where your opinions end and of where the essays, supporting evidence begins. But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and bore the clinical research studies, reader. If the supporting evidence is not a well-known and irrefutable fact, it will probably need to be given the additional support of a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of evidence being deployed you have chosen to follow. It will sometimes be useful to quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. It is often better to put things in your own words while still clearly signalling the source of the idea and using a footnote (e.g. 'According to Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to a process show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. Up Narrative. All essays need a carefully thought out conclusion which follows logically from the points made and affirmed in the course of your essay.

It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to essays about see that the conclusion you have drawn is the one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled. (d) Footnoting. Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the up narrative, first draft or as you write. Sometimes, it is best to go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of essays about, your writing.

On the grow, other hand, it is useful to essays consider what will need to be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the and colored essay, rhetorical apparatus of a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. For the same reason, it is best to put the notes at the bottom of the about a process, page rather than at the end of the essay. It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and widely), and saves the marker flicking back and forth. The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. Admission. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and work on something else. Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of essays about, better ways of putting things. You may even think of how to essay 5 page, supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow. You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in a different order?

If the essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to achieve this by cutting and pasting paragraphs. Your essay should have a clear and consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward. You will need to edit: for grammar, spelling and punctuation; to remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and jargon; to about ensure that the footnotes and bibliography conform with the required style sheet; and for the coherence and quality of your writing. You should always check the printed text of your essay before submitting it. The eye tends to overlook errors on research paper-based, the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. 'Their' and 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by a word processor regardless of essays about, which one you should actually have used in start admission essay a given context. The ability to write good essays does not come to many people easily.

It is a skill which requires constant attention and practice. It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is about a process a key to success in many walks of life. There is, therefore, every incentive to by burman apply yourself to the development of this art. Credits: This guide was devised and developed by Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).

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Tone: A Matter of Attitude | The Process Essay

ethnic roots essay by Heewon Chang and Timothy Dodd of Eastern College. This article was originally published in the Spring 2001 edition of EMME, the essays about a process Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education. This annotated bibliography includes an introductory essay exploring racial and ethnic issues in international contexts--excluding the U. S.--and an annotated bibliography of 20 books and 13 journal articles pertaining to the topic. The resources are organized by how to start admission essay continent and type of the literature. Issues of race and ethnicity dominate the academic discourse of many disciplines, including the field of multicultural education, and the socio-political arena.

Heightened interest in these issues is in response to the demographic reality of increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the United States and other nations. This collection of the annotated literature focuses on the validity and essays vitality of racial and ethnic studies in up narrative essay, international contexts and to the importance of the a process issues to and concise essays, today's human experience. This introductory essay explores the concepts of race and ethnicity, construction of racial and ethnic differences, and the connection between socially-constructed differences and conflicts in socio-political contexts. The essay will be followed by essays a process a limited annotated bibliography of 20 books and 13 journal articles organized by geographic division and type of the literature (book or article). Most of the literature included in this essay is concerned with issues of race and ethnicity emerging within the last two centuries. Thus historical perspectives offered by these sources should be understood within this time frame. Literature focusing on the ethnic/racial issues of the United States have been precluded in order to concentrate on international cases. Definitions of Race and Ethnicity.

The use of the terms race and ethnicity is varied. The two terms are misused as if they are identical. The casual and common appearance of the terms side by up narrative essay side in the public discourse may discourage people from regarding them as distinct terms. Serious students of race and ethnicity differentiate between them and about a process study their usage in classifying and categorizing people. The term race is based on write and concise essays the premise of essays biological and physical differences. According to Robb (1995), the concept of 'race' included any [essentializing] of on being young a woman groups of people which held them to a process, display inherent, heritable, persistent or predictive characteristics, and which thus had a biological or quasi-biological basis (p.1). In the up narrative essay study of race, particularly during the 19th and about a process early 20th century, people were classified on the basis of different phenotypes determined by physical attributes such as skin color, cranial size and shape, and hair type. Classification of humans into distinct racial groups claims to draw on scientific facts.

This endeavor is a facade lacking genuine scientific validity for at young a woman essay, least two reasons. First, racial classification assumes that pure phenotypes exist. This premise is difficult to about a process, prove, even if one accepts the how to a college admission 5 page conjecture that pure phenotypes had existed in the early stage of human existence. Biological intermixing between people of about a process apparently different phenotypes complicates today's scientific attempt to sort people out purely by phenotypic traits. Second, any claim that racial differences are based on biological differences ignores the fact that people with identical physical attributes are often classified differently and hold different social positions in societies. Brazil's complicated racial categories based on skin shade (Stam 1998) do not coincide with the how to admission essay 5 page black-white-colored paradigm sustained in South African apartheid racial discourse (Deng, 1997). Koreans and essays a process Japanese who can be easily classified into the same racial category are considered two different races by Japanese due to their notion of differing blood affinities (Dikks¯ter, 1997; Min, 1992). Even within Brazil, the socio-economic status of an individual frequently affects his/her racial category.

This is how to essays reflected in the popular ideology, Money whitens, whereby a darker-skinned person may become white based on economic status (Hanchard, 1994; Reichmann, 1999; Twine, 1998). Both of these problems are apparent in about a process, Mexican society where scholars have noted that it is often impossible to grow up narrative, distinguish between Indians and Mestizos phenotypically. Instead, individuals of essays a process both groups are more commonly categorized according to social and write cultural traits. Furthermore, the work of Nutini (1997) demonstrates that it is common for Indians to become Mestizo by mere acquisition of social and cultural traits regardless of phenotypic characteristics. Despite the essays about impossibility of scientifically constructing racial classifications based on phenotypic attributes, claims of racial classifications based on pseudo-science and ideology have been used to promote notions of racial differences and superiority, justifying domination of certain racial groups over others.

This is done despite the fact that genetic differences among groups with different phenotypic attributes are in coursework, fact minor and do not account for much difference in human behavior (Unander, 2000). Distinguished from the concept of essays race, ethnicity is a culturally-derived term. Deng (1997) defined ethnicity as an embodiment of values, institutions, and patterns of behavior, a composite whole representing a people's historical experience, aspirations, and worldview (p. 28). Ethnic classification, either externally imposed and intrinsically engendered, often defines people's membership to a group. Aside from social constructs, ethnicity is innately more central to human experience and identity than race. In turn, ethnic distinctiveness is more likely to invoke an innate sense of peoplehood. Ethnic uniqueness thus provides an immediate identity marker both within a group and between groups.

As is the case with racial categorization, ethnic categories are often perceived or discussed as though they are fixed and unchanging entities. However, because ethnicity incorporates language, religion, demarcations of territory, and other cultural traits, changes in people's affinity with any of them can occur over time. Thus ethnic categorization should be viewed as somewhat subjective and dependent upon human perception and a college essay 5 page identity. In the milieu of fluidity ethnic consciousness and way of about life may be created and reinforced to studies paper-based, maintain the status quo at certain times and be transformed to about, embrace other social constructs at other times. Provided that choice, process, and and concise change are all central to ethnic identity, consciousness, and categorization, ethnicity must not be viewed as entirely objective, permanent, or static (Haug, 1998). Social Construction of Racial and Ethnic Differences and Hierarchy Differences among people, whether physical or cultural, exist as part of essays a process human experience. The recognition of differences may be intensified as contacts between different groups grow. Some of the differences may be absorbed into the innate fabric of a society.

Socially constructed meanings are often added to perceived or actual differences whereby these differences become signifiers for people's worth in a society. It is difficult to list all possibilities in which physical and cultural differences develop into critical social differences. In many cases some groups gain privileges over on being and colored essay others on the basis of their racial or ethnic differences, perceived or actual. The construction of hierarchy or meaning regarding racial or ethnic differences may take place for many reasons, but a primary stimulator is often economic, social, or political power. Competition for resources or the drive for about a process, greater privilege often underlies the social construction of racial or ethnic hierarchies. These hierarchical classifications are then utilized to essays, establish, develop, or maintain dominance or hegemony of a group over a process others. Those on essays the lower end of opportunity, noting their losses to racial or ethnic classifications, may develop a heightened awareness of essays a process group identity in order to challenge the social constructions of privilege.

This phenomenon of ethnogenesis (Hanchard 1994; Harell, 1995) has proliferated in the contrast of dominance and subjugation based on the ethnic/racial differences throughout the world. The legacy of African slavery has left indelible marks in racial/ethnic relations in the American continent, and African descendents' identity with blackness has been consolidated as a result (Hanchard, 1994; Premdas, 1993; Reichmann, 1999; Sarduy, 2000; Torres, 1998; Twine, 1998). Colonialism created the powerful rhetoric of racial superiority and inferiority that has a long lasting impact on the world (Forster, 2000; Robb, 1995). Grow! The colonized, presumed to be inferior to the colonizer, have mustered their sense of peoplehood against the myth of inferiority. The communist regimes illustrate another example of a superpower steering racial/ethnic differences into the hierarchy.

In the former Soviet Union, the central government sought to a process, impose a Russian ethnic identity, including language and how to clear essays political beliefs, upon all Soviet citizens regardless of their ethnic identities. Essays About! Viewing the current independent nations of the former Soviet Union, it is grow up narrative essay ironical that national division took place primarily along the ethnic lines which Russia once sought to denounce (Dragunskii, 1995). A similar effort has been attempted by the Chinese central government that imposes a national identity on different ethnic groups (Dikks¯ter,1997; Harell,1995). Similar to a process, Russia, Chinese's national identity were constructed on the basis of dominant ethnicity, Han Chinese, which stirs up minority resistance. In a dominance-subjugation dichotomy socially constructed differences framed into a hierarchy seem to be petrified as facts.

As the racial and ethnic constructions based on differences demonstrate a close alignment with social, political, or economic privilege, these differences become more entrenched and lead to young, further conflict. Yet, it is possible that the socially constructed differences can take on new meanings responding to socio-political changes. The Rwanda's case illustrates clearly the fluidity of ethnic categories, in which post-colonial ethnic classifications greatly changed due to new socio-political contexts after the independence and hardened categorizations imposed by colonializers (Bowen, 1997; Newbury, 1998; Uvin 1999). Many have argued that Hutu-Tutsi ethnic differentiation in recent decades has more to do with social construction and political manipulation than any innate differences. Many international cases attest to the tenacity of racial and essays about ethnic categories, and they have exercise enormous power as bases for discrimination and dominance. Social Constructions and Conflict. As social constructions of racial and ethnic hierarchy are often generated to establish or perpetuate privilege for research paper-based, certain groups, a surge of group identity may lead to conflict. According to essays about, many popular perceptions, ethnic hierarchies and conflict are inevitable when contact occurs between different races or ethnicities. Ethnic and racial difference is commonly cited as a reason for conflict itself.

In many cases, conflict along ethnic or racial lines is construed as age-old and how to write and concise eternal, without hope for essays a process, relations to improve. However, just as racial and ethnic categorization is research paper-based not innate or fixed, but developed and changing, so are the conflicts that are often engendered along racial and ethnic lines. Racial and ethnic conflicts are also dependent on the social construction of hierarchies and self-identification, thus adaptive to changing contexts, perspectives, and negotiation. Particular racial and ethnic conflicts are not fated to continue forever unless they are perceived as inherent and inevitable. This notion places the emphasis of racial and ethnic conflict on essays a process contexts, ideologies, marginalizing actions, group perceptions of race and ethnicity, and failed negotiations rather than a faulty belief in the inevitable incompatibility of groups from differing races or ethnicities. Racial and ethnic pluralism does not in all cases lead to conflict. Haug's (1998) work on racial and ethnic relations in Belize offers an example of interracial and interethnic harmony. Regardless of the governmental effort to paper-based, classify people into fixed six racial/ethnic categories, Belizeans in Haug's study live with their multiracial identities through miscegenation and plural identities through cohabiting in a community, dismissing differences as a dividing factor. The case of modern Somalia demonstrates that an ethnically and racially homogenous nation does not necessarily produce a nation devoid of essays conflict (Deng, 1996). In this case, international discourse can not rely on the ethnic war paradigm commonly used in Africa to explain conflict.

Instead, the conflict is by burman referred to essays a process, as clan warfare, although even this concept fails to account for the complex social and political forces which define the by burman conflict. This case demonstrates the need for essays about a process, a closer examination of the social contexts, ideologies, and perceptions, which underlie the constructions of differences rather than accepting the social constructions themselves as the root of the problem. Ghai (2000) notes that conflicts are often labeled as ethnic conflict, which switches the focus from underlying social, political, and economic problems to a mere competition of ethnic claims. This may simplify the problem, packaging it tightly, but it makes a solution to the conflict even more complex. As we have reviewed the myriad literature on race and ethnicity in the international context, several themes emerged that take our understanding of how to a college essay 5 page race and ethnicity to a deeper level. Essays About! First, racial differences are more in the mind than in the genes.

Thus we conclude superiority and inferiority associated with racial differences are often socially constructed to satisfy the socio-political agenda of the dominant group. Second, racial and ethnic categories are neither fixed across societies nor within a society. Racial and ethnic categories are fluid and changing depending on the socio-political context of a society at any given time. Third, ethnic and racial differences do not inherently lead to conflict. Instead, these differences can take on a social meaning of hierarchy leading to conflict when divided groups fail to negotiate. On Being Young A Woman! In such cases, the imbalance of power, not the racial or ethnic differences per se, is the about underlying cause of the conflict. In each of these cases, it is critical that the paper-based topic of race and ethnicity receives continual examination. The ideology and myth of essays a process racial and ethnic differences cannot be validated to support or legitimate superiority, privilege, or conflict as has often been the case in both historical and global contexts. A more accurate assessment must attempt to counterbalance these dangerous fallacies so that mere differences, in whatever form, are not constructed as a rationale for subjugation.

Forster, Peter G., Hitchcock, Michael, and Lyimo, Francis F. (2000). Race and ethnicity in East Africa. New York: St. Martin's Press. Examines race and ethnicity in East Africa from the period of earliest archaeological evidence to the present day. Theoretical approaches to race and ethnicity are discussed, but they are not the sole focus. Colonial history and policies towards race and ethnicity are examined as well as towards various culture traits such as religion and language. Grow Essay! As a summative work, it concludes by essays a process looking at issues of ethnic integration and division in the post-colonial African nation-state. Bowen, John R. (1997). Ethnic conflict: Challenging the myth.

Current, 389,16-21. In this article the author challenges the common, popular notion that many international ethnic conflicts are age-old problems of cultural and ethnic differences which can never be cured. Instead, Bowen focuses on examples in Yugoslavia and Rwanda to demonstrate how colonial and post-colonial states create ethnic categorization and division for resistance coursework, economic and political purposes. Deng, Francis M. (1996). Essays A Process! Identity in by burman, Africa's internal conflicts. American Behavioral Scientist, 40 (1), 46-65. This articles explores various levels and paradigms of ethnic conflict in modern African states, focusing on ethnic identity, possible scenarios for ethnic conflict, and the manners in which these conflicts are managed or mismanaged. It demonstrates how it is not the actual differences of about identities which cause conflict, but rather the differences of interests. Admission Essay! In taking this approach, the author also shows a need for greater conceptual strategies for managing ethnic interests and conflicts. Deng, Francis M. (1997). Ethnicity: An African predicament.

Brookings Review, 15 (3), 28-31. This article provides an excellent framework for viewing the socio-political functioning of ethnicity in modern, African nation-states. It bases current realities in essays about, their proper historical context and colonial experience. The colonial development of social and political stratification in an attempt to gain control of economic resources is clinical research studies paper-based described, leading to the role African ethnicity would later develop in essays about, mirroring this paradigm. Doornbos, Martin. (1991).

Linking the future to the past: Ethnicity and pluralism. Review of African Political Economy, 52, 53-65. Extremely astute and insightful, this article examines ethnic relations in sub-Saharan Africa in the overall context of social structure and historical realities. The author examines various responses to ethnic difference in socio-political organization and confronts the complex nature of potentially changing ethnic identities and relations. Newbury, Catherine. Essay! (1998). Ethnicity and essays a process the politics of history in Rwanda. Africa Today, 45 (1), 7-24. This article focuses on the various viewpoints of scholars about start admission 5 page, ethnicity and ethnic relations throughout Rwandan history.

This is combined with a study of ethnic conflict and essays about political process. Pre-colonial ethnic relations, as well as a comparison of ethnic conflict in the 1950s and 1990s, are examined. The author argues that politics and state policies should be viewed as critical elements in understanding the ethnic strife which has resulted in Rwanda. Uvin, Peter. Studies Paper-based! (1999). Ethnicity and power in essays a process, Burundi and paper-based Rwanda: Different paths to mass violence. Comparative Politics, 31 (3), 253-271.

This article compares ethnic conflict, state politics, and historical process in Burundi and Rwanda. It argues against conventional scholarship that considers the two nation's ethnic conflicts almost identical. A Process! It also examines the factors that led people to partake in mass killings, addressing issues of prejudice, fear, revenge, and manipulation by authorities. It is also a fascinating study of the links between ethnicity and studies post-colonial state power. Dikks¯ter, Frank. A Process! (Ed.). (1997). The Construction of clinical research studies racial identity in China and Japan. About! Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. The book is divided into two parts, one focusing on racial issues in China and the other on those in Japan. Although each part includes a brief account of clear essays historical roots of racial categories, the discussion focuses primarily on more modern discourses of a process race and ethnicity beginning the late 19th century. The editor does not compare the countries explicitly; their historical and political connection inevitably juxtaposes the uniqueness and similarities between two situations.

One similarity that emerges clearly from both countries is social construction of grow essay racial boundaries based on the discourse of blood affinity. The book illustrates the essays fluidity of racial construction responding to the change in political hegemony. Harell, Stevan. (Ed.). (1995). Cultural encounters on China's ethnic frontiers. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. This book includes numerous essays on historical and historiographical views of race and ethnicity in China. The primary focus is on relationships between the ethnically and ideologically dominant group and peripheral ethnic groups. A variety of civilizing projects are examined, in which the studies paper-based dominant group has sought to transmit their identity of perceived superiority onto the peripheral peoples. The reactions and essays effects of both the peripheral peoples and central power agents are examined. Central to the book is how ethnicity, race, and ideology are utilized in hegemonic contexts, as well as the how to start 5 page resulting ethnogenesis of peripheral groups responding with a heightened sense of ethnic identity.

Robb, Peter. (Ed.) (1998). The Concept of race in South Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Min, Pyong Gap. (1992). A Comparison of the Korean minorities in China and Japan. International Migration Review, 26 (1), 4-21.

This article compares Korean minority communities in about, both China and Japan. It examines a number of factors impacting upon essays by burman each community, including state politics, contexts of migration, and relations with Korea. In China, the author argues, Koreans have retained a high level of ethnic identity and autonomy. In Japan, however, they have lost much of their ethnic identity due to Japan's discrimination and assimilation policies and ideology. Essays A Process! This article demonstrates that it is simplistic to believe ethnic prejudice and discrimination result simply from physical and cultural differences.

They depend on political and social policies, perceptions, and actions. CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARRIBEAN. Grandin, Greg. (2000). Essays By Burman! The Blood of Guatemala: A History of race and nation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Click here to read the review of this book from the essays about a process Reviews of Resources section of young a woman and colored essay this issue. To come back to this page, use the [back] option on your internet browser menu. Lai, Walton Look. About A Process! (1997).

The Chinese in the West Indies, 1806-1950: A Documentary history. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. This history of Chinese Diaspora in West Indies explores Chinese migration to the West Indies, focusing on the period between 1806 and 1995. The book provides a comprehensive documentation of Chinese settlement in the Spanish-speaking, demographically diverse Caribbean countries. The appendix includes interesting biographies of prominent Chinese-Caribbean families who became incorporated into the fabric of the society. Premdas, Ralph. (Ed.) (1993). The enigma of ethnicity: An analysis of race in the Caribbean and world. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. This edited volume begins with two theoretical essays examining the concepts of race and ethnicity and various models of ethnic conflicts, one by the editor and the other by M. G. Smith. The following 7 chapters provide concise, yet informative, accounts of race and ethnic issues in various Caribbean countriesSuriname, Haiti, Trinidad, Guyana, French West Indies followed by another 5 chapters focusing on countries in the rest of the world.

Editor makes no claim that countries covered in this book represent the Caribbean region or the world. Sarduy, Pedro Perez and resistance coursework Stubbs, Jean. (Eds.). (2000). Afro-Cuban voices: On Race and identity in contemporary Cuba. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press. Torres, Arlene and Whitten, N. E. (Eds.). About! (1998). Blackness in Latin America and the Caribbean: Social dynamics and cultural transformation, Volume I and II. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. This is on being young a woman a substantial collection of essays related to the black experience in the Diaspora. The essays focus primarily on racial ideology, conceptualization, and about development of black identity, related to how these factors affect social structure. A variety of situations are examined in which hierarchical classifications are constructed aligning lower class and status with blackness. Despite discrimination and resistance marginalization, blackness and black culture also become central to ethnic identity, resistance, and rebellion.

The book demonstrates the vitality and variety of the black Diaspora experience and shows how history is impacted by culture. Nutini, Hugo G. (1997). Class and essays about a process ethnicity in clinical paper-based, Mexico: Somatic and racial considerations. Ethnology, 36 (3), 227-238. This article traces the history of racial categorization in Mexico from the 16th century when it was framed by the colonial elites. Subsequently, racial categories based on essays a process phenotypes become associated with different cultural attributes. Currently, cultural and phenotype attributes are disguised or embellished to obtain social mobility. Overall, the article demonstrates that social stratification is based on racial phenotypes and perceived cultural traits and that there is a large correlation between race and class in Mexico.

Haug, Sarah W. (1998). Ethnicity and ethnically mixed identity in Belize: A study of how to write clear and concise primary school-age children. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (1), 44-67. The article explores the discrepancy between the notion of ethnicity that the Belizean national curriculum teaches in primary schools and primary school-age children's perceptions of their ethnicity. This ethnographic study was conducted in a small town where much ethnic mixing takes place. While the curriculum neatly divides the national population into about, five major groups, the children' voices reveal that identifying with a singular ethnic category is not easy. Dragunskii, Denis V. (1995).

Imposed ethnicity. Russian Social Science Review, 36 (2), 71-82. This article discusses the up narrative essay ethnic categorization and a process marginalization central to the Soviet Union's state building ideology. As economic and political ideology of the Soviet Union later declined, its breakup was not led by research paper-based ideological conflict but by ethno-territorial conflict. Essays About! Conflict tensions are divided primarily on ethnic lines as a result of the Soviet Union's own ethnic policies and categorizations. Gheorghe, Nicolae. Start Essay! (1991). Roma-Gypsy ethnicity in Eastern Europe.

Social Research, 58 (4), 829-844. This article is an insightful introduction to the social history of Roma peoples as well as the discrimination often encountered by the people. It is also a study of how the Roma are perceived in modern nation-states and throughout various historic eras. Roots of Roma prejudice and stereotypical images of Roma are also discussed. Velliste, Trivimi. (1995). Ethnic issues in Estonia: A personal view. World Affairs, 157 (3), 137-141. This article provides an exceptional discussion of the process of Russification in Estonia, which began in the 1880s. It describes an about ethnic hierarchy socially constructed and implemented through population transfer in order to perpetuate the domination of Russian ethnicity and identity. Current frameworks are also addressed, focusing upon how historical relations impact upon today.

Li, Peter S. (Ed.). By Burman! (1999). Essays! Race and admission essay 5 page ethnic relations in Canada. About A Process! Oxford: Oxford University Press. This book mixes theoretical discussions of race and on being young a woman and colored essay ethnicity with specific racial/ethnic issues of Canada. Essays A Process! The wide ranges of issues--policies and perspectives--are concerned with aboriginal people to current immigrants. Woman's issues are minimally incorporated at how to write and concise, the end of the book in a plea for a new approach to the study of race and ethnicity, in which race is about examined as an intersection of gender and class. Those who are looking for perspectives and essays voices of minorities may be disappointed.

Cowlishaw, Gillian. (1999). Rednecks, eggheads, and blackfellas: A Study of about racial power and intimacy in Australia. Up Narrative Essay! Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Spoonley, Paul. (1993). Racism and ethnicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The author explores the essays issues of racism and ethnicity in contemporary New Zealand, focusing on, but not limited to, Maori and Pakeha.

Maori is a broad category of grow essay aborigines and essays about Pakeha refers to New Zealand-born Europeans whose experiences have been formed as a result of the dominant group of the country but who do not have a strong affiliation with a homeland elsewhere. He included Jews in his account of ethnicity in New Zealand although the ethnicity of other new immigrants is obviously absent in his discussion. The author treats the minorities not as passive victims of racism but as active agents of their affairs although they are very much dependent upon the the politics of the start a college admission essay mainstream society. The chapter on policy and practice offers insight on how the shift of the state policy toward decentralization affects ethnic equity in the country. De la Candena, Marisol. (2000). Indigenous mestizos: The Politics of race and culture in a process, Cusco, Peru, 1919-1991. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Using Cusco, Peru as example, the author examines how racial discourse is used in the development of a national ideology. She argues that the central discourse defining social hierarchy and marginalization focuses on cultural difference rather than racial difference. The author traces the history of this development through the 20th century in Cusco, focusing on a process of research studies de-Indianization whereby even indigenous people who gain Westernized education and jobs consider themselves mestizo despite their racial realities. Hanchard, Michael G. (1994).

Orpheus and power: The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paolo, Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. This book examines the about depth of racial politics in Brazil and documents Afro-Brazilian activitists' struggles to by burman, bring about essays about, social justice for black Brazilians, focusing on the time period between 1945 and 1988. The social myth of racial democracy--a belief that there is no injustice imposed upon people on the basis of racial differences--created an obstacle for resistance, the activists to raise social consciousness of racial inequality despite the fact that the social reality reveals apparent gaps among different racial groups. Reichmann, Rebecca (Ed.). (1999). Race in contemporary Brazil: From indifference to inequality. State College, PA: Penn State University Press. This edited volume disputes the myth of racial democracy in Brazil by providing various forms of explicit and about implicit inequality permeating the socio-economic structure of the society. The first two introductory essays provide an excellent overview of social construction of racial categories in Brazil. It is also notable that the majority of the essays are written by native Brazilian scholars.

Essays included in this book address inequality between white Brazilians and Afro-Brazilians (pretos) in educational opportunity, income level, labor market, and criminal justice. Inequality also intensifies when the gender factor is added. Several essays cover gender issues in conjunction with race and class. Stam, Robert (1997). On Being Young A Woman And Colored! Tropical multiculturalism: A comparative history of race in a process, Brazilian cinema and culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. This informative and engaging book exemplifies a new approach to the study of race and ethnicity. Offering films as the window to essays by burman, the ethno-racial reality of Brazil, the author examines the evolution of the reality depicted in the Brazilian cinema of a process different eras. Studies Paper-based! The portrayals and roles of Afro-Brazilians and Indians reflect the change in essays about, the socio-political view of the minorities. The author also embraced the gender factor in his discussion. A helpful comparison between the U. S. and Brazilian history juxtaposes similarities and differences in the racial policies and the legacy of slavery.

Twine, France W. (1998). Racism in a racial democracy: The maintenance of white supremacy in Brazil. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Wade, Peter. Research! (1995). Blackness and essays about a process race mixture: The Dynamics of racial identity in Colombia. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Focusing on black experience in Colombia, particularly the Choco region, this book reveals the by burman rift between the nation's official policy of pluralism and the actual experience and realities for Afro-Colombians. Essays A Process! The nation's racial hierarchy, links between race and class, and racial identity are examined in light of the Choco's development as a primarily black region. Arocha, Jaime. (1998). Inclusion of Afro-Colombians: Unreachable national goal? Latin American Perspectives, 25 (3), 70-89. The author explains the origin of recent ethnic struggles between the black and Indian people as Columbia undergoes transformation from how to write clear essays, monoethnicity to multiethnicity.

This transformation is not a result of demographic change but of the legislative change. The new constitution of 1991 allowed Colombians to exercise their citizenship by displaying cultural diversity rather than by concealing it as required by the previous political charter (p.70). The legal recognition of multiethnicity also allows minority groups to claim their ancestral land. Essays A Process! This legal change, complicated by the governments economic development in essays by burman, the region concentrated by Afro-Colombians and Indians, aggravates ethnic asymmetries that, in turn, erode nonviolent coexistence among these people according to the author. This article provides especially helpful information on the history of slave trading of Africans and their resistance to essays about, the enslaved situation. Ghai, Yesh. (Ed.) (2000).

Autonomy and research studies paper-based ethnicity: Negotiating competing claims in multi-ethnic states. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Unander, D. (2000). Shattering the myth of race: Genetic realities and biblical truth. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.

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Writing a Process Essay

Essay on Female Genital Mutilation. Circumcision is the removal of the about, prepuce or the hood of the studies paper-based, clitoris. This is the mildest of all type of mutilation (Cutting the Rose). This is the about, type of mutilation that can be correctly called circumcision, because it would be the resistance coursework, equivalent to male circumcision (Cutting the Rose). The next type and a little more drastic is excision, which means partial or total cutting of the clitoris and all or part of the labia minor (Cutting the Rose). This is the most widely done of all the circumcision practices. The range of people getting this type of operation done on them is essays about a process, 80 percent. Infibulation is another type of and concise, circumcision. Essays? This involves the cutting of the essay, clitoris, labia minora and at least two-thirds of the labia majora (Cutting the Rose).

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The prisoner’s quarters were small, and windowless; they never knew if it was day or night outside. How To Write Clear And Concise? At 10 P.M. it was time to lockup, and all privileges were denied. The mock prison was designed in order to bring out the psychological aspects of imprisonment. The prisoners were given sixteen basic rules to follow that would be followed. There were hidden video cameras and microphones that recorded the prisoners and guards conversations. Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Standardized Testing! Students are not the only ones who are adversely affected by improper motivation. Educators are harmed as well. When schools and teachers are rated by their students’ test scores, the emphasis that was once placed learning and understanding, is forced to be placed on test preparation instead. Teachers have to choose between teaching well and teaching for the test. Some states have taken the opportunity to plac even more unwarranted pressure upon teachers by giving more money to the schools whose students score higher on the tests.

Since students attending schools located in poor areas tend to score lower, distributing funds thi way is the equivalent of deliberately denying financial aid to those schools that most need it. Furthermore, since much of the student body in these schools consists of essays a process, minorities, this unfair distribution policy is, essentially, discrimination. Since schools rely upon state grants to cover many of their expenses, when they receive less money, students suffer. Thus, educators who teach in poor areas are further pressured to provide a superficial education, covering only areas which are tested, so that the school will receive more funding. On this topic, Alfie Kohn, a former educator and opponent of standardized testing, states that.

those who teach low-scoring populations will. be most likely to be branded as failures. If. excellent teachers and principals decide to. leave the profession as a result of incessant. pressure to raise scores, we would expect. minority and low-income students to be. disproportionately affected by the departure of. these educators. (Poor Teaching) Standardized testing, as the most abundant method of evaluation, is up narrative essay, grossly flawed. A study that was published in the Journal of Educational Psychology stated that students who think “superficially,” that is, those who guess at or copy answers and skip harder parts, tend to score higher on standardized tests than those who ask questions and try to connect present lessons with previous ones.

These tests are measuring and a process, rewarding superficial thinking more than active thinking. Moreover, tests such as the CAT, MAT, and SAT were not designed to measure teaching or learning. They were designed in such a way that only one half of young and colored essay, students would answer correctly, resulting in a wide range of scores. Kohn asserts that “The main objective of these tests is to rank, not to rate; to spread out the scores, not to gauge the quality of a given student or school” (Standardized Testing). this issue. About A Process? The reasons for the concern on behalf. of the a woman essay, federal government are astounding. This. policy states, “Research has shown that English. language learners, when compared to their English- fluent peers, tend to receive lower grades and.

often score below the average on standardized. math and reading assessments.” First of all, it. is incredible that this finding comes as a surprise to anyone. If we sent American.