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Ap Us History Dbq Essay 2009 Essays and Research Papers. Martin 85 Thesis! AP ® United States History 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is writing essay, a not-for-profit membership . Luther 85 Thesis! association whose mission is to connect students to essay, college success and opportunity. 85 Thesis! Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of india, more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and martin other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and dear mister essay 3,800 colleges through major programs and martin luther services in. Advanced Placement , American Civil War , College Board 1873 Words | 6 Pages. States as a revolutionary nation because it happened so long and we are so culturally different from essay of melbourne current day England, we are so ignorant to 85 thesis, what had to . happen for us to be where we are today, one of the few superpowers in the world, were always getting caught up in the world that surrounds us today Transformation of colonial Virginia DBQ The hardships that the settlers faced were much more intolerable then the “hardships” we have today, When they first came over, they were stuck on a cramped boat. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 2105 Words | 6 Pages. DBQ : The Diverging Societies The Chesapeake and dear mister president essay New England colonies evolved into two distinctive societies by the 1700’s because . differences in developments occurred.

These differences included motives for martin luther being founded, social transformations, and personal essay geographic settlements. The Chesapeake and martin luther New England society differed in their motives for colonization. The Chesapeake region of Virginia was founded by the Virginia Company as a joint-stock company. Their main goal was to build opportunities. Colony , England , Massachusetts Bay Colony 1246 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ American expansionism in the late 19th century and early 20th century was, to a large extent, a continuation of past United States . expansionism, while also departing with previous expansionism in taks writing essay, some aspects. 85 Thesis! During the period of time between the late 19th century and early 20th century, America was going through significant changes. After a revolution in Cuba against the Spanish, as well as the essays on olafur eliasson, Americans starting the luther, Spanish-American War, the Americans received several territorial concessions. 20th century , American Civil War , American Empire 977 Words | 3 Pages. AP US History 1) In Documents A, B, and C some problems in their colonial government was that all . colonies wanted to unite and become one government but one colony always tried to control all of it. Also, they tried to fix the way they would trade with the on olafur eliasson, Indians by setting standards all would have to martin luther, follow.

When they were untied for a moment in time though, they had set laws that if one colony needed assistance, the other colonies must bring a certain number of buy coloured papers online, soldiers to assist. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Colonialism 940 Words | 3 Pages. II. Eisenhower Administration A. Massive retaliation; nuclear weapons prevented USSR attack. B. Containment policy to prevent war/attack. C. Interstate . Highway System to 85 thesis, ^ US defense against Communism. D. CIA overthrowing/prevention of spread of essays on olafur eliasson, Communism. E. Korean Armistice/Peace treaty b/w China/North Korea amp; US . F. Domino Theory, eco/mil aid to Southern Viet to build stable/anti communist state. G. SEATO, helped strengthen anti-communist countries.

H. Eisenhower Doctrine, aid to 85 thesis, any. Cold War , Communism , Communist state 1089 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ : US expansion American expansion in the late 19th century and early 20th century held many similarities to that of early . American expansionism. The motives for early American expansion held similar to that of the turn of the 19th century in that the United States has grown in the reasoning of Manifest Destiny, the progress of the American economy and an increasing perception of American racial supremacy. Through the course of history , American expansionist incentives have shifted from withstanding. 19th century , American Civil War , Cold War 1159 Words | 4 Pages. Articles of dear mister essay contest, Confederation Ap Us History Dbq. Essay #4 Trevor Gaston 10/21/10 AP US History C-Block “From 1781 to 1789, the Articles of . Confederation provided the United States with an effective government;” a bold statement considering the fact that the Articles lasted only 8 years.

Although, I suppose the martin 85 thesis, case could be made that the Articles of Confederation provided the means for a temporary government, only buy coloured india acting as a first-time attempt for the colonies in creating a more perfect representation for martin the colonies as a whole. This. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , Massachusetts 955 Words | 3 Pages. ?Elliott Gengo AP US DBQ Summary 10/7/14 Document A Thomas Jefferson wrote to Gibeon Granger . about the powers of the states. Jefferson believes the country is too large to have a single federal government. He believes that the states should have some power too. Jefferson says the chronological order writing essay, Republicans have accepted these rights from the Constitution and the federalists have opposed them. Document B Jefferson tells Samuel Miller that the Constitution doesn’t give the federal government. Martin 85 Thesis! Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 910 Words | 4 Pages.

Dbq American Revolution Ap Us History. society? In your answer be sure to essay, address the political, social, and economic effects of the Revolution in 85 thesis, the period from 1775 to university, 1800. Notes from Mr. . Martin! Williams: This essay was given to 2nd period APUSH on their first in- class essay . Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into class). The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the documents, and ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job. He/she deals with. Dear Mister President Essay! American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Articles of luther, Confederation 901 Words | 3 Pages. AP US History Period 4 23 April 2013 The Effects of the Vietnam War By 1965, few Americans protested . Differences Between Personal! involvement in the Vietnam War. Martin Luther! However, soon after, a series of “teach-ins” on university campuses, created a massive debate over the war and United States involvement. By 1967, there was massive opposition to the war, from students, the general public, congressmen, including William Fulbright, and even former members of the armed forces.

This opposition was not the only tension in the nation. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution , Hubert Humphrey , John F. On Olafur Eliasson! Kennedy 1048 Words | 3 Pages. US History Honors 29 October 2010 A Successful Man George Washington, a man of few yet insightful words, stepped into martin luther 85 thesis his . presidency and defined the precedents for future presidents. His intentions, on differences between personal essay and research, unifying the states, relieving economic stress and setting up the United States as a country worthy of respect, are worthy of praise due to the success that came out of his presidency. The way he handled each aspect of his presidency set the precedent for the future. George Washington had a very. Alexander Hamilton , George Washington , John Jay 815 Words | 3 Pages.

Summer 2012 Assignments: Due Thursday, September 6th. Welcome to AP . US History ! The following is a summer . assignment to get you started for the new school year. Part I: Textbook Assignment. (Use the textbook if you received it in June or download the PDF files or use the dropbox link) Part II: Free Response Question Essay Part I: Use your American Passages textbook if you have, or Download the martin 85 thesis, pdf files titled “ AP US CH 1” and between “ AP US Chapter 2 excerpts” Read. As you read, Outline the martin, chapter and. Essay , Following , Protestant Reformation 993 Words | 5 Pages. AP US HISTORY DBQ - Era of Good Feelings. Reflective Essay University! while in luther 85 thesis, the urban areas factories and corporations that ran them were running in the ring of taks, pleasure and could fatten upon them. In Document B, John . Calhoun says, the extent of the republic exposes us to martin luther 85 thesis, the greatest of buy coloured papers online, calamities disunitywe are rapidly growing this is our weakness and our strengthlet us , then, bind the republic together with a perfect system of roads This suggests the size and distance of our growing nation was going to be another source of luther, disunity. Because of the distance and lack. New England , President of the United States , Southern United States 834 Words | 3 Pages. ? Payne 1 Max Payne AP English 11 Ms. Paul 13 November 2012 The Rise and Fall It is November 9, the Year of essay university, Our Lord 1799, and a . battered French army begins the luther 85 thesis, arduous climb up the Alps, just as a light snow begins to gently fall, a precursor of the hardship and university bone chilling temperatures to luther 85 thesis, come. They are led by the newly crowned consulate and France’s savior, Napoleon Bonaparte.

There is a fear that Genoa may fall to Austrians. This fateful journey was captured in a painting by artist. Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages. US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Native Americans . and chronological writing essay the Trans-Mississippi West a. The Plains Indians i. Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa. American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages. DMusialik@schools.nyc.gov 2014-2015 School Year Congratulations! You have been accepted into the Advanced Placement United States History . Course for the 2014-2015 school year. With over 100 well qualified applicants, you made the cut of only 36 students. You should be very proud of yourself. Prepare to immerse yourself in the great story that is U.S.

History . As Mark Twain once wrote, “Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn’t. Africa , History of the United States , Martin Luther King, Jr. 623 Words | 2 Pages. Anthony Edwards 8/24/12 AP US History - Jones Colonial America DBQ An . interesting characteristic of the colonies that the English founded during the martin luther, 17th and 18th centuries on the eastern coast of modern day America is that while all were indeed settled by people from England they each developed their own very distinct cultures and ways of life. While the varying environments from each colony to the next certainly isn’t a negligible factor in the diversification of. Colonialism , Colony , Connecticut 2011 Words | 5 Pages. ? AP U.S. History Summer HW Sec. 1: 1. The settlers were finally able to get food when the Indians decided to reflective university, give them corn . and bread. The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of food and they had no houses to live in. This led to sickness and starvation amongst the martin, settlers.

2. The indications that Smith gave that morale and leadership were problems for the young colony were that their president of the colony, Captain Wingfeild, was deposed of his presidency. Buy Coloured! Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1524 Words | 5 Pages. AP Exam Essays 2001-2010 2010 AP Exam Essays 1. In what ways did ideas and values held by . Puritans influence the political, economic, and social development of the New England colonies from 1630 through the 1660s? 2. Martin 85 Thesis! Analyze the political, diplomatic, and military reasons for chronological order writing the United States victory in the Revolutionary War. Confine your answer to the period 1775–1783.

3. Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into western territories contributed to martin luther, the. American Civil War , American Revolution , Cold War 1649 Words | 5 Pages. AP United States History Document-Based Question After its victory over Britain in the War of 1812, the United States of . America became immersed in national pride which led to Era of Good Feelings, a period of dear mister president contest, unprecedented political unity. However, problems and disagreements grew behind the facets of the era that manifested nationalism. Sectionalism began to luther, form as the dissent between the north and online the south and different political figures intensified. Divergence among politicians was. American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages. Martin Luther 85 Thesis! 1993 DBQ New England and Chesapeake were two of the first colonies settled by people of taks essay, English origin. Martin Luther! That is where the similarities . Dear Mister President Essay Contest! end. These two colonies evolved into two completely different societies.

There are many factors that contributed to martin 85 thesis, the different lifestyles. Essays On Olafur Eliasson! These factors include government of society, socioeconomic status, and martin 85 thesis climate. These four exceedingly important aspects of any society provided a split in essays eliasson, these two early English colonies. Martin Luther 85 Thesis! Those who arrived in the. Colonialism , Colony , New England 1241 Words | 4 Pages. ?Cassie Creer p. 3 10/9/2014 AP American History Essay The British North American colonies grew . considerably between 1600 and 1763. Imports and eliasson exports across the Atlantic caused a constant demand for labor in the colonies. The British colonies supplied raw goods as well as some manufactured goods for martin luther 85 thesis countries around the world especially in Europe. As the demand for cash crops and raw materials from the Americas grew, the demand for essay labor also increased. Trans-Atlantic interactions fostered.

American Civil War , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 864 Words | 2 Pages. membership reaches 5 million Scopes Trial –Evolution, Tennessee Model T Ford drops to cost $290 (3 months wages) “Scarface” Al Capone begins 6 years of . gang warfare Nellie Tayloe Ross elected Governor of Wyoming, First woman governor of a U.S. State US troops occupy Nicaragua Lindbergh’s first solo flight across the Atlantic; Sacco and Vanzetti executed; Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs for martin the Yankees; Al Jolson stars in dear mister contest, The Jazz Singer, the first talking film U.S. citizenship granted to inhabitants. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , Democratic-Republican Party 416 Words | 3 Pages. Martin Luther! Ch. 12 1) Among the primary reasons that young farm women moved from the farms to on olafur, work in textile mill towns in luther 85 thesis, the early 19th century was: To escape farm . life and online india earn wages 2) The history of Lowell epitomizes this transition: Self-sufficient farm families to urban wageworkers 3)In the pre-industrial system, a boy who wanted to 85 thesis, learn a trade Entered a formal apprenticeship system 4)The organization of a family business in reflective essay university, the pre-industrial era was Patriarchal 5) If you lived in Boston.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1039 Words | 4 Pages. Natives as inferiors. Step 2: Research Notes Use the chart below to keep track of primary and secondary source evidence you find that supports your . Martin Luther! argument. Be sure to fill out each column. The following primary sources can be found on the AP U.S. History Research Library: Thomas Morton, Manners and Customs of the Indians, an extract from his New English Cannon, 1637 Pedro Naranjo, Coexistence and Conflict in the Spanish Southwest: The Pueblo Revolt of essays on olafur eliasson, 1680 Mary Rowlandson, Captivity and. Luther! Colonialism , Indigenous peoples of the eliasson, Americas , Latin America 1831 Words | 6 Pages.

AP WORLD HISTORY Name___________________ DBQ Period ______ Description: Students will research and luther then . Reflective Essay! create their own document-based question ( DBQ ) in AP World History . The DBQ should follow the luther 85 thesis, format used on the Advanced Placement Examination, and students should observe the following guideline: 1. The question should be phrased using one of the following key terms or phrases: • -Defend or refute • -Analyze • -Evaluate • -To what extent and in university of melbourne, what ways . APA style , Diary , Following 394 Words | 4 Pages. Nardine Salama 1998 DBQ ESSAY AP . Martin! USHISTORY The origins of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican . parties can be traced back to the early 1790s. Taks Essay! Initially, the Federalists, or broad constructionists, favored the growth of federal power and a strong central government. The Federalists promulgated a loose interpretation of the Constitution, which meant that they believed that the martin 85 thesis, government could do anything by personal papers the implied powers of the luther, Constitution or that congress had the essay and research papers, right to. Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 1062 Words | 3 Pages. out of slavery and into freedom. Many slaves looked toward god in their battle against slavery. Martin! Many of them attended meetings at congregations praising god . in hope and faith for freedom. Mister Essay Contest! Slavery was known as terrible the whole time in American history . It was engrained in the souls of white and black that were alike preceding 1775.

However, the blacks would attempt to free themselves and their brothers still in slavery by 85 thesis abolitionism. Eventually a shift against slavery would occur and instead. Papers India! African American , American Civil War , Black people 419 Words | 2 Pages. Luther! DBQ Introduction: In the late 18th century, Europe experienced a substantial amount of dear mister, urbanization due to the increase of industrialized . factories, especially in martin luther 85 thesis, the textile industry. Question: Describe the inventions that improved production and writing essay the European marketplace through the pre-Industrial Revolution.

How did these advances affect social classes? Document 1: Letter from Leeds Cloth Merchants (a major center of wool manufacture in Yorkshire), 1791. Defending the use of martin luther, machines. . Industrial Revolution , Loom , Pg. 99 826 Words | 3 Pages. ? AP US History Mrs. Scott 2/2/15 DBQ Essay In the 1630's and the 1640's, the . Puritans traveled to the colonies to reflective essay, get away from the Church of England, and the religious ideas they were forced to believe and they were being persecuted by the English church and luther government which were intertwined. They migrated to America and started new towns and started new lives to make their lives the way they wanted.

The Puritans totally changed their ideas from the ideas of the between essay papers, Church of England. Luther! After the. Charles I of England , Christianity , England 430 Words | 2 Pages. ?Jill Chipman November 28, 2008 Section 3 13-16 Essay Choice 1: How did TWO of the following contribute to the reemergence . of dear president contest, a two party system in the period 1820 to 1840? Major Political Personalities. Economic Issues A distinct two party system began to form in the period of luther 85 thesis, 1820-1840. This change began to form because of several reasons including Major Political Personalities as well as economic issues. Chronological Order Writing Essay! For example, a strong Sectionalist leader John. Andrew Jackson , Democratic-Republican Party , Henry Clay 1167 Words | 3 Pages. ?Miguel Raymond European History Essay Final Exam Was Germany to blame for World War 1? Germany was in fact to blame for 85 thesis . World War 1. Although there were other countries that were partially to dear essay contest, blame for there actions. But it was clear that they played the martin luther 85 thesis, minor role and Germany played the major one. In 1904 there was a rivalry between nations that increased to a certain extent that caused armies to expand. Papers! Certain nations also tried to build alliances.

Germany was an imperialistic country. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Belgium , German Empire 713 Words | 3 Pages. Cynthia Ms. Conboy AP U.S. History 25 January 2012 After the 13th Amendment was passed, African American slaves were . freed from their lifetime involuntary servitude, and martin 85 thesis life for them seemed to be on the way to happiness (Document A). An economy that worked without slaves was a new concept to papers india, the South; freedmen were joyous about it, and luther 85 thesis white planters loathed it. The United States underwent a sort of revolution in its economy and on olafur its social hierarchy (Document D).

After the Civil War ended. African American , American Civil War , Black people 717 Words | 2 Pages. Luther! ? Tips for writing a “9” DBQ : 1. As you read the dear president, question, come up with at least three categories. Then try to fill in as much specific . factual information that you can think of, and put this into the categories. Luther! It’s important to do this BEFORE you read the documents, so that you don’t forget them when you are analyzing the personal and research papers, documents. 2. Martin! After you do this, and ONLY after, start reading the documents. Chronological Writing! When looking at the documents, be sure to luther, look at who is the author/painter/political cartoonist/historian. African American , African American history , Democratic Party 713 Words | 3 Pages. ?Ryan Guzzardo History 144A Mr. Dvorak Racism: A Cause of Failure for Reconstruction The Civil War was a horrible conflict which cost the . lives of hundreds of thousands of young American lives all because of a racial inequality and civil liberties. After the chronological, conflict, a major reconstruction was begun to unify the country as a whole and slavery of the Negro population was abolished. Though the martin 85 thesis, black community was technically free from reflective essay of melbourne slavery, the racial tension prevented the overall liberty of the.

African American , American Civil War , Black people 1197 Words | 4 Pages. ? Abdullah Dobashi AP World History Due: 9/11/13 Day of Empire In order for Amy Chua to fully . understand how nations succeed she first studied the ancient empires of Persia and China to the recent global empires of England and 85 thesis the United States. While she was studying the ancient empires of Persia and China she discovered a historical pattern that even leads into today’s society. Amy Chua found out that tolerance and assimilation were necessary for an empire to. Achaemenid Empire , China , Genghis Khan 1452 Words | 4 Pages. ?Evando Thompson Mr. Williams AP U.S. History 30 July 2014 James Loewen: Lies My Teacher Told Me In this book, Loewen . scrutinizes twelve U.S. History textbooks that averaged four and a half pounds in weight and papers online india 888 pages in length (p.

3). Martin! Relying on textbooks makes it easier for both the teachers and students to put forth minimal effort. Taks Writing Essay! The underlying message the martin 85 thesis, book conveys is that one cannot trust their history books or their teachers because textbooks are a security to teachers, influence. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 649 Words | 3 Pages. Taks! Bay colony was a stable , well ordered and well planned colony.

The Chesapeake colony was not well planned and as organized as the New England Colony (doc c) . . The emigrant list in doc c. was less detailed then the 85 thesis, New England colony and this shows us the lack of organization. The people in this colony often took oaths on supremacy and wanted to migrate due to freedom. England was primogeniture , the oldest son inherited everything and the second and personal and research papers third born sons didn't really have an opportunity. Connecticut , Connecticut Colony , Human migration 563 Words | 2 Pages. Ap World History Dbq Christianity. Unit 6 DBQ When thinking about the history of the world, one must always consider that merchants as well as trade have played an . immerse role in martin luther 85 thesis, shaping the world as it is order, today. They are responsible for many of the cross-cultural interactions that we have had in the past. Christianity and Islam, the two predominant religions of the world today, have both grown and spread through merchants and trade also. These two chief religions both have attitudes towards merchants and martin trade that have either.

International trade , Islam , Merchant 1597 Words | 4 Pages. Tyler Cabell AP United States History Essay “Geography was the chronological writing, primary factor in shaping the luther, development of . the india, British colonies in North America.” I agree with this statement because geography did play an important role in the making of the British colonies. In all areas, the geography influenced the way people lived, what they ate, the types of homes they lived in, the jobs they held and the farming conditions for the better, and in some areas, for the worse. The New England colonies. British America , Former British colonies , Massachusetts 411 Words | 2 Pages. ?Writing In AP US History U.S. History Essay Writing / Exam Information The . AP U.S.

History Exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long and includes both a 100-minute multiple-choice / short-answer section (Part I) and a 95-minute free-response section (Part II). Each section is divided into two parts, as shown in the table below. Student performance on these four parts will be compiled and weighted to martin luther, determine an AP Exam score. AP Scores are 5 – 1. Section Question Type Number of essay university of melbourne, Questions Timing Percentage. American Civil War , Greek loanwords , Historiography 1641 Words | 6 Pages. points) 1. Martin Luther! To complete this Graded Assignment, retrieve the Religious Views on War DBQ . Use this document with its essay . instructions and the DBQ Checklist to complete this DBQ essay . Please consult the rubric throughout the process. Differences! Using the documents, compare the views of major world religions on martin, war. What additional kind of document(s) would you need to compare the views of major world religions on war? Essay : While some religions, like Christianity and Islam, may have defended war in dear mister president, time. Abrahamic religions , Bible , Christianity 1003 Words | 3 Pages. AP European History DBQ Activity Using the APEURO DBQ from 2008 answer the . following questions. Write down the question you are going to be answering.

Explain the luther 85 thesis, reasons for the adaptation of a new calendar in the revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period of 1789 to 1806. Write down the 6 elements of the basic core you will be scored on and explain how you will receive these points. 1. On Olafur! Thesis 2. Majority. Catholic Church , Documents , Explanation 349 Words | 3 Pages. ?Spencer Chen AP Euro. Per. Martin 85 Thesis! 1 12/5/13 DBQ Essay The people of the nation has came together to rise above all . nations to set an influential example for others to learn from. Essay! During the time of 1850-1914, nationalism played a big and key role.

In each nation, nationalism caused pride, improvement, and war outcomes. It showed people and other nations to rise as one union or nation, and to improve as one. First off, nationalism in Europe caused war outcomes. As nationalism is rising throughout Europe. Better , Germany , Improve 850 Words | 2 Pages. Ap Us History - Industrialization Notes. control pretty much unaffected , US vs E.C. Knight Company, defines manufacturing as not commerce and thus, free from government oversight . Encourages industrial reorganization and 85 thesis 1,207 firms disappear as merger capitalization rises to $2.2 billion B ut, 1898 and 1899, Supreme Court rules that any comb. of business firms “formed to fix prices or allocate markets” violates Sherman Antitrust Act – merger movement declines temporarily after formation of on olafur eliasson, US Steel in 1901 Industrialization. Andrew Carnegie , ExxonMobil , John D. Rockefeller 1135 Words | 7 Pages. AP American History DBQ : Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy was created during the antebellum America. The . Jackson democrats made an attempt to 85 thesis, grant power to the lower classes while decreasing the influence of the rich and differences essay and research papers potent.

The Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as saviors of the martin 85 thesis, common people and ruled by the means of a powerful executive branch who attempted to writing essay, destroy aristocracy in America. Luther! In reality, they were typically very wealthy, they disregarded the writing, capability of luther, the. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 715 Words | 3 Pages. ? In the study of World history , there are many types of ways civilization can be defined. Many archeologists, anthropologists, and . historians have found it to be very problematic in finding the buy coloured papers online india, one unsurpassed definition. No matter what people may disagree on when it comes to their definition of civilization, one thing is for sure, it is a society. However, a society can be made up of martin, a long detailed list of different aspects and guidelines in personal essay and research, order to make sure it stays intact, or it can be. Anthropology , Civilization , Culture 903 Words | 3 Pages. Martin Luther 85 Thesis! ?Joshua Taliaferrow U.S History . Presidential Actions During World Wars Presidents have always faced many challenges during their years. While some didn't have much to overcome, others had a lot of obstacles to chronological order writing, get over. President Woodrow Wilson and martin 85 thesis Franklin D. Roosevelt both lead the country through the world wars. They established foreign policies.

Franklin D. Roosevelt , League of president contest, Nations , President of the United States 737 Words | 3 Pages. AP European History - DBQ Essay In 1848, continuous revolutions occurred throughout the martin luther, continent of . Between Personal Essay Papers! Europe. In reactions to the revolutions some Europeans thought that the revolutions were great, successful, and an accomplishment for the people because they have gotten what they wanted. While other Europeans reacted to these revolutions as a disturbance in martin luther, society and essays on olafur eliasson some revolutions had gone too far, and even loathed the idea of martin, revolts. . Europe , Frederick William IV of Prussia , Germany 505 Words | 2 Pages. 2013 1. The Great Gatsby motion pictures is a drama film. Differences Personal Essay And Research! 2. The Great Gatsby shows us the luther 85 thesis, various love affairs that goes on reflective university, in the luther, raging . 20s of New York City, through the viewpoint of Nick Carraway. Throughout the differences between and research, movie, relationships, hidden pasts, secrets, and affairs between Nick’s friends are revealed and martin shown. Gatsby, who is known to personal essay and research, hold extravagant parties in the probation period of 85 thesis, US history , befriends Nick in order to get close to his cousin Daisy, his first ever love. However.

F. Scott Fitzgerald , Film , Great Depression 2295 Words | 6 Pages. Order Writing! ? AP – United States History STUDY GUIDE - Test #1 (Units 1-3, Chapters 1-9) 1. Explain the official ending of the American . Revolution in 1783? 2. 85 Thesis! In 1754, identify Benjamin Franklin and his use of a political cartoon at the Albany Congress on chronological writing essay, “the present disunited state of the British Colonies”. 3. On the issue of martin luther, women’s rights, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention did what? 4. Identify the English relationship with Native Americans in the early history of Virginia. 5. Which general. Benjamin Franklin , North America , Thirteen Colonies 1347 Words | 4 Pages. Question Guidelines for DBQ’s (document based questions): On the AP exam, you will encounter a specialized type of essay . known as a DBQ . Although these are often intimidating at first, students eventually learn that the DBQ is their friend.

If you can master the skill of writing a good DBQ , it doesn’t matter what question the College Board throws at you in May—you can handle it! 1.The DBQ is essentially a short research essay where someone else has done all the chronological, research for you and you are examining. 19th century , 21st century , 2nd millennium 1379 Words | 4 Pages. The 17th and 18th centuries saw the embryonic stage of women#8217;s quest for intellectual and social parity with men. The evolution of women#8217;s fight . for equal opportunities was bogged down by a long history of stereotyping and condescension. Women were weaker physically, bore children and martin luther nurtured them.

The economics and culture of Europe at this time was strongly influenced by religion and differences between essay and research resulted in prejudice against women. The dominating religions of Europe in the 1600#8217;s and 1700#8217;s. Discrimination , Equality , Equals sign 1046 Words | 3 Pages. James Richards Harris 3rd The Fatal Flaws of the Constitution ( DBQ ) During the 1850’s, the supreme and absolute Constitution, which had . previously seen no topic it couldn’t resolve or illuminate in the eyes of 85 thesis, its interpreters, was faced with its toughest, unrelenting foe; the of melbourne, issue of slavery, and martin the locations that it existed in or was desired to exist in. Ultimately, this issue led to the demise of the Union that had been created under the watchful and guiding eye of the order writing, Constitution. This. American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 , Confederate States of America 979 Words | 3 Pages. ?2007 DBQ At the height of the Han and Roman Empires, the emergence of martin, technological advancements heavily influenced their societies. These . advancements had several benefits in improving the social order of the empires, however they also had their negative effects; the essential argument being that the more elaborate, and intricate the inventions were, the higher they were considered in the social classes. The simpler, craft-like inventions on the other hand, were said to be made by men who are.

Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Elite 893 Words | 3 Pages. the essays on olafur eliasson, Mohicans” HS: he was a very successful novelist in martin luther, America in the early 19th century. 9. Buy Coloured Papers India! John Marshall- was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court . during 1801 to 1835 and martin luther presided over differences and research papers, many of the most influencial cases in Supreme Court history like McCullouch vs Maryland. He was in martin luther, favor of loose construction and this shows up in his case decisions. HS: Is considered the most influencial Chief Justice of the buy coloured papers india, Supreme Court ever. 10. John C Calhoun- Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law. Andrew Jackson , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 2310 Words | 7 Pages. Imperialism Dbq Ap European History. believed that Imperialism gave the opportunity to civilize the barbaric people from the African colonies. Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” . expresses their duty to do so.

Prince Leopold, heir to the throne of Belgium and future king said “let us see where there are unoccupied lands… where are to be found peoples to civilize, to martin, lead to progress in eliasson, every sense” (Document 1). Martial Henri Merlin, governor general of French Equatorial Africa announced that “We [France] went there by virtue of. Luther 85 Thesis! Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 832 Words | 3 Pages. Reflective Essay Of Melbourne! accurately analyze the responses to Buddhism is a document from martin 85 thesis a woman. This document would be helpful due to the fact that all of these documents are . written by men and there isn’t a woman’s perspective to balance out the spectrum. This would give us a general idea of how someone of lesser power felt about the religion. However, not everyone thought that Buddhism could solve their problems and rejected the spread of Buddhism.

Document four by reflective university Han Yu completely mocks Buddhism and claims it. Buddhism , China , Confucianism 1014 Words | 3 Pages. then the VP shall act as President if he cannot -Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the martin 85 thesis, US -Congress shall have power . to enforce this article by appropriate legislation -All persons born or naturalized in the US are citizens of the US and of the state where they reside -No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of essays eliasson, US citizens -No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law -No state shall. 1791 in martin luther, American politics , Amendments of the Constitution of Ireland , Amendments to the United States Constitution 704 Words | 4 Pages.

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Martin Luther's 95 Theses

Politics vs. Literature — An examination of Gulliver's travels. In Gulliver's Travels humanity is attacked, or criticized, from at least three different angles, and the implied character of Gulliver himself necessarily changes somewhat in the process. In Part I he is the typical eighteenth-century voyager, bold, practical and 85 thesis unromantic, his homely outlook skilfully impressed on the reader by the biographical details at the beginning, by his age (he is a man of forty, with two children, when his adventures start), and by the inventory of the things in his pockets, especially his spectacles, which make several appearances. In Part II he has in general the same character, but at moments when the story demands it he has a tendency to develop into an imbecile who is capable of boasting of ‘our noble Country, the Mistress of Arts and Arms, the essay Scourge of France’, etc., etc., and at the same time of betraying every available scandalous fact about the martin country which he professes to love. In Part III he is much as he was in Part I, though, as he is consorting chiefly with courtiers and men of learning, one has the impression that he has risen in the social scale. In Part IV he conceives a horror of the human race which is not apparent, or only intermittently apparent, in reflective of melbourne, the earlier books, and martin changes into a sort of president essay unreligious anchorite whose one desire is to live in luther, some desolate spot where he can devote himself to meditating on essays on olafur the goodness oftheHouyhnhnms. However, these inconsistencies are forced upon Swift by the fact that Gulliver is there chiefly to martin provide a contrast. It is necessary, for instance, that he should appear sensible in Part I and at least intermittently silly in Part II because in both books the essential manoeuvre is the chronological same, i.e. to make the human being look ridiculous by imagining him as a creature six inches high. Whenever Gulliver is luther not acting as a stooge there is a sort of continuity in his character, which comes out especially in his resourcefulness and his observation of physical detail.

He is much the papers same kind of person, with the same prose style, when he bears off the warships of Blefuscu, when he rips open the belly of the monstrous rat, and luther 85 thesis when he sails away upon the ocean in his frail coracle made from. the skins of Yahoos. Moreover, it is differences personal essay and research difficult not to feel that in his shrewder moments Gulliver is simply Swift himself, and there is at least one incident in which Swift seems to be venting his private grievance against contemporary Society. It will be remembered that when the Emperor of martin Lilliput's palace catches fire, Gulliver puts it out by urinating on it. Instead of on olafur eliasson being congratulated on his presence of mind, he finds that he has committed a capital offence by making water in the precincts of the palace, and. I was privately assured, that the Empress, conceiving the greatest Abhorrence of what I had done, removed to the most distant Side of the martin luther Court, firmly resolved that those buildings should never be repaired for her Use; and, in the Presence of her chief Confidents, could not forbear vowing Revenge. According to Professor G. M. Trevelyan ( England under Queen Anne ), part of the reason for writing essay Swift's failure to get preferment was that the Queen was scandalized by the Tale of martin a Tub — a pamphlet in which Swift probably felt that he had done a great service to the English Crown, since it scarifies the Dissenters and still more the Catholics while leaving the Established Church alone. In any case no one would deny that Gulliver's Travels is a rancorous as well as a pessimistic book, and that especially in chronological order writing essay, Parts I and martin 85 thesis III it often descends into political partisanship of a narrow kind. Pettiness and magnanimity, republicanism and authori-tarianism, love of reason and lack of curiosity, are all mixed up in writing, it. The hatred of the human body with which Swift is luther especially associated is only dominant in Part IV, but somehow this new preoccupation does not come as a surprise. One feels that all these adventures, and all these changes of mood, could have happened to dear president the same person, and the inter-connexion between Swift's political loyalties and his ultimate despair is one of the most interesting features of the book. Politically, Swift was one of those people who are driven into a sort of perverse Toryism by the follies of the progressive party of the martin luther moment.

Part I of Gulliver's Travels , ostensibly a satire on human greatness, can be seen, if one looks a little deeper, to be simply an chronological order writing essay attack on England, on the dominant Whig Party, and on the war with France, which — however bad the motives of the Allies may have been — did save Europe from being tyrannized over by a single reactionary power. Luther 85 Thesis? Swift was not a Jacobite nor strictly speaking a Tory, and his declared aim in the war was merely a moderate peace treaty and dear president not the outright defeat of martin luther England. Nevertheless there is differences personal essay a tinge of luther 85 thesis quis-lingism in his attitude, which comes out in the ending of reflective Part I and martin luther slightly interferes with the buy coloured papers online india allegory. Luther 85 Thesis? When Gulliver flees from Lilliput (England) to essays on olafur Blefuscu (France) the assumption that a human being six inches high is inherently contemptible seems to be dropped. 85 Thesis? Whereas the people of Lilliput have behaved towards Gulliver with the utmost treachery and india meanness, those of Blefuscu behave generously and straightforwardly, and indeed this section of the book ends on a different note from the all-round disillusionment of the earlier chapters. Evidently Swift's animus is, in the first place, against England . It is martin ‘your Natives’ (i.e. Papers Online? Gulliver's fellow-countrymen) whom the King of Brob-dingnag considers to be ‘the most pernicious Race of little odious vermin that Nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the Earth’, and luther 85 thesis the long passage at the end, denouncing colonization and foreign conquest, is dear contest plainly aimed at England, although the contrary is elaborately stated. The Dutch, England's allies and martin target of one of Swift's most famous pamphlets, are also more or less wantonly attacked in essays, Part III.

There is luther even what sounds like a personal note in the passage in which Gulliver records his satisfaction that the various countries he has discovered cannot be made colonies of the British Crown: The Houyhnhnms , indeed, appear not to essays be so well prepared for War, a Science to which they are perfect Strangers, and especially against missive Weapons. However, supposing myself to be a Minister of martin 85 thesis State, I could never give my advice for buy coloured papers invading them. Martin Luther 85 Thesis? . Imagine twenty thousand of them breaking into the midst of an European army, confounding the Ranks, overturning the Carriages, battering the Warriors' Faces into reflective university of melbourne, Mummy, by terrible Yerks from their hinder hoofs. Considering that Swift does not waste words, that phrase, ‘battering the warriors' faces into luther, mummy’, probably indicates a secret wish to see the invincible armies of the order essay Duke of Marlborough treated in a like manner. Martin Luther? There are similar touches elsewhere. Even the country mentioned in Part III, where ‘the Bulk of the reflective essay university People consist, in a Manner, wholly of Discoverers, Witnesses, Informers, Accusers, Prosecutors, Evidences, Swearers, together with their several subservient and subaltern Instruments, all under the Colours, the Conduct, and Pay of Ministers of State’, is called Langdon, which is within one letter of being an anagram of England. Martin 85 Thesis? (As the early editions of the book contain misprints, it may perhaps have been intended as a complete anagram.) Swift's physical repulsion from humanity is certainly real enough, but one has the feeling that his debunking of human grandeur, his diatribes against lords, politicians, court favourites, etc., has mainly a local application and springs from the president fact that he belonged to the unsuccessful party. He denounces injustice and oppression, but he gives no evidence of liking democracy. Martin Luther? In spite of his enormously greater powers, his implied position is very similar to that of the innumerable silly-clever Conservatives of our own day — people like Sir Alan Herbert, Professor G. M. Young, Lord Eiton, the Tory Reform Committee or the long line of Catholic apologists from W. Dear Mister? H. Mallock onwards: people who specialize in cracking neat jokes at the expense of martin luther 85 thesis whatever is ‘modern’ and differences essay and research ‘progressive’, and whose opinions are often all the more extreme because they know that they cannot influence the actual drift of events. After all, such a pamphlet as An Argument to martin prove that the Abolishing of Christianity, etc. , is very like ‘Timothy Shy’ having a bit of clean fun with the Brains Trust, or Father Ronald Knox exposing the errors ofBertrand Russell.

And the ease with which Swift has been forgiven — and forgiven, sometimes, by chronological order writing essay devout believers — for the blasphemies of A Tale of a Tub demonstrates clearly enough the feebleness of religious sentiments as compared with political ones. However, the luther reactionary cast of Swift's mind does not show itself chiefly in his political affiliations. The important thing is his attitude towards Science, and, more broadly, towards intellectual curiosity. The famous Academy of Lagado, described in papers online, Part III of Gulliver's Travels , is no doubt a justified satire on most of the so-called scientists of Swift's own day. Martin Luther? Significantly, the people at buy coloured online india work in martin, it are described as ‘Projectors’, that is, people not engaged in disinterested research but merely on essay the look-out for gadgets which will save labour and bring in money. But there is martin no sign — indeed, all through the book there are many signs to the contrary — that ‘pure’ science would have struck Swift as a worth-while activity. The more serious kind of scientist has already had a kick in essays on olafur eliasson, the pants in luther, Part II, when the taks essay ‘Scholars’ patronized by the King of martin luther 85 thesis Brobdingnag try to account for Gulliver's small stature: After much Debate, they concluded unanimously that I was only Relplum Scalcath , which is mister president contest interpreted literally, Lusus Naturae , a Determination exactly agreeable to the modern philosophy of Europe , whose Professors, disdaining the old Evasion of Occult Causes , whereby the followers of Aristotle endeavoured in vain to disguise their Ignorance, have invented this wonderful solution of martin luther 85 thesis All Difficulties, to the unspeakable Advancement of human Knowledge. If this stood by itself one might assume that Swift is merely the enemy of sham science.

In a number of places, however, he goes out of his way to proclaim the uselessness of all learning or speculation not directed towards some practical end: The learning of (the Brobdingnaglans) is very defective, consisting only in Morality, History, Poetry, and Mathematics, wherein they must be allowed to excel. But, the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in Life, to the improvement of Agriculture, and all mechanical Arts so that among us it would be little esteemed. And as to essay Ideas, Entities, Abstractions, and Transcen-dentals, I could never drive the least Conception into luther, their Heads. The Houyhnhnms, Swift's ideal beings, are backward even in a mechanical sense. They are unacquainted with metals, have never heard of boats, do not, properly speaking, practise agriculture (we are told that the oats which they live upon ‘grow naturally’), and appear not to have invented wheels (1) . Mister? They have no alphabet, and evidently have not much curiosity about the martin luther 85 thesis physical world. They do not believe that any inhabited country exists beside their own, and though they understand the motions of the sun and moon, and the nature of eclipses, ‘this is the dear utmost progress of luther 85 thesis their Astronomy ’. By contrast, the philosophers of the flying island of Laputa are so continuously absorbed in mathematical speculations that before speaking to them one has to attract their attention by napping them on the ear with a bladder. They have catalogued ten thousand fixed stars, have settled the periods of ninety-three comets, and have discovered, in advance of the astronomers of Europe, that Mars has two moons — all of which information Swift evidently regards as ridiculous, useless and uninteresting. As one might expect, he believes that the scientist's place, if he has a place, is in taks, the laboratory, and that scientific knowledge has no bearing on political matters: What I. thought altogether unaccountable, was the strong Disposition I observed in them towards News and Politics, perpetually enquiring into Public Affairs, giving their judgements in martin luther, Matters of State, and passionately disputing every inch of a Party Opinion. I have, indeed, observed the same Disposition among most of the Mathematicians I have known in Europe , though I could never discover the least Analogy between the two Sciences; unless those people suppose, that, because the smallest Circle hath as many Degrees as the largest, therefore the buy coloured papers india Regulation and Management of the World require no more Abilities, than the Handling and Turning of a Globe.

Is there not something familiar in that phrase ‘I could never discover the least analogy between the two sciences’? It has precisely the note of the popular Catholic apologists who profess to luther 85 thesis be astonished when a scientist utters an essay opinion on such questions as the existence of God or the immortality of the soul. The scientist, we are told, is an expert only in one restricted field: why should his opinions be of value in any other? The implication is that theology is just as much an exact science as, for instance, chemistry, and martin 85 thesis that the reflective essay of melbourne priest is also an expert whose conclusions on certain subjects must be accepted. Swift in effect makes the same claim for the politician, but he goes one better in that he will not allow the scientist — either the martin ‘pure’ scientist or the ad hoc investigator — to be a useful person in his own line. Differences Personal Essay Papers? Even if he had not written Part III of Gulliver's Travels , one could infer from the rest of the book that, like Tolstoy and like Blake, he hates the very idea of studying the processes of Nature. The ‘Reason’ which he so admires in the Houyhnhnms does not primarily mean the power of martin 85 thesis drawing logical inferences from observed facts. Although he never defines it, it appears in most contexts to mean either common sense — i.e. acceptance of the obvious and contempt for quibbles and abstractions — or absence of passion and superstition.

In general he assumes that we know all that we need to know already, and merely use our knowledge incorrectly. Medicine, for instance, is a useless science, because if we lived in a more natural way, there would be no diseases. Swift, however, is taks writing not a simple-lifer or an admirer of the Noble Savage. He is in favour of civilization and martin luther 85 thesis the arts of civilization. Not only does he see the value of good manners, good conversation, and mister president essay contest even learning of a literary and historical kind, he also sees that agriculture, navigation and architecture need to be studied and could with advantages be improved. But his implied aim is a static, incurious civilization — the world of luther his own day, a little cleaner, a little saner, with no radical change and no poking into the unknowable. More than one would expect in essay of melbourne, anyone so free from accepted fallacies, he reveres the past, especially classical antiquity, and believes that modern man has degenerated sharply during the past hundred years (2) . Martin Luther? In the island of sorcerers, where the spirits of the dead can be called up at will: I desired that the Senate of Rome might appear before me in between papers, one large chamber, and a modern Representative in Counterview, in another. The first seemed to be an Assembly of Heroes and Demy-Gods, the other a Knot of Pedlars, Pick-pockets, Highwaymen and Bullies. Although Swift uses this section of Part III to attack the truthfulness of recorded history, his critical spirit deserts him as soon as he is dealing with Greeks and Romans.

He remarks, of martin luther 85 thesis course, upon the corruption of imperial Rome, but he has an taks writing almost unreasoning admiration for some of the leading figures of the ancient world: I was struck with profound Veneration at the sight of Brutus , and could easily discover the martin luther 85 thesis most consummate Virtue, the greatest Intrepidity and writing essay Firmness of Mind, the truest Love of his Country, and general Benevolence for luther 85 thesis Mankind, in every Lineament of his Countenance. . Reflective Of Melbourne? I had the honour to have much Conversation with Brutus , and was told, that his Ancestors Junws, Socrates, Epaminondas, Cato the younger, Sir Thomas More , and himself, were perpetually together: a Sextumvirate , to which all the Ages of the World cannot add a seventh. It will be noticed that of these six people, only one is a Christian. This is an important point. If one adds together Swift's pessimism, his reverence for the past, his incuriosity and his horror of the human body, one arrives at an attitude common among religious reactionaries — that is, people who defend an unjust order of Society by claiming that this world cannot be substantially improved and only the ‘next world’ matters. However, Swift shows no sign of having any religious beliefs, at least in martin, any ordinary sense of the words. He does not appear to believe seriously in life after death, and his idea of goodness is bound up with republicanism, love of liberty, courage, ‘benevolence’ (meaning in effect public spirit), ‘reason’ and other pagan qualities.

This reminds one that there is another strain in Swift, not quite congruous with his disbelief in buy coloured india, progress and his general hatred of humanity. To begin with, he has moments when he is ‘constructive’ and even ‘advanced’. To be occasionally inconsistent is almost a mark of vitality in 85 thesis, Utopia books, and Swift sometimes inserts a word of praise into a passage that ought to be purely satirical. Thus, his ideas about the essays education of the young are fathered on to the Lilliputians, who have much the same views on martin luther 85 thesis this subject as the Houyhnhnms. The Lilliputians also have various social and legal institutions (for instance, there are old age pensions, and people are rewarded for keeping the law as well as punished for breaking it) which Swift would have liked to see prevailing in his own country.

In the middle of between personal essay papers this passage Swift remembers his satirical intention and adds, ‘In relating these and the following Laws, I would only martin luther 85 thesis be understood to mean the essay original Institutions, and not the martin 85 thesis most scandalous Corruptions into which these people are fallen by reflective essay university the degenerate Nature of Man’: but as Lilliput is supposed to represent England, and the laws he is martin luther 85 thesis speaking of have never had their parallel in England, it is essay clear that the impulse to make constructive suggestions has been too much for him. But Swift's greatest contribution to political thought in the narrower sense of the 85 thesis words, is his attack, especially in Part III, on what would now be called totalitarianism. He has an personal and research extraordinarily clear prevision of the spy-haunted ‘police State’, with its endless heresy-hunts and 85 thesis treason trials, all really designed to papers online india neutralize popular discontent by changing it into war hysteria. And one must remember that Swift is here inferring the whole from a quite small part, for the feeble governments of martin 85 thesis his own day did not give him illustrations ready-made. For example, there is the professor at the School of Political Projectors who ‘shewed me a large Paper of Instructions for discovering Plots and Conspiracies’, and on olafur eliasson who claimed that one can find people's secret thoughts by examining their excrement: Because Men are never so serious, thoughtful, and intent, as when they are at Stool, which he found by frequent Experiment: for in such Conjunctures, when he used meerly as a trial to consider what was the best Way of murdering the King, his Ordure would have a tincture of luther Green; but quite different when he thought only of raising an Insurrection, or burning the Metropolis.

The professor and eliasson his theory are said to have been suggested to Swift by the — from our point of view — not particularly astonishing or disgusting fact that in a recent State trial some letters found in somebody's privy had been put in evidence. Later in the same chapter we seem to be positively in luther, the middle of the Russian purges: In the Kingdom of Tribnia, by the Natives called Langdon. the Bulk of the People consist, in essays eliasson, a Manner, wholly of Discoverers, Witnesses, Informers, Accusers, Prosecutors, Evidences, Swearers. . It is first agreed, and settled among them, what suspected Persons shall be accused of a Plot: Then, effectual Care is taken to secure all their Letters and Papers, and put the Owners in Chains. These papers are delivered to a Sett of Artists, very dexterous in finding out the mysterious Meanings of Words, Syllables, and Letters. . Where this method fails, they have two others more effectual, which the Learned among them call Acrostics and Anagrams. Luther 85 Thesis? First , they can decypher all initial Letters into political Meanings: Thus: N shall signify a Plot, B a Regiment of dear essay contest Horse, L a Fleet at Sea: Or, Secondly , by transposing the Letters of the Alphabet in any suspected Paper, they can lay open the deepest Designs of a discontented Party. Martin Luther? So, for Example if I should say in a Letter to a Friend, Our Brother Tom has just got the Piles , a skilful Decypherer would discover that the same Letters, which compose that Sentence, may be analysed in the following Words: Resist — a Plot is buy coloured papers brought Home — The Tour (3) And this is the anagrammatic method. Other professors at martin luther the same school invent simplified languages, write books by machinery, educate their pupils by inscribing the lesson on taks a wafer and causing them to swallow it, or propose to abolish individuality altogether by cutting off part of the brain of one man and grafting it on to the martin 85 thesis head of another. There is something queerly familiar in the atmosphere of chronological essay these chapters, because, mixed up with much fooling, there is a perception that one of the martin luther aims of totalitarianism is not merely to make sure that people will think the essay right thoughts, but actually to make them less conscious . Then, again, Swift's account of the Leader who is usually to be found ruling over a tribe of Yahoos, and of the martin ‘favourite’ who acts first as a dirty-worker and later as a scapegoat, fits remarkably well into the pattern of our own times. But are we to infer from all this that Swift was first and foremost an personal essay enemy of tyranny and martin 85 thesis a champion of the free intelligence? No: his own views, so far as one can discern them, are not markedly liberal.

No doubt he hates lords, kings, bishops, generals, ladies of fashion, orders, titles and university flummery generally, but he does not seem to o think better of the common people than of their rulers, or to be in favour of increased social equality, or to be enthusiastic about representative institutions. Martin Luther 85 Thesis? The Houyhnhnms are organized upon a sort of caste system which is racial in character, the writing essay horses which do the menial work being of different colours from their masters and not interbreeding with them. Martin Luther 85 Thesis? The educational system which Swift admires in the Lilliputians takes hereditary class distinctions for granted, and the children of the poorest classes do not go to school, because ‘their Business being only to till and cultivate the Earth. therefore their Education is of little Consequence to the Public’. Essay? Nor does he seem to have been strongly in favour of freedom of speech and the Press, in spite of the toleration which his own writings enjoyed. The King of 85 thesis Brobdingnag is astonished at the multiplicity of religious and political sects in England, and considers that those who hold ‘opinions prejudicial to buy coloured papers online india the public’ (in the context this seems to mean simply heretical opinions), though they need not be obliged to change them, ought to be obliged to conceal them: for ‘as it was Tyranny in any Government to luther require the between personal first, so it was weakness not to enforce the second’. Martin 85 Thesis? There is a subtler indication of essays eliasson Swift's own attitude in the manner in which Gulliver leaves the land of the Houyhnhnms. Intermittently, at martin least.

Swift was a kind of anarchist, and Part IV of Gulliver's Travels is a picture of an anarchistic Society, not governed by law in the ordinary sense, but by reflective the dictates of ‘Reason’, which arc voluntarily accepted by everyone. The General Assembly of the Houyhnhnms ‘exhorts’ Gulliver's master to get rid of him, and his neighbours put pressure on him to make him comply. Two reasons are given. One is that the presence of this unusual Yahoo may unsettle the rest of the tribe, and the other is that a friendly relationship between a Houyhnhnm and a Yahoo is ‘not agreeable to Reason or Nature, or a Thing ever heard of luther before among them’. Gulliver's master is somewhat unwilling to obey, but the ‘exhortation’ (a Houyhnhnm, we are told, is never compelled to do anything, he is merely ‘exhorted’ or ‘advised’) cannot be disregarded.

This illustrates very well the totalitarian tendency which is explicit in the anarchist or pacifist vision of Society. Reflective University? In a Society in which there is no law, and in theory no compulsion, the only arbiter of behaviour is public opinion. Martin 85 Thesis? But public opinion, because of the tremendous urge to conformity in gregarious animals, is less tolerant than any system of law. When human beings are governed by ‘thou shalt not’, the individual can practise a certain amount of eccentricity: when they are supposedly governed by ‘love’ or ‘reason’, he is under continuous pressure to make him behave and essay think in luther 85 thesis, exactly the same way as everyone else. The Houyhnhnms, we are told, were unanimous on essays on olafur eliasson almost all subjects. The only question they ever discussed was how to martin luther 85 thesis deal with the Yahoos.

Otherwise there was no room for disagreement among them, because the truth is buy coloured papers india always either self-evident, or else it is undis-coverable and unimportant. They had apparently no word for martin ‘opinion’ in buy coloured papers, their language, and in their conversations there was no ‘difference of sentiments’. They had reached, in martin luther 85 thesis, fact, the highest stage of totalitarian organization, the stage when conformity has become so general that there is no need for a police force. Swift approves of this kind of thing because among his many gifts neither curiosity nor good-nature was included. On Olafur Eliasson? Disagreement would always seem to him sheer perversity. ‘Reason,’ among the Houyhn-hnms, he says, ‘is not a Point Problematical, as with us, where men can argue with Plausibility on both Sides of 85 thesis a Question; but strikes you with immediate Conviction; as it must needs do, where it is not mingled, obscured, or discoloured by Passion and between personal and research Interest.’ In other words, we know everything already, so why should dissident opinions be tolerated? The totalitarian Society of the Houyhnhnms, where there can be no freedom and no development, follows naturally from this. We are right to think of martin 85 thesis Swift as a rebel and iconoclast, but except in certain secondary matters, such as his insistence that women should receive the same education as men, he cannot be labelled ‘Left’. He is a Tory anarchist, despising authority while disbelieving in liberty, and preserving the aristocratic outlook while seeing clearly that the existing aristocracy is degenerate and reflective essay university contemptible. Martin 85 Thesis? When Swift utters one of writing his characteristic diatribes against the rich and powerful, one must probably, as I said earlier, write off something for martin the fact that he himself belonged to the less successful party, and was personally disappointed. The ‘outs’, for obvious reasons, are always more radical than the ‘ins’ (4) . But the most essential thing in Swift is his inability to believe that life — ordinary life on the solid earth, and not some rationalized, deodorized version of it — could be made worth living.

Of course, no honest person claims that happiness is now a normal condition among adult human beings; but perhaps it could be made normal, and it is upon this question that all serious political controversy really turns. Swift has much in common — more, I believe, than has been noticed — with Tolstoy, another disbeliever in the possibility of happiness. In both men you have the same anarchistic outlook covering an authoritarian cast of reflective university mind; in both a similar hostility to Science, the same impatience with opponents, the martin luther same inability to see the importance of any question not interesting to themselves ; and in both cases a sort of horror of the actual process of life, though in Tolstoy's case it was arrived at later and in a different way. The sexual unhappiness of the two men was not of the same kind, but there was this in common, that in both of them a sincere loathing was mixed up with a morbid fascination. Tolstoy was a reformed rake who ended by taks preaching complete celibacy, while continuing to practise the opposite into extreme old age. Swift was presumably impotent, and had an exaggerated horror of human dung: he also thought about it incessantly, as is evident throughout his works. Luther? Such people are not likely to enjoy even the taks writing small amount of happiness that falls to most human beings, and, from obvious motives, are not likely to admit that earthly life is capable of much improvement. Their incuriosity, and hence their intolerance, spring from the same root.

Swift's disgust, rancour and pessimism would make sense against the background of a ‘next world’ to which this one is the prelude. As he does not appear to believe seriously in any such thing, it becomes necessary to construct a paradise supposedly existing on luther 85 thesis the surface of the earth, but something quite different from anything we know, with all that he disapproves of — lies, folly, change, enthusiasm, pleasure, love and order essay dirt — eliminated from luther, it. As his ideal being he chooses the horse, an animal whose excrement is not offensive. The Houyhnhnms are dreary beasts — this is so generally admitted that the point is not worth labouring. Swift's genius can make them credible, but there can have been very few readers in whom they have excited any feeling beyond dislike. And this is writing essay not from wounded vanity at seeing animals preferred to men; for, of the two, the Houyhnhnms are much liker to human beings than are the Yahoos, and Gulliver's horror of the martin luther 85 thesis Yahoos, together with his recognition that they are the same kind of creature as himself, contains a logical absurdity. This horror comes upon him at his very first sight of them. ‘I never beheld,’ he says, ‘in all my Travels, so disagreeable an Animal, nor one against which I naturally conceived so strong an Antipathy.’ But in buy coloured papers online, comparison with what are the Yahoos disgusting? Not with the Houyhnhnms, because at martin 85 thesis this time Gulliver has not seen a Houyhnhnm. It can only be in comparison with himself, i.e. with a human being.

Later, however, we are to be told that the Yahoos are human beings, and human society becomes insupportable to between essay papers Gulliver because all men are Yahoos. In that case why did he not conceive his disgust of martin luther 85 thesis humanity earlier? In effect we are told that the Yahoos are fantastically different from men, and yet are the same. Swift has over-reached himself in his fury, and is shouting at his fellow-creatures, ‘You are filthier than you are!’ However, it is impossible to feel much sympathy with the Yahoos, and it is essays on olafur not because they oppress the Yahoos that the Houyhnhnms are unattractive. They are unattractive because the ‘Reason’ by which they are governed is really a desire for death. They are exempt from love, friendship, curiosity, fear, sorrow and — except in their feelings towards the Yahoos, who occupy rather the same place in their community as the Jews in Nazi Germany — anger and hatred. ‘They have no Fondness for their Colts or Foles, but the Care they take, in educating them, proceeds entirely from the Dictates of Reason .’ They lay store by luther ‘Friendship’ and ‘Benevolence’, but ‘these are not confined to particular Objects, but universal to reflective university the whole Race’. They also value conversation, but in their conversations there are no differences of opinion, and ‘nothing passed but what was useful, expressed in the fewest and most significant Words’. They practise strict birth control, each couple producing two offspring and thereafter abstaining from sexual intercourse.

Their marriages are arranged for them by their elders, on eugenic principles, and their language contains no word for ‘love’, in martin, the sexual sense. Reflective Essay Of Melbourne? When somebody dies they carry on martin luther exactly as before, without feeling any grief. Chronological? It will be seen that their aim is to be as like a corpse as is possible while retaining physical life. Martin Luther 85 Thesis? One or two of their characteristics, it is mister essay true, do not seem to be strictly ‘reasonable’ in their own usage of the word. Thus, they place a great value not only on physical hardihood but on athleticism, and they are devoted to poetry. But these exceptions may be less arbitrary than they seem. Swift probably emphasizes the physical strength of the Houyhnhnms in order to make clear that they could never be conquered by the hated human race, while a taste for poetry may figure among their qualities because poetry appeared to Swift as the antithesis of Science, from his point of view the martin 85 thesis most useless of all pursuits. In Part III he names ‘Imagination, Fancy, and Invention’ as desirable faculties in which the Laputan mathematicians (in spite of their love of music) were wholly lacking.

One must remember that although Swift was an reflective admirable writer of luther 85 thesis comic verse, the kind of poetry he thought valuable would probably be didactic poetry. The poetry of the differences between personal essay and research Houyhnhnms, he says — must be allowed to excel (that of) all other Mortals; wherein the Justness of their Similes, and the Minuteness, as well as exactness, of martin luther 85 thesis their Descriptions, are, indeed, inimitable. Their Verses abound very much in buy coloured papers online india, both of martin luther these; and usually contain either some exalted Notions of Friendship and Benevolence, or the Praises of those who were Victors in Races, and other bodily Exercises. Alas, not even the genius of Swift was equal to producing a specimen by which we could judge the poetry of the Houyhnhnms. But it sounds as though it were chilly stuff (in heroic couplets, presumably), and not seriously in conflict with the principles of ‘Reason’. Happiness is notoriously difficult to describe, and pictures of differences papers a just and martin 85 thesis well-ordered Society are seldom either attractive or convincing.

Most creators of ‘favourable’ Utopias, however, are concerned to india show what life could be like if it were lived more fully. Swift advocates a simple refusal of life, justifying this by the claim that ‘Reason’ consists in thwarting your instincts. The Houyhnhnms, creatures without a history, continue for generation after generation to live prudently, maintaining their population at exactly the martin same level, avoiding all passion, suffering from no diseases, meeting death indifferently, training up their young in the same principles — and all for what? In order that the same process may continue indefinitely. The notions that life here and writing essay now is worth living, or that it could be made worth living, or that it must be sacrificed for 85 thesis some future good, are all absent. The dreary world of the Houyhnhnms was about as good a Utopia as Swift could construct, granting that he neither believed in a ‘next world’ nor could get any pleasure out of certain normal activities.

But it is not really set up as something desirable in itself, but as the justification for differences personal essay and research papers another attack on 85 thesis humanity. The aim, as usual, is to humiliate Man by reminding him that he is weak and ridiculous, and above all that he stinks; and the ultimate motive, probably, is a kind of chronological writing envy, the envy of the ghost for the living, of the man who knows he cannot be happy for the others who — so he fears -may be a little happier than himself. The political expression of martin luther 85 thesis such an outlook must be either reactionary or nihilistic, because the person who holds it will want to prevent Society from developing in some direction in which his pessimism may be cheated. One can do this either by blowing everything to pieces, or by averting social change. Swift ultimately blew everything to pieces in the only taks writing essay way that was feasible before the atomic bomb — that is, he went mad — but, as I have tried to show, his political aims were on the whole reactionary ones.

From what I have written it may have seemed that I am against Swift, and that my object is to refute him and martin luther 85 thesis even to buy coloured papers india belittle him. In a political and martin moral sense I am against him, so far as I understand him. Yet curiously enough he is one of the writers I admire with least reserve, and chronological order writing Gulliver's Travels , in particular, is a book which it seems impossible for me to grow tired of. I read it first when I was, eight — one day short of eight, to be exact, for I stole and furtively read the copy which was to luther be given me next day on my eighth birthday — and I have certainly not read it less than half a dozen times since. Its fascination seems inexhaustible. If I had to make a list of six books which were to be preserved when all others were destroyed, I would certainly put Gulliver's Travels among them. This raises the question: what is the relationship between agreement with a writer's opinions, and buy coloured online india enjoyment of his work? If one is capable of intellectual detachment, one can perceive merit in a writer whom one deeply disagrees with, but enjoyment is 85 thesis a different matter. Supposing that there is such a thing as good or bad art, then the goodness or badness must reside in the work of art itself- not independently of the observer, indeed, but independently of the mood of the observer. In one sense, therefore, it cannot be true that a poem is good on Monday and differences between personal and research bad on Tuesday. But if one judges the poem by martin the appreciation it arouses, then it can certainly be true, because appreciation, or enjoyment, is a subjective condition which cannot be commanded.

For a great deal of his waking life, even the mister president essay most cultivated person has no aesthetic feelings whatever, and martin luther 85 thesis the power to have aesthetic feelings is very easily destroyed. When you are frightened, or hungry, or are suffering from toothache or sea-sickness, King Lear is no better from your point of view than Peter Pan . You may know in essay contest, an intellectual sense that it is better, but that is simply a fact which you remember: you will not feel the martin luther 85 thesis merit of King Lear until you are normal again. And aesthetic judgement can be upset just as disastrously — more disastrously, because the cause is less readily recognized — by political or moral disagreement. If a book angers, wounds or alarms you, then you will not enjoy it, whatever its merits may be. If it seems to you a really pernicious book, likely to chronological writing influence other people in some undesirable way, then you will probably construct an aesthetic theory to martin show that it has no merits. Current literary criticism consists quite largely of this kind of dodging to mister essay and fro between two sets of standards.

And yet the opposite process can also happen: enjoyment can overwhelm disapproval, even though one clearly recognizes that one is enjoying something inimical. Martin Luther 85 Thesis? Swift, whose world-view is chronological writing essay so peculiarly unacceptable, but who is nevertheless an extremely popular writer, is a good instance of this. Martin Luther? Why is it that we don't mind being called Yahoos, although firmly convinced that we are not Yahoos? It is not enough to make the usual answer that of course Swift was wrong, in fact he was insane, but he was ‘a good writer’. It is papers true that the literary quality of a book is to some small extent separable from luther, its subject-matter. Some people have a native gift for using words, as some people have a naturally ‘good eye’ at games.

It is taks writing essay largely a question of luther 85 thesis timing and of instinctively knowing how much emphasis to use. As an example near at hand, look back at the passage I quoted earlier, starting ‘In the Kingdom of Tribnia, by the Natives called Langdon’. Differences Between And Research? It derives much of its force from the final sentence: ‘And this is the anagram-made Method.’ Strictly speaking this sentence is unnecessary, for we have already seen the anagram decyphered, but the martin mock-solemn repetition, in which one seems to hear Swift's own voice uttering the words, drives home the idiocy of the activities described, like the final tap to a nail. But not all the power and simplicity of Swift's prose, nor the imaginative effort that has been able to make not one but a whole series of impossible worlds more credible than the majority of history books — none of this would enable us to india enjoy Swift if his world-view were truly wounding or shocking. Millions of people, in many countries, must have enjoyed Gulliver's Travels while more or less seeing its anti-human implications: and martin even the child who accepts Parts i and n as a simple story gets a sense of absurdity from thinking of human beings six inches high.

The explanation must be that Swift's world-view is felt to be not altogether false — or it would probably be more accurate to mister essay say, not false all the 85 thesis time. Swift is a diseased writer. He remains permanently in university of melbourne, a depressed mood which in most people is only intermittent, rather as though someone suffering from jaundice or the after-effects of influenza should have the energy to write books. But we all know that mood, and something in martin luther 85 thesis, us responds to the expression of it. Take, for instance, one of his most characteristic works, The Lady's Dressing Room : one might add the kindred poem, Upon a Beautiful Young Nymph Going to Bed . Which is of melbourne truer, the viewpoint expressed in these poems, or the viewpoint implied in Blake's phrase, ‘The naked female human form divine’? No doubt Blake is nearer the truth, and yet who can fail to feel a sort of pleasure in seeing that fraud, feminine delicacy, exploded for once? Swift falsifies his picture of the martin luther 85 thesis world by refusing to see anything in human life except dirt, folly and mister contest wickedness, but the part which he abstracts from the whole does exist, and it is martin 85 thesis something which we all know about while shrinking from president essay, mentioning it. Part of luther our minds — in university, any normal person it is the dominant part — believes that man is a noble animal and martin life is worth living: but there is also a sort of inner self which at least intermittently stands aghast at chronological writing the horror of existence.

In the queerest way, pleasure and disgust are linked together. The human body is beautiful: it is also repulsive and ridiculous, a fact which can be verified at any swimming pool. The sexual organs are objects of martin 85 thesis desire and also of loathing, so much so that in writing, many languages, if not in all languages, their names are used as words of abuse. Meat is delicious, but a butcher's shop makes one feel sick: and indeed all our food springs ultimately from dung and dead bodies, the two things which of all others seem to martin us the most horrible. A child, when it is past the infantile stage but still looking at the world with fresh eyes, is moved by horror almost as often as by wonder — horror of snot and spittle, of the dogs' excrement on the pavement, the dear mister dying toad full of maggots, the sweaty smell of grown-ups, the hideousness of old men, with their bald heads and bulbous noses. In his endless harping on disease, dirt and deformity, Swift is not actually inventing anything, he is merely leaving something out. Human behaviour, too, especially in politics, is as he describes it, although it contains other more important factors which he refuses to martin luther 85 thesis admit.

So far as we can see, both horror and pain are necessary to the continuance of life on essay university this planet, and it is therefore open to pessimists like Swift to say : ‘If horror and pain must always be with us, how can life be significantly improved?’ His attitude is in effect the Christian attitude, minus the bribe of martin luther 85 thesis a ‘next world’ — which, however, probably has less hold upon the minds of believers than the conviction that this world is a vale of tears and the grave is a place of essay university of melbourne rest. It is, I am certain, a wrong attitude, and one which could have harmful effects upon behaviour; but something in us responds to it, as it responds to the gloomy words of the burial service and luther 85 thesis the sweetish smell of corpses in a country church. It is often argued, at least by people who admit the importance of subject-matter, that a book cannot be ‘good’ if it expresses a palpably false view of life. We are told that in our own age, for instance, any book that has genuine literary merit will also be more or less ‘progressive’ in tendency. This ignores the essay fact that throughout history a similar struggle between progress and 85 thesis reaction has been raging, and that the best books of taks essay any one age have always been written from several different viewpoints, some of them palpably more false than others. In so far as a writer is a propagandist, the most one can ask of him is that he shall genuinely believe in what he is saying, and that it shall not be something blazingly silly. To-day, for example, one can imagine a good book being written by a Catholic, a Communist, a Fascist, pacifist, an anarchist, perhaps by an old-style Liberal or an ordinary Conservative: one cannot imagine a good book being written by a spiritualist, a Buchmanite or a member of the Ku-Klux-KIan. The views that a writer holds must be compatible with sanity, in the medical sense, and with the power of continuous thought: beyond that what we ask of him is talent, which is probably another name for conviction.

Swift did not possess ordinary wisdom, but he did possess a terrible intensity of vision, capable of picking out a single hidden truth and then magnifying it and distorting it. The durability of Gulliver's Travels goes to show that, if the force of belief is behind it, a world-view which only just passes the test of martin luther 85 thesis sanity is sufficient to taks essay produce a great work of art. George Orwell: ‘Politics vs. Literature — An examination of martin 85 thesis Gulliver's travels’ First published: Polemic , No. 5. Differences Between Papers? — GB, London. — September 1946. Machine-readable version: O. Dag. Last modified on: 2015-09-24. 1950 Secker and Warburg. 85 Thesis? London.

‘Politics vs. Literature — An examination of Gulliver's travels’: [Index page]

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essay on hybridity This article presents a critique of the notion of hybridity which has, in recent years, become increasingly popular within genre studies and has been applied chiefly, though not exclusively, to generic experimentation in contemporary literature. In this article I seek to show that the main reasons for this are that the martin luther 85 thesis concept conveniently fits the semantics of the field of genre studies which has largely been structured by genetic analogies, and because its use within postcolonial studies to essays, describe the allegedly subversive potential of ‘mixing’ has inspired many critics to martin luther, apply the notion of ‘hybridity’ to mister president essay contest, literature which combines different genres in their fictional critique of hegemonic discourses. Against this trend, I argue that the concept necessarily produces insufficient results and should be substituted for a more prolific alternative – generic blending. David Duff defines generic hybridization as “[t]he process by which two or more genres combine to form a new genre or subgenre; or by which elements of two or more genres are combined in a single work” (“Key Concepts” xiv). At first glance, this explanation is both plausible and illuminating. Intuitively, the 85 thesis term ‘hybridization’ appears to capture quite neatly the forms of overt experimentation with genre conventions often considered characteristic of contemporary literature (Hassan 170) and other art forms. There is on olafur eliasson, frequent talk of the ‘blurring’ or even ‘dissolution’ of genre boundaries (Hutcheon 9; Duff, “Introduction” 16). According to Ian Gregson, the allegedly ‘postmodern’ form of magic realism presents an example of luther, a hybrid genre, because it “collides fairy tale with the realist strategies of the traditional European novel” (Gregson 75). Ansgar Nunning, on the other hand, speaks of a “proliferation of hybrid genres […]” ( Mapping the Field 282) which integrate factual material into fictional narratives, such as “the ‘New Journalism’ and the ‘nonfiction novels,’ ‘historiographic metafiction,’ ‘documentary fiction,’ a revisionist type of ‘postmodernist historical novel,’ ‘uchronian fantasy,’ ‘parahistorical novels,’ and ‘factifiction’” (ibid.). In medical terms, ‘hybridity’ has become such a common and president essay, accepted diagnosis with regard to contemporary literature that a closer examination of individual ‘patients’ more often than not only luther 85 thesis, seeks to identify textual ‘symptoms’ but do not questioning the value and validity of the ‘condition’ itself.

Despite its popularity and ubiquity, however, ‘hybridity’ is ultimately both inadequate for a fruitful interpretation of innovative uses of generic forms, and misleading as to the functions and effects of genre, for three reasons: 1) it harks back to of melbourne, a highly problematic discursive tradition; 2) the 85 thesis conjunctional and differences between personal essay and research, homogenizing logic underlying the concept is inherently flawed; and 3) it continues to describe genre in terms of text-intrinsic features rather than with regard to the cognitive processes involved in, and effects produced by, different forms of genre usage. At first sight, the 85 thesis discussion surrounding the validity of ‘hybridity’ to describe genres may appear as theoretical nitpicking. However, I contend that the fixation on reflective of melbourne this conception not only detracts critics from the many different facets of generic experimentation in contemporary literature, but is also misleading in 85 thesis terms of the true political potential of online india, installing and subverting specific genre conventions. What is at stake in this debate is therefore nothing less than an martin luther adequate understanding of the chronological significance of genre (not only) in contemporary literature. The proliferation of the notion of hybridity within genre studies is, first and foremost, a token of the 85 thesis lingering influence of papers india, a biological conception of martin, literary genres.

That genres present cultural constructs rather than organic entities in Ferdinand Brunetiere’s sense[1] is universally acknowledged nowadays and, as a result, the biological species paradigm is rarely drawn on explicitly within genre criticism today.[2] Nevertheless, its semantics – the notion of the individual text ‘belonging’ to a specific class, the idea of a uni-directional development, or ‘evolution’ of that class, the concept of ‘kinship’ between certain texts and classes of texts – has become so naturalized that it still continues to structure our thinking about genres. This becomes manifest, for example, in the recent popularity of the notion of ‘family resemblance’ in order writing genre studies. With regard to genre, the luther 85 thesis analogy is used to describe the of melbourne way in which texts grouped together under a generic label relate to one another, each genre presenting a ‘family’ and the texts associated with the same as the ‘family members.’ Its popularity can in parts be attributed to the appealing openness of this concept (Fishelov, Metaphors 54), as its fuzziness at first glance seems to provide a felicitous analogy to the relationship between different texts subsumed under a genre. However, the adoption of this metaphor from the field of language philosophy to martin luther, that of genre theory can partly be attributed to another, often overlooked, factor: the family presents another schema that is chronological order writing, nowadays conceived mostly in terms of genetics; it shares many semantic features with the biological species analogy and therefore lends itself easily to an application to literary genres. Genetic conceptions of genre always face the problem that in literature there is martin luther 85 thesis, no underlying code that can be analyzed with the differences between personal papers help of scientific methods. Biological relations are unequivocal (the underlying source for all phenotypic resemblance within a family is genetic makeup), whereas genre membership is not. The concept of martin 85 thesis, ‘hybridity’ deriving from genetics, its application to literary genres is riddled with such inconsistencies. Despite the prevalent view that the notion can serve to undermine or even explode traditional categories and taxonomies, it remains inextricably caught up in their essentialist logic, as becomes clear if we consider the application of the term in president essay biology. According to martin 85 thesis, Amar Acheraiou, Charles Darwin was the first to use the term in its modern sense in his experiments with cross-fertilization in plants: “The concept of ‘hybridity’ then had a purely biological dimension and suggested fixed essence” (88). The underlying genetic logic implies maybe not classificatory unequivocality (after all, borderline cases and mutations are part and parcel of the evolutionary paradigm), but certainly unequivocality of development and principal exclusivity of the categories: the reflective essay university of melbourne liger may be impossible to martin 85 thesis, categorize as either lion or tiger, but this does not render the distinction between the two species problematic or obsolete. Because its parentage (and therefore its genetic makeup) is quite clear, it can be integrated into the existing taxonomical system, allocating it a place between the two parental species.

Far from problematizing the integrity of the contest classification system, hybrids can serve to measure the martin luther genetic distance between, and compatibility of, two species and thus ultimately illustrate the principles of common descent and progressive diversification that underlie the notion of evolution. Distinctness thus presents a necessary prerequisite for hybridization. Ideas of distinctness and compatibility consequently also structure conceptions of literary hybridity. Thus, both Christin Galster (15) and Klaudia Seibel (137) stress the distinctness and heterogeneity of the literary classes as a precondition for the formation of hybrids at the outset of their studies on literary hybrids. According to Julia Ernst’s definition, the term ‘hybrid genres’ denotes literary forms that unite characteristics of taks writing, different genres and can therefore not only martin luther 85 thesis, not be adequately described with the genre designations used in eliasson the Western poetic tradition, but also explode conventional genre typologies (267). However, unlike biological species, which are classified on the principle of descent, generic attribution occurs on the basis of vastly disparate and incommensurable criteria: “[g]enres can be defined socially, historically, functionally, authorially, politically, stylistically, arbitrarily, idiosyncratically, or by a combination of luther 85 thesis, any of these” (Stockwell 28). Generic equivocality is chronological order writing, a logical consequence of the unsystematicity of generic labeling. With regard to the notion of hybridity, this disparateness of criteria presents significant conceptual difficulties, because it means that generic categories are by no means mutually exclusive or distinct. While the genre designation ‘short story’ is understood mainly in terms of certain formal and narrative conventions (e.g. length, focalization, abrupt beginning and ‘open ending’), ‘ghost story’ refers to a specific theme, usually complemented by a high level of indeterminacy (e.g. unreliable narration, discrepancy of awareness between reader and narrator, rising tension).

Evidently, there is no clear boundary between these two genres that can blur or be violated. As none of the key characteristics that play a role in martin 85 thesis the attribution of a text to the genres ‘short story’ and ‘ghost story’ are in direct opposition to one another, it is not hard to imagine a text that fits into our conception of dear president essay, both genres. Saying that such a combination constitutes a hybrid is martin, like saying that a motorbike is a hybrid because it combines the differences notion of ‘bike’ with that of martin luther 85 thesis, a motorized vehicle, or that a house cat is a hybrid because it can be classified both as a predator and as a pet. Due to this incommensurability of criteria texts can always be attributed to on olafur eliasson, more than one genre, according to which features are foregrounded: “how texts are grouped depends on which features the classifier has selected to observe – common prosody, organization, tone, aim, or effect on the reader, for example” (Devitt 7). Thus, Robinson Crusoe can variously be labelled as a) an ‘Erziehungsroman’, as it portrays the development of luther 85 thesis, a young man rebelling against social and familial constraints into the epitome of a self-made man; b) a ‘utopia’, if one comprehends the work first and foremost in terms of social critique and Robinson’s insular society as a Puritan alternative to England; c) a ‘picaresque’, if one focuses on the “strange surprising adventures” promised in the title and the protagonist’s cunning; d) as a ‘myth’, if one considers the work in and research terms of martin, its socio-historical significance, as the exemplification of “characteristic aspirations of Western man” (Watt 95); e) as the prototypical ‘robinsonade’ (Broich 58), for which setting, character constellation and the motif of the struggle against nature are central; f) or simply as a novel. Does the circumstance that the text uses characteristics of various genres make Robinson Crusoe a generic hybrid?

I argue that it does not, but Galster indeed believes that hybridity and hybridization can be found within all historical eras and genres (16) and consequently analyzes novels from Defoe to Wilkie Collins as examples for hybrid novels. This already indicates the differences personal essay and research limited heuristic value of the concept of hybridity – which texts, then, do not fall under the category ‘hybrid’? Here, Seibel proposes an interesting solution by drawing on Marie-Laure Ryan’s taxonomy of generic worlds (Ryan 34), which distinguishes genres in terms of specific accessibility relations. Ryan defines (often obscure) genres such as ‘historical fabulation’, ‘science fiction’ and ‘Jabberwockism’ by martin, delineating which dimensions of that genre correspond to ‘the actual world’ (e.g. natural laws and shared language). Essay. Seibel suggests that a text that combines two genres which are, according to Ryan’s table, incompatible with regard to 85 thesis, one or more dimensions of accessibility present strong instances of generic “contamination” (Seibel 142). However, Ryan’s positivistic conception of reality not only disregards forms of taks writing, ontological and epistemological doubt, as well as the existence of many alternative reality designs, but the binary system underlying her classification also reveals a static and normative understanding of genre and implies that the non-compliance with generic standards is tantamount to generic exclusion. Mutual exclusivity of the categories and uniformity of criteria present the logical premises for diagnosing biological hybridity. Because texts can be described with the help of various generic labels, there is not a single text that can only 85 thesis, be understood as representing a single genre. The absence of consistent criteria for classifying genres means that no two genres are entirely incompatible.

This leads to a surprising diagnosis: due to the unsystematic nature of genre attribution, different genres can logically be combined much more freely than is generally acknowledged within genre theory. The ease with which we can mix elements from different genres has so far been overlooked or ignored because it threatens to undermine the dominant conception of genre as something located inside the chronological order writing text that renders a text an instance of that genre. This container model of genre needs overhauling and we will return to it later. For now, we can say that the answer to the question “‘Why Can We Have Romantic Realism and not Doggy Cats?’” (Harshav qtd. in Fishelov, Metaphors 20) is the absence of an underlying systematicity and not, as Fishelov declares, that “hybridization in literature is martin luther, […] more common than hybridization in nature […]” ( Metaphors 20). The Political Dimension of ‘Hybridity’ As we have seen, the essays eliasson concept of generic hybridity perforce relies on an essentialist genre conception, as it depends on the ascription of luther 85 thesis, a fundamental, even ‘natural’, difference between two genres and thus neglects both the diversity and adaptability of genre usage. Without such a static normative model it would be impossible to ascribe the status of essay of melbourne, ‘hybrid’ to an individual text or genre. The allegation of essentialism may appear surprising if we consider the proliferous application of the concept of hybridity in postcolonial studies, which are directed explicitly against essentialist conceptions of culture. As the term’s ubiquity within genre criticism is intricately connected to its career within the postcolonial discourse, it is necessary to luther 85 thesis, digress a little and consider its uses and connotations with regard to mister president, colonial power structures.

Heterogeneity presenting a precondition for hybridization, the application of the label ‘hybrid’ to the offspring of “[…] human parents of different races, halfbreed […]” (“Hybrid”) played a significant role in discursively establishing a fundamental difference between colonizer and martin, colonized. From 1980 onwards, the term has, as Monika Fludernik explains, been appropriated and revaluated in on olafur the context of the postcolonialism debate (10), most famously by Homi K. Bhabha, who proposes to luther 85 thesis, employ it to dislodge authority and domination: Hybridity is a problematic of colonial representation and individuation that reverses the effects of the reflective of melbourne colonialist disavowal, so that other ‘denied’ knowledges enter upon the dominant discourse and estrange the basis of authority – its rules of recognition […]. Hybridity reverses the formal process of disavowal so that the martin luther violent dislocation of the act of colonization becomes the conditionality of colonial discourse [author’s emphases]. (114) Thus, Fludernik observes, “[h]ybridity revalues, that is to say: reconstitutes, colonial identity through deformation and displacement and by means of strategies of subversion. The reversal occurs by means of the eliasson inversion of the gaze – from the colonizer on the knowable colonial subject and back to the colonizer” (27) – as an “act of martin luther, civil disobedience” (31). Fludernik thus describes a shift in the use of the term from a tool used for reflective university, the oppression of colonized subjects to martin, one of emancipation for same subjects, which implies the inversion of the values ascribed to each side of the binary.

It is, however, difficult to assess in how far the term has within the postcolonial discourse become progressively dissociated from the biological paradigm from which it derives: The term hybridity, from its moorings in differences between essay sexual cross-fertilization, racial intermixture and intermarriage, has now drifted free to luther 85 thesis, connote (rather than denote) a variety of interstitial and antagonistic set-ups which are clearly linked to a ‘subaltern’ (Gramsci, Spivak) perspective and essays, a positive revaluation of 85 thesis, hybridity. Buy Coloured Papers India. Hybridity comes to function as a key concept of cultural diversity in which racial ‘impurity’ has been reinscribed as a subversive multiplicity and as progressive (but not unidirectional) agency. (Fludernik 21) The question is in how far this shift includes a change in luther the way we conceive of hybridity itself and in how far the term continues to transport some of the chronological implications that served to legitimize hegemonic thought. Fludernik’s explanation proves quite illuminating in this respect. Her mention of ‘agency’ (a notion that is entirely alien to biological conceptions of hybridity) indicates the first, as does as her emphasis on luther the verb ‘connote’ which implies a certain cognitive detachment from the term’s origin. Indeed, the term is more and more often used as largely synonymous to ‘pluralism’ or ‘multiplicity,’ inviting charges of “theoretical vagueness and chronological writing essay, ‘elasticity’ of the concept itself” (Acheraiou 102). At the same time, somewhat paradoxically, the very notion of martin luther, ‘interstice’, the space between, shows the mister president concept’s continued reliance on a binary, essentialist model, as the two poles are still understood as oppositional in nature (not only in structure). In other words: the concept of ‘hybridity’ is luther, thinkable only in connection with its opposite buy coloured papers india – that of ‘purity’ – which is located at both poles. Fludernik argues that the formerly negative notion of impurity has come to martin, be viewed as positive. This revaluation, however, can hardly be said to present a “transcendence of binary oppositions” (Fludernik 11); instead it is an inverse repetition of a logic that continues to foreground the heterogeneity of colonized and chronological order, colonizing subject and thus fails to grasp the complexity of both relations of power and processes of identity formation.

Moreover, I argue that ‘hybridity’ presents an altogether different schema to that of multiplicity: the first is based on martin 85 thesis the logic of amalgamation, of fusion at some elementary (or essential) level, while the latter describes one of concurrence. A hybrid thus combines two heterogeneous things A and writing, B to form a third, C, which presents an amalgam of martin luther 85 thesis, its ‘parents’, while multiplicity describes the juxtaposition of elements from A and B, which then coexist alongside one another. Two popular metaphors for cultural diversity can serve to dear president essay, illustrate the difference: the melting pot presents a metaphor for martin, hybridity, while the salad bowl is a metaphor for pluralism. Chronological Order Writing. Conceiving of personal and cultural identity in terms of hybridity leads to martin, the reduction of a person or culture to essay university of melbourne, one specific dimension, that of a particular interstice, thus overlooking the diversity and complexity of individual and cultural identity. To refer to former colonies as ‘hybrid’ not only perpetuates the false implication that these societies were quite homogenous prior to the interference of the martin 85 thesis colonizers, but simultaneously implies that the culture of the colonizers does not have the same status. After all, what sense would it make to speak of ‘hybridization’ if all cultures were always already hybrid?

If we posit cultural hybridity as a given, would the whole hybridity discourse not become vacuous? Discursively, Julika Griem concludes, the effectiveness of hybridity as a subversive category depends on the supposition of the existence of dear president, stable identities, nations, cultures and ethnicities, which present its antithesis (220-1). Hence, the martin luther notion of essays eliasson, hybridity relies precisely on that which it seeks to undermine, because drawing on an essentialist and binary schema necessarily results in the perpetuation of its very logic. What is martin luther 85 thesis, more, the concept reiterates the colonizer’s overemphasis on the significance of categories such as cultural heritage, ethnicity and nationality, which present but some of buy coloured online, many dimensions that contribute to the formation of an individual’s identity. I contend that these are not fundamentally different from other socially defined roles individuals perform on a daily basis, from that of 85 thesis, parent to papers online, that of employee to that of sexual partner, neighbor or consumer. In other words: identities, postcolonial or otherwise, are better described as multiple than as hybrid. Cultures and identities are neither static nor natural; they present constructed worlds and as such they are subject to permanent revision. In how far is luther 85 thesis, all this relevant to our discussion of hybrid genres?

Firstly, the popularity of the notion of hybrid genres with regard to contemporary literature is clearly inspired by the concept’s success within postcolonial studies. It is quite evident that the same issues surrounding questions of identity, knowledge and power that lie at chronological order essay the heart of much contemporary theory (from poststructuralist to postcolonial and gender theoretical approaches) also inspire the literary production in general and uses of genre conventions in particular. The term ‘hybridity’ in its revised sense has by many been considered a viable strategy for the subversion of binary hegemonic discourses. Luther 85 Thesis. In fact, “[i]n postcolonial debates the presumed resistive impulse of hybridity is often reiterated with force and zeal, verging on personal and research papers conceptual dogmatism” (Acheraiou 95). Translated to the realm of luther 85 thesis, literary production, this assumption ascribes to works that overtly mix genres a veritably subversive dimension: generic experimentation is considered to exemplify the strategy of hybridity on the level of cultural forms. Essays. It is evident that many contemporary texts employ generic experimentation to express their critique of hegemonic discourses, but the mechanisms and effects of generic experimentation are much more complex and diverse than the notion of hybridity can possibly capture. Reconceptualizing Genres as Schematized World-Constructions. The first and most important step to a reconceptualization of luther 85 thesis, genre ‘mixing’ consists in the rejection of what Amy J. Devitt calls “a formal view of buy coloured, genre” (5), which departs from a container model of meaning, in which genre presents the form into which content is put. This conception of genre is not only static and normalizing, it also focuses on the finished product rather than on martin 85 thesis processes of meaning-production.

Rather than conceiving genres as a set of formal features, genres should be understood as cognitive schemata (Hallet 53-71; Frow 83-7). David Rumelhart defines schemata as “[…] certain forms of rules of ‘productive imagination’ through which the understanding is able to apply its ‘categories’ to the manifold of sense-perception in the process of realizing knowledge or experience” (2). Learning thus takes the essay contest shape of pattern-acquisition, in martin luther other words: we learn to understand and experience objects, activities, ideas, situations, etc., in terms of typical spatial and india, functional relationships associated with them. We can then recognise either part or whole of luther, that concept and through the activation of the respective schema, infer information on essays on olafur eliasson the nature of the object, activity, idea, situation, etc., that is unavailable to our sense perception: Once we have accepted a configuration of schemata, the schemata themselves provide a richness which goes far beyond our observations. Upon deciding that we have seen an automobile, we assume that it has an engine, headlights, and all of the standard characteristics of an automobile. We do this without the martin luther 85 thesis slightest hesitation. Writing. […] This allows our interpretations to far outstrip our sensory observations. In fact, once we have determined that a particular schema accounts for some event we may not be able to determine which aspects of our beliefs are based on direct sensory information and luther 85 thesis, which are merely consequences of our interpretation. (Rumelhart 10) As they present the smallest units into which our knowledge is packaged, Rumelhart describes schemata as “the building blocks of cognition” (2). Genres present particularly complex schemata, or better: complexes of essays eliasson, schemata. They form, through association, sets or clusters of martin 85 thesis, typical features I refer to as ‘construction kits’ from which the writer can draw in his/her textual production, and which, in turn, shape the reader’s expectations towards a text.

Thus, genres, as John Frow observes, project specific worlds (73), or, more precisely, genres provide the reflective essay university of melbourne parameters for constructing worlds[3]: Examples of such generically projected worlds would be: the world of the tabloid press, populated by martin, celebrities, criminals, victims, nude models, and scenarios centred on chronological writing essay scandal, crime, and sport. Its moral tone tends to be at once moralistic and salacious, and its time is that of a static continuum punctured by arbitrary events; the luther world of the picaresque novel, a world of sharp-witted servants and dull masters, of confidence tricks, of hunger and the constant threat of poverty, of the road and the unforeseen adventure, of upward and downward mobility, of a time which is at once episodic and recurrent; the world of the Petrarchan sonnet, where lovers are constant and fair mistresses are not, where suffering or bliss are the poles between which love moves, where eyes shoot beams to twine souls together, and where time is that of biological decay and dear, its transcendence in luther 85 thesis love or in writing […]. (Frow 86) These different worlds are evoked by the text through specific markers (Seibel 138). From the reflective university of melbourne moment we pick up or purchase a book and throughout the entire process of reading, we come across numerous generic indicators in martin 85 thesis different shapes: the designation on the cover, as well as the cover design and the title of the book or text, furthermore characteristic phrases, such as “once upon a time”, and typical motifs such as space and time travel in the case of science fiction or the reflective essay shipwreck motif in the case of the robinsonade. We recognize these indicators which in turn activate our schematized knowledge and result in a tentative attribution to 85 thesis, a specific genre (Hallet 59). This attribution then largely determines the reader’s expectations. We approach any text (as well as films, plays, paintings, music etc.) with a variety (which is, of course, determined by our socio-cultural context) of schematised world-constructs at hand, trying to find a suitable match – a process which is mostly unconscious. Thus, when we read the word ‘cowboy’, we draw on reflective essay university of melbourne our generic knowledge of the western and consequently visualize a characteristic setting in the Old American West, a setting which includes such things as saloons, ranches, stagecoaches, sheriffs, bandits, roulette, cancan, show downs and tumbleweed, to name but a few.

Conversely, entities such as princesses, dragons and aliens do not belong to the genre’s general repertoire and 85 thesis, their appearance would present a striking deviation from the reader’s expectations. Reflective Essay University Of Melbourne. It is normally such surprising combinations that are described in terms of martin luther 85 thesis, hybridity, while the less glaring combinations go largely unnoticed, as Seibel observes (137). The notion that genres evoke schematized worlds is crucial to understanding the essays on olafur political dimension of genre usage, because these worlds transcend the text. Martin 85 Thesis. Firstly, they can in various senses become institutionalized, for example in the form of specialized events, publications and marketing practices, creating specific genre communities on chronological order essay the basis of shared ideas, tastes and interests. Secondly, their structures and conventions respond to specific socio-historical conditions and concerns.

In other words: the constitution of these worlds reflects and/or proposes specific world-views; changes within society consequently also affect these cultural practices and vice versa. Thus, while ‘hybridity’ describes a textual quality, a cognitive approach conceives of genres as expectations that guide literary production and reception . In order to luther, capture this communicative dimension of genre ‘mixing’, I propose to borrow another concept from cognitive literary theory that provides a productive alternative to online, hybridity: conceptual blending. Conceptual Blending as an Alternative Concept for Genre ‘Mixing’ Unlike ‘hybridity,’ ‘blending’ does not describe the status of a cultural artefact, but a cognitive process – a text, genre or culture is or is not hybrid, while ‘blending’ refers to something one does . Luther. Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner describe blending as the partial projection of structural elements and schemata from papers one mental space onto another. Mental spaces are dynamic conceptual structures which we construct for specific purposes and according to specific situations (Fauconnier and Turner 40) and martin luther 85 thesis, the schematized worlds we associate with particular genres present such mental spaces. Although Fauconnier and Turner’s concept clearly suggests itself for an application to literary genres, its potential has so far gone largely unnoticed within genre studies, with the notable exception of Michael Sinding, who, to my knowledge is the taks first and only genre critic to employ ‘blending’ to martin luther, genre mixtures. Processes of blending are ubiquitous within all areas of language use; they are involved not only in the creation of parables, metaphors and other tropes, but wherever schemata from a specific realm are transferred to other realms. Thus, for example, the saying “‘[w]hen the cat’s away, the mice will play’ can be projected onto stories of the online office, the classroom, infidelity, congressional oversight committees, computer antivirus utilities, and so on, over an unlimited range” (Turner 87). Most blending remains covert and unobtrusive; we only luther, become aware of the blended character of a construction when we come across surprising twists, logical inconsistencies or structural clashes, thus prompting the ‘hybridity diagnosis’. Although the concept’s application to genres is, as I have shown, inherently flawed, when and essays eliasson, how it is used is nevertheless significant because this provides an important clue as to the ways in which the quality of genre ‘mixing’ in martin contemporary literature may differ from combinations of genre schemata in other periods: processes of reflective essay university, blending are increasingly foregrounded through the deliberate disappointment of, or confrontation between, generic expectations. Blending involves the following dimensions (Fauconnier and Turner 41-2): Input Spaces : with regard to genre ‘mixing,’ the mental input spaces are the martin luther 85 thesis world-constructs evoked by genre labels.

These include plot structures, typical settings and chronological essay, entities, stock characters and character constellations, expectable actions and outcomes, but also such aspects as linguistic particularities, specific social hierarchies, atmospheres and martin, moral attitudes. Cross-Space Mapping : “A partial cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the input spaces” (Fauconnier and Turner 41). Everything the input spaces have in common is contained in a so-called generic[4] space . Thus, reading a text as the taks writing instance of a genre involves identifying counterparts between our construction kit of that genre and the text at hand. Cross-space mapping also enables us to blend different genres because their worlds (that is, the mental spaces we construct in relation to these genre labels) either share, or are compatible with regard to, certain elements and structures. The relevant aspects from the input spaces are then projected onto martin 85 thesis, a fourth space, the taks writing blended space , or ‘blend.’ Through the composition of particular elements and processes of completion , the martin blend can develop emergent structure that is writing, not part of the 85 thesis inputs (Fauconnier and Turner 42-3) but results from the interaction of the buy coloured online india newly combined elements. This new structure can then partly be projected back onto the input spaces, as will be illustrated with the help of martin luther 85 thesis, some examples. Unlike ‘hybridity,’ the concept of blending does not rely on differences and research an essentialist model, but describes cognitive constructions, and therefore does not conceive of the input spaces as stable or pure.

Consequently, any blend can provide an martin luther input space for new blends. Indeed, the application of the notion of ‘hybridity’ from biology to colonial and postcolonial discourses to chronological, literary genres quite neatly illustrates the multiple stages involved in many processes of blending. Luther. Because genres evoke worlds with the help of taks, complexes of schemata, genre worlds are themselves already blended spaces and can in turn serve as input spaces for worlds that combine schemata from different genres. This repeatability of blending, presents the prerequisite for combining elements associated with different genres. Incidentally, this observation also provides a new perspective on generic labels such as ‘gothic thriller’ or ‘romantic comedy’, which are often understood in luther 85 thesis terms of subgenres or modes in the adjectival sense.

Contrary to these ideas, I argue that the often ad hoc coinage of such labels can be better and more simply explained as illustrating a blended space, or world, which combines elements or structures associated with two different genres. Generic Blending in Scorsese’s Taxi Driver. An example will serve illustrate how the described multistage process can help us understand different forms and essays, effects of generic ‘mixing’ – Martin Scorsese’s cult film Taxi Driver , which mixes elements associated with the psychological thriller and such associated with the western genre. 26-year old ex-soldier Travis Bickle, who suffers from insomnia, witnesses on his nightly cab tours through New York scenes of violence, prostitution and luther 85 thesis, drug abuse. “All the animals,” Travis contemplates, “come out at night – whores, skunk-pussies, buggers, queens, fairies, dopers, junkies… sick, venal. Someday a rain’ll come and wash all this scum off the street” (qtd. in Ray 352). Disgusted by what he sees and frustrated with his failed courtship of the differences between essay and research papers classy Betsy, he finally decides to take matters into his own hands. He meets the 12-year old prostitute Iris whom he decides to ‘save’ and kills her pimp and his henchmen in martin 85 thesis a dramatic shootout. The film thus exhibits the dark mood and essay, vivid depiction of violence, as well as the narrative perspective and pre-occupation with mental processes characteristic of many films labelled ‘psychological thriller’ and a plot structure and character constellation considered typical of the western. Before analyzing how the viewer integrates these two different genres, however, I would like to consider how another blend, namely that between the world of the western and late-70s urban America, is established. The primary input spaces here are ‘New York’ and the world of the western. Luther. The cross-spatial mapping of these spaces connects the lawlessness, vice and corruption associated with the Wild West with the lawlessness, vice and corruption Travis sees in reflective essay university of melbourne the streets of New York.

Once this connection is established, one can identify many more counterparts in the generic space: the armed robbery of a convenience store resembles the bank robberies we frequently find in westerns, New York’s prostitutes present counterparts to the ‘easy girls’ in frontier towns (Iris’s nickname, incidentally, is martin luther, “Easy”), Sport’s long hair and headband recall the eliasson stereotypical Indian, and, most importantly, the loner Travis in his taxi recalls the lonesome cowboy, who aimlessly roams the wilderness on his horse. These parallels or ‘mappings’ become so suggestive to Travis that he adapts his behaviour to luther, that of the cowboy: having decided to take matters into his own hands, he buys several revolvers, begins to essays, practise his quick draw and tapes a knife to his cowboy boots. It is at this point that Travis’s blend becomes overt. This illustrates how blends develop emergent structure: once Travis has recognized key similarities between the input spaces, he begins to complete the structure and identifies an ‘adequate’ solution to the perceived problem – vigilantism. Scorsese’s film is martin luther 85 thesis, particularly interesting, because while the protagonist is essays on olafur eliasson, quite obviously psychopathic, it is never entirely clear whether his blend is merely the delusion of an individual who is losing his grip on reality, or if it indeed corresponds to a widely accepted world-view, as the implausible ending shows Travis being congratulated for his murderous actions. Conversely, some of the insights gained within the blend can be projected back onto the input spaces: the 85 thesis impressions of brutality and insanity the viewer gains from Scorsese’s film can be projected back onto the western to reveal the violent logic underlying dominant conceptions of essay and research papers, this genre, while the surprising ending can (depending on luther 85 thesis the viewer’s interpretation) lead one to assume the lingering influence of the world-view associated with the president essay western within parts of the martin luther US.

The concept of blending thus also captures different dimensions of ideological critique involved in genre mixing. Although Taxi Driver effectively evokes the western genre, this does not mean that the viewer identifies the film as a western. Instead, viewers are more likely to dear mister president, understand Scorsese’s film as a psychological thriller. The reason for this is not so much that elements associated with the psychological thriller ‘outweigh’ those associated with the western, although the contemporary urban setting may, for some, disqualify the film’s classification as a western. Martin 85 Thesis. The main reason for such a view, however, is the discrepancy between the protagonist’s world-view and that of the audience.

Travis interprets his surroundings as analogous to the world of the western, whereas the viewer, confronted with various signs of the taxi driver’s mental decline which somewhat forestalls the identification with the protagonist, tends to understand Travis’s interpretation as a delusion, a result of his pathological state of taks writing, mind. This shows that genre evocation does not necessarily lead to genre attribution. That the majority of references to a specific genre do not lead to genre attribution is a circumstance that is routinely neglected by luther 85 thesis, proponents of generic hybridity, because although Taxi Driver evokes two very different genres the essays film can hardly be termed a ‘hybrid’ of western and luther 85 thesis, thriller. By the same token, the fact that a newspaper article refers to an event as a ‘tragedy’ does not mean that we classify it as pertaining to that literary tradition. Instead, the dear mister president essay contest selective projection of schemata we associate with a particular genre enables us to interpret new information with the help of familiar patterns which then also govern our (re)actions, as Taxi Driver dramatically illustrates. As readily available world-constructs genres provide effective models for the structuring of extra-literary realities (Hallet 60). This presents the martin luther 85 thesis true political dimension of writing essay, generic experimentation, because a text’s failure to adhere to our generic expectations leads to the foregrounding of these expectations, which renders them accessible to rational critique. Moreover, the discrepancy between generic expectations and textual actualizations may result in the adjustment of our genre schemata and therefore ultimately also to a revision of martin luther 85 thesis, our understanding of extra-literary realities. This shall be illustrated with some cursory reflections on dear mister contest blends drawing on the fairy tale, one of the few genres where criticism often explicitly focuses on questions of ideology and pedagogy, or on what I call ‘the politics of 85 thesis, genre’. The tales subsumed under the label ‘classical fairy tale’ gradually found their way into reflective essay university, the households of the literate classes, particularly of the martin luther 85 thesis bourgeoisie, in the 18 th and 19 th century.

Counter to common knowledge, the familiar versions read in families and schools, such as those collected by the Brothers Grimm and Charles Perrault, exhibit significant alterations compared to the oral folk versions most of them are based on (Zipes Magic Spell 2). Far from faithfully reproducing tales that were orally transmitted for generations and generations, the ‘classical’ versions were adapted for between essay, a bourgeois audiences with the purpose of promoting the morals and luther 85 thesis, codes of behavior of the patriarchal bourgeois society in order to prepare men and women for their respective roles therein: [T]he male hero learns to be active, competitive, handsome, industrious, cunning, acquisitive. His goal is money, power, and order essay, a woman (also associated with chattel). His jurisdiction is the open world. His happiness depends on the just use of power. The female hero learns to be passive, obedient, self-sacrificing, hard-working, patient, and straight-laced. Martin Luther 85 Thesis. Her goal is wealth, jewels and differences personal essay and research papers, a man to protect her property rights. Her jurisdiction is the home or castle.

Her happiness depends on luther conformity to chronological writing essay, patriarchal rule. (Zipes Fairy Tales 57) I would argue that up until today most people’s conceptions of the fairy tale are shaped mainly by the literary versions by Perrault, the Brothers Grimm and Hans-Christian Andersen, which are still widely read in families, but also circulated as children’s entertainment by 85 thesis, the mass media. This means that there is a relatively limited stock of culturally shared generic schemata, which renders the projection of fairy tale motifs and structures to other genres and world-constructs both appealing and effective. At the same time, because many of these structures are intimately tied to an ideology that is between and research, increasingly seen as problematic, they are often evoked against themselves, that is, to reveal and critique their ideological bias. Thus, in the last thirty years or so, there have been a growing number of rewritings of fairy tales that renegotiate the 85 thesis fixed gender conceptions promoted by the classical versions, often by university, portraying the fairy tale ‘heroine’ as active and ingenious rather than passive and simple-minded.

To name one of many examples, the Snow White in Tarsem Singh’s 2012 adaptation Mirror Mirror grows into a proactive heroine who fights the vain and cruel queen alongside the seven dwarves. When the martin luther queen enters the forest to kill Snow White, the latter locks up her male helpers, including the prince, in the dwarves’ dwelling, resolved to differences between essay papers, confront the queen on her own. She tells the prince: ‘“You know, all that time locked up in the castle, I did a lot of 85 thesis, reading. You read so many stories where the prince saves the princess. I think it’s time we changed that ending!”’, at which the prince protests: ‘“But it’s been focused grouped and it works!”’. This meta-generic quip foregrounds the cognitive process and implications of the completion of the genre schema by linking the gender roles promoted by personal and research papers, fairy tale conventions to audience expectations and marketability. Snow White’s fight for a different ending consequently presents an explicit critique of these preconceptions. Luther. In order to grasp the real political potential of genre it is paramount to understand that it is only through the familiarity with the generic schemata that the emancipatory message of subversive versions becomes effective in the reader’s mind, leading him/her to revise received genre conceptions, and thus renders the alterations socially relevant. Jack Zipes provides another intriguing example of a subversive blend: a television advert for a cleaning agent blends the generic input spaces of the fairy tale and of advertising by employing the Cinderella story to writing, illustrate the key sales argument for the product. One older sister: Cinderella, wash the floor.

Other older sister: Yeah, wash it, and luther, then re-wax it. [Sisters leave for the ball.] Cinderella: Wash, wax, pfui. [Fairy Godmother appears.] Fairy Godmother: Phew, ammonia. That strips wax. But use Mr Clean with no ammonia. And Research. Mr Clean gets the dirt but leaves the wax shining and martin luther 85 thesis, you get a shine. Fairy Godmother: And now off to the ball? Cinderella: Ball-schmall. Tonight’s my bowling league. ‘Bye. [author’s emphases] (Proctor and Gamble TV ad, qtd. in Zipes Magic Spell xxi)

This blend overtly deconstructs the university expectations associated with both genres: firstly, instead of martin luther 85 thesis, envying and dear contest, emulating the haughty sisters and luther, subscribing to the upper and upper middle-class ideal of sophistication by attending a formal ball, where she could show off her beauty and find her prince, this self-determined Cinderella chooses a more working-class activity where she can roll up her sleeves and show her skills as part of a team. The ad thus exposes the gender and essay of melbourne, class bias of the familiar fairy tale version. Secondly, the emancipatory twist also presents a critique of the conservative image of the happy housewife often evoked in the promotion of household products by martin, the marketing industry, because by reflective essay university of melbourne, using Cinderella as a model, this advert portrays housework not as the woman’s vocation or a familial duty, but as a chore forced upon her by luther, others, thus subtly hinting at the coercive dimension of role allocation. Despite the increase in critical engagement with the reflective essay political dimension of folk and fairy tales, it remains largely unexplored how their structures shape particular extra-literary conceptions and martin luther, discourses. Differences Personal Essay And Research Papers. This seems surprising considering the socializing function so often ascribed to them. While the scope of this question certainly exceeds this article, I would like to suggest that they not only continue to affect gender conceptions and received notions of luther, beauty and romantic love, but are also blended with other popular genres. Thus, many romantic films evoke, sometimes more, sometimes less explicitly, fairy tale motifs and metaphors, not to reflective essay, mention the ‘happy ever after’ formula. By the same token, the hierarchical structure of the fairy tale world tangibly inspires celebrity coverage in martin the popular press and on taks writing essay TV, because in the present age of communication and globalized markets, the celebrity occupies an elevated position analogous to that of the aristocracy in the feudal world of the fairy tale. Beauty, wealth and prestige structure both world-constructs, rendering the blend as effective as it is unobtrusive. This recourse to fairy tale schemata in parts of the mass media arguably partly accounts for the persistence of the seemingly anachronistic institution of monarchy in so many Western democracies.

As in the time of Perrault and the Grimm Brothers, the martin 85 thesis fairy tale semantics still imbues the royal sphere with glamour and fuels people’s hopes and aspirations of social advancement. In this light, the online recent crisis of the luther 85 thesis British monarchy could, to some extent, be attributed to the failure of the projection due to an overt discrepancy between fairy tale conventions and the events surrounding the marriage between Prince Charles and Diana Spencer portrayed in essays the popular media. This discrepancy becomes starkly apparent precisely because the projection at first seemed to fit very well indeed: although Diana is of noble descent, this is martin luther 85 thesis, consistently downplayed or altogether neglected in the media’s portrayal of her as a Cinderella-figure (Gephart 157), which allows Prince Charles to become Prince Charming and select the beautiful young woman as his princess. More important than their ‘fairy tale wedding’ is the circumstance that the eliasson Princess of 85 thesis, Wales came to be seen as the embodiment of the buy coloured india very virtues of the heroine of the classical fairy tale tradition: young and beautiful, her initial shyness made her seem both passive and obedient, while the concern she displayed for the sick and poor, and her commitment to the battle against landmines, showed kindness, caring and selflessness. In other words: according to the gender conception associated with the classical fairy tale tradition, Diana Spencer rightfully deserved a happy ending with her Prince Charming. That she was denied this happy ending because the Prince had an affair with a married woman arguably undermines the belief in the validity of the projection of the fairy tale court, where the adherence to the bourgeois moral code is martin 85 thesis, rewarded, onto the British monarchy. The fairy tale happy ending can arguably be considered to represent something of a ‘symbolical contract’ between nobility and bourgeoisie, according to which the bourgeoisie’s acceptance of the nobility’s supreme status is buy coloured papers online india, premised on the latter’s acceptance of martin 85 thesis, bourgeois values. In the aftermath of Diana’s death, the institution of monarchy in Britain came increasingly under scrutiny, and was openly criticized as outdated. Today, this crisis seems to have been entirely overcome. Again, the reinvigoration of the dear president contest fairy tale projection can be considered to be of symbolical significance to the revitalization of monarchism: although the martin 85 thesis initial blend failed, the corrected cross-space mapping which substitutes Charles for essays eliasson, his son in the role of Prince Charming seems to provide a suitable match including the luther 85 thesis desired happy ending in the shape of a fairy tale wedding. As I have sought to show, genres are not only relevant in terms of classification, but as complexes of schemata they also present meaningful patterns that govern our interpretation of reflective, cultural artifacts, as well as of martin 85 thesis, extra-textual worlds.

In this sense, for the sake of monarchism, William and Kate would do well to live up to the generic expectations of the fairy tale, in other words, happily ever after. [1]Brunetiere conceives of genres as possessing a life-span that can be divided into three stages: birth, maturity, death (13). He then applies this tripartite conception of generic development to literary history, allocating to major works a specific place in the life-cycle of the genre he considers them to represent. [2]David Fishelov, who calls for a revivification of certain aspects of the evolutionary paradigm ( Life , 616) presents a notable exception. [3] I depart from a constructivist world-concept that defines worlds as structures which are conceived as having defined boundaries, their own specific rules and essays eliasson, laws, and exclude certain individuals or entities. [4] Fauconnier and Turner use ‘generic’ here in a broad sense, not in relation to artistic genres. Acheraiou, Amar. Questioning Hybridity, Postcolonialism and 85 thesis, Globalization. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Dear Mister Essay. Print. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture.

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Martina Allen was born in 1981 in Frankfurt/Germany. She studied English as well as Theatre, Film and Media Studies at the Goethe-University in Frankfurt and received her Master of Arts with Honours in both subjects in 2008. Since 2010, she has had several lectureships at the TU Darmstadt and currently holds a Dissertation Fellowship at the University of Konstanz/Germany. The subject of her dissertation thesis is the significance and discursive functions of genre in writing contemporary Anglophone literature.